Washingtonia filifera

Washingtonia filifera

Washingtonia filifera


Index of Species Data



Introductory

SPECIES: Washingtonia filifera
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Howard, Janet L. 1992. Washingtonia filifera. In: Fireplace Results Data System, [Online]. U.S. Division of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Analysis Station, Fireplace Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Obtainable: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis//crops/tree/wasfil/all.html [].
ABBREVIATION : WASFIL SYNONYMS : Washingtonia robusta Wendl. Washingtonia arizonica Cook dinner SCS PLANT CODE : WAFI COMMON NAMES : California palm California fan palm Washington palm California Washington-palm desert palm TAXONOMY : The scientific identify of California palm is Washingtonia filifera (Linden) Wendl. [3,24,28]. LIFE FORM : Tree FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No particular standing OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY

DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Washingtonia filifera
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : California palm happens in disjunct groves from the Turtle and Cottonwood Mountains and the Twenty-nine Palms area of the Mojave Desert, California south to the Sierra de Juarez, the Sierra San Pedro Martir, and Sierra Pinnate Mountains, Baja California [27,39]. 4 groves are situated in Clark County, Nevada [7], and 5 others are in La Paz and Yavapi Counties, Arizona [23]. Most United States populations happen inside the Colorado Desert alongside the San Andreas Fault. As a consequence of California palm's worth as an indicator species (see Web site Traits), all identified California palm communities have been mapped [7]. It's extensively planted as a decorative in semiarid and subtropical areas of the world [9], and has naturalized in some locations [24]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES30 Desert shrub STATES : AZ CA HI NV MEXICO BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : 7 Decrease Basin and Vary KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : Okay027 Mesquite bosque Okay040 Saltbush - greasewood Okay041 Creosotebush Okay042 Creosotebush - bursage Okay043 Paloverde - cactus shrub SAF COVER TYPES : 242 Mesquite SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : California palm types open to dense groves in moist areas, usually offering 100 % of overstory cowl [34]. Understory species are sparse in dense groves and extra alkaline areas; they might be ample in open groves or favorable websites [15]. California palm communities separate into three distinct zones: the hydric zone, the oasis-proper, and the oasis-desert ecotone. Oases situated at wash or stream websites steadily intergrade into open desert, whereas oases in seep areas usually have abrupt ecotones, grading sharply into xeric desert communities similar to mesquite (Prosopis spp.) [40]. Publications naming California palm as a dominant species are as follows: Sonora Desert [5]. Pure terrestrial communities of California [15]. Riparian forest and scrubland neighborhood kinds of Arizona and New Mexico [34]. The vascular plant communities of California [35].

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Washingtonia filifera
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Many animals stay in shut affiliation with California palm. Amphibians such because the canyon tree frog and Pacific tree frog frequent the hydric zone and close by boulders beneath palms. Numerous rodents use the palm's shag for canopy. A species of rat snake (Elaphe rosalica) relies upon upon the shag for shelter and meals (rodents). Oases entice quite a few species of birds due to the relative abundance of meals, shelter, and nesting websites as in comparison with open desert. Hooded orioles use fibers from older palm leaves as nesting materials [32], usually establishing nests inside the palms [11]. Grey fox and varied birds and rodents eat the fruit, and the fruit is the primary part within the fall weight loss program of coyote [6,32,40,]. California palm oases have been used as cattle rangeland from 1911 to 1913, and have been grazed by sheep within the late 1940's [40]. PALATABILITY : NO-ENTRY NUTRITIONAL VALUE : California palm fruits, together with seeds, include 348 energy per 100 grams. Percentages by weight of a number of vitamins in fruits (together with seeds) are as follows [8]: protein 3.1 fats 2.8 carbohydrate 77.7 fiber 10.4 ash 5.4 Milligrams per 100 grams of a number of different vitamins in fruits (together with seeds) are as follows [8]: calcium 110 phosphorus 89 iron 7.8 carotene 180 thiamine 0.06 vitamin C 0.13 niacin 1.0 riboflavin 0.13 COVER VALUE : NO-ENTRY VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : NO-ENTRY OTHER USES AND VALUES : California palm is drastically valued as a landscaping decorative [12]. Kamia and Cahuilla Indians chosen California palm oases for village websites. The oases supplied sources of water, meals, and shade. California palm vegetative buds, flowers, and fruits have been utilized as meals. The fruits, resembling business dates in style, have been eaten recent or dried; some dried fruit was made into meal. Leaves have been used as thatching. Sandals, clothes, and baskets have been customary from leaf fibers. Spoons and looking bows have been comprised of the petioles. The wooden was used for kindling. Due to historic use by Indians, California palm oases are essential archeological websites [25,26,32]. OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Many California palm oases have been destroyed by agricultural and concrete improvement. Others have been eradicated attributable to lack of oases water sources. California palm is delicate to any change in water degree; both a reducing of water tables or the inundation of root methods could kill crops [40]. Groundwater pumping by the city of Twenty-nine Palms, California could also be partially chargeable for the 10-foot (Three m) drop in the water desk at some websites of close by Joshua Tree Nationwide Monument [1]. California palms within the Monument's Oasis of Mara are threatened by the drying up of the spring feeding the oasis [1,41]. Different phreatophytes competing for restricted water sources also can drastically impact how a lot water will probably be accessible to palms. Will increase of mesquite within the understory of the Oasis of Mara are most likely a further trigger of the water desk drop [1]. Saltcedar (Tamarix spp.), a strongly aggressive unique with a particularly excessive evapotranspiration price, can dry up or scale back the yield of oases seeps and comes [4]. Saltcedar is displacing California palm in some areas [31,40]. (See the FEIS write-up on Tamarix ramosissima for info concerning the management of saltcedar.) Close to the San Andreas Fault, palms receiving percolating water by means of rock fractures generally perish when the fault shifts, eliminating or relocating seeps [32]. Dangerous brokers: California palm is proof against most fungal and bacterial infections [26]. A crown rot (Penicillium vermoeseni) generally infects bushes which have been injured by lightning strikes or fireplace. Lightning-injured bushes could also be tough to detect as a result of palms don't usually present lightning disfigurement [18]. Palms, nonetheless, are sometimes decapitated by lightning [39]. California palm is the particular host of the enormous palm borer beetle (Dynapate wrightii). Larvae of this insect feed on the wooden [26,32] and might weaken or kill bushes [8]. Outlying California palm oases are widespread locations for hikers, four-wheel drive, and dune-buggy lovers. Vegetation disturbance, vandalism, and theft of Indian relics by unscrupulous recreationists are of constant administration concern [32]. Cultivation: California palm is definitely grown from seed. The seed is ample; it shops and germinates nicely, and seedlings transplant simply [12,25]. Data on seed processing, storage, and germination strategies and seedling care is accessible [19].

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Washingtonia filifera
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : California palm is a local evergreen monocot from 30 to 50 ft (9-15 m) in peak and 1 to 2 ft (0.3-0.6 m) in diameter. The crown is a rosette of huge leaves. It's supported by a columnar trunk. Unburned trunks are lined by a mass of pendent useless leaves referred to as a shag or skirt. Outer trunk tissue consists of a thick, barklike rind. The inflorescence is a spadix. The fruit is a drupe containing a single giant seed [28,32,33]. California palm is a phreatophtye [40]. Roots are variously described within the literature as shallow [1] or deep [28]. Presumably, root depth varies with depth of the water desk, with palms rising close to seeps and comes having the extra shallow root methods. Figuring out the precise age of palms is tough as a result of tree-ring counts can't be made on monocots. The utmost age attained by this species is estimated to be 200 years. Mature bushes sometimes stay about 150 years [40]. California palm can face up to about 22 hours of subfreezing temperature [9]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Phanerophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : California palm regenerates from seed [12]; vegetative copy does not happen (J. W. Cornett, in [22]). Cultivated bushes have flowered at age 19 [26], however the age at which bushes rising underneath pure situations first flower is unreported. Pollination is predominantly insect-mediated (J. W. Cornett, in [22]), however self-pollination can also happen [22]. Pure populations of California palm are reseeding nicely [23]. A heavy crop for a person tree most likely approaches 10,000 fruits. Within the southern Anza-Borrego area of California, 11 % of bushes fruited 1 12 months, adopted by 57 to 59 % of bushes fruiting within the following Three years [6]. Seeds are disseminated primarily by the coyote [7,40]. Due to its fruit-eating behavior and broad vary of journey between water sources, coyote usually transport seeds over appreciable distances [32]. The 4 California palm groves of southern Nevada most likely established from seed in coyote scat [7]. A comparability of seed collected from the bottom floor and seed collected from coyote scat confirmed that the pericarp was lacking from 94 % of coyote-consumed seed. Elimination of the pericarp will increase the likelihood of germination. Sixty-three % of coyote-consumed seed examined in this examine germinated, as in comparison with 34 % of that within the management group [8]. Seed in coyote scat are hardly ever consumed by passing animals [7]. Grey fox additionally devour and disseminate seed. Birds usually devour solely the fruit, not the seed [32]. The western and mountain bluebird and the cedar waxwing, nonetheless, eat each fruit and seed, disseminating the seed in droppings. Seed in fowl droppings are normally disseminated inside or shut by the grove of the guardian tree. The seed seems to be tough for these birds to digest, and are sometimes regurgitated. Regurgitated seed should be partially lined by fruit fragments, which reduces germination charges. Rodent predation of seed in fowl droppings or vomit is excessive [6]. Seed stays viable in seedbanks for as much as 6 years [19]. Germination is hypogeal [36]. Seedlings require a moist mineral seedbed and partial shade to full solar. They can't set up on extremely alkaline soils [39]. Seedling recruitment continuously happens in a flush throughout moist years [40]. California palm fruit allelopathically inhibits germination and development of different species underneath laboratory situations [7]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Topography and soils: California palm happens at elevations under 3,500 ft (1,067 m) [24]. It serves as an indicator species, denoting sources of year-round floor water in desert [22,33]; it's discovered close to seeps, springs, and streams [33]. It additionally happens in canyons the place water is channeled from close by mountains, in alluvial fan edges the place groundwater is trapped by bedrock, and the place water percolates by means of rock fractures attributable to earthquake faulting [32]. Soils are usually undeveloped and low in natural matter besides in densely vegetated oases. Hillside oases soils encompass lacustrine sediments of mud and rock, whereas wash oases soils additionally include sand. Seep oases have advantageous, flocculent soils and are continuously lined by a skinny crust of salts, which tends to attenuate soil erosion. If such soils are thickly crusted, undergrowth is sparse or absent. Most soils supporting California palm are excessive in pH (common pH 9.2) [40]. Soils in its root zone, nonetheless, are usually much less alkaline than topsoils [33]. Local weather: California palm grows in a semiarid local weather. Temperatures are sometimes sizzling in summer time (common 107 levels Fahrenheit [42 deg C]) and under freezing in winter. Temperature extremes recorded close to one Colorado Desert oasis are 13 and 125 levels Fahrenheit (-17 and 52 deg C). Oases temperatures are usually extra reasonable than the open desert, being cooler in summer time and hotter in winter. Common annual precipitation ranges from Three inches (Eight cm) on the lowest to eight inches (20 cm) on the highest elevations of California palm's vary. Most precipitation falls from December to March, however regionally useful rains happen from July by means of September. Lightning is frequent throughout such storms [40]. Plant associates: Overstory associates not listed underneath Distribution and Incidence embrace Fremont cottonwood (Populus fremontii), saltcedar, paloverde (Cercidium floridum), and California sycamore (Plantus racemosa) [7,30,40]. Understory associates embrace cattail (Typha spp.), reed (Phragmites australis), cane (Arundinaria spp.), Olney bulrush (Scirpus olneyi), Torrey seepweed (Suaeda torreyana), desert willow (Salix gooddingii), arrowweed (Pluchea sericea), saltgrass (Distichlis spp), mesquite, alkali sacaton (Sporobolus airoides), alkali goldenbush (Haplopappus acradenius), desert holly (Atriplex hymenelytra), and allscale saltbush (A. polycarpa) [1,7,24,30,40]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : California palm is reasonably shade tolerant when younger, changing into illiberal with age [28,40]. California palm communities require moist pioneer situations [40]. They're invaded by shrubs within the absence of fireplace, creating environmental situations which ultimately kill the palms [1,40]. (See Administration Concerns and Fireplace Administration Concerns.) SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Flowering happens in Might and June [32]. The leaves die on the finish of the summer time rising season, remaining hooked up to the trunk [33]. Fruits ripen in September [23], and seeds ripen and drop from November to January [19,6].

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Washingtonia filifera
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Man-caused and pure fires are essential components affecting California palm and the oases by which they develop. A survey of oases alongside the San Andreas Fault revealed fireplace results on palms in any respect websites. Previous to the nineteenth century, Native Individuals practiced fireplace administration in oases, burning them at intervals of about Four years [40]. Burning elevated the yield of fruit crops, eliminated the useless shag from trunks for simpler entry to crops, and eliminated understory phreatophytes competing for water sources. Spring flows elevated, which quickly decreased the excessive alkalinity of soils and favored California palm seed germination and seedling development. The oases have been thusly maintained at pioneer or early seral situations [25,40]. Naturally-occurring oases fires are normally ignited by lightning strikes; pure common fireplace frequency is undocumented. Oases fireplace data present that fireplace can happen at any time of 12 months. Oases fuels are normally so prodigious and desiccated that lightning readily produces fireplace even when occurring in winter throughout heavy rain [40]. Different attainable causes of pure fireplace have been steered, together with ignition from sparks given off by falling rock in canyon websites, and spontaneous combustion. Hydric parts of oases help dense development with heavy accumulations of litter [39]. Spontaneous combustion happens naturally in Louisiana marshes [38], and hydric parts of oases are related in composition and surroundings [40]. California palms are fireplace resistant. They're hardly ever killed by both the preliminary burning of their shag or by subsequent burnings. Burning experiments present that their fibrous trunks are tough to ignite and nearly not possible to flame. Every successive burning kills some outer vascular bundles and burns off a number of the trunk, inflicting a discount of trunk diameter. Crown fireplace, a standard incidence, reduces crown dimension. Repeated burnings generally ends in fire-dwarfed bushes. Discount in trunk and crown reduces the evapotranspiration price, making extra efficient use of restricted water provides and permitting for a larger variety of palms per oasis. Wind-blown, advancing crown fireplace doesn't inflict as a lot harm or kill as many palms as a slow-moving fireplace burning in nonetheless air [40]. FIRE REGIMES : Discover fireplace regime info for the plant communities by which this species could happen by coming into the species identify within the FEIS house web page underneath "Discover Fireplace Regimes". POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : Tree with out adventitious-bud root crown Secondary colonizer - on-site seed Secondary colonizer - off-site seed

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Washingtonia filifera
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : The fast impact of fireside on a person California palm varies in keeping with the tree's fireplace historical past. Fireplace causes the best discount of outer vascular bundles with the preliminary burning of the extremely flammable shag [40]. Usually, all useless leaves are burned as nicely as a lot of the dwelling rosette of leaves [32]. The trunk could also be repeatedly burned as leaves within the crown detach and slide down the trunk, ringing the bottom with recent gasoline. Subsequent fires burn lesser quantities of the trunk as a result of the shag, beforehand eliminated by fireplace, requires quite a few years to regain thickness and size. Every subsequent fireplace additional chars the trunk floor, rising fireplace resistance [40]. No information can be found on the consequences of fireside on seedlings. Vogl [40] believes seedlings require a fire-free interval of a few years earlier than fireplace resistance is attained.
These lengthy, flammable shags attain from bole base to the crown. The tree on the suitable exhibits proof of previous fireplace, with a charred trunk and a brief, charred shag. Inventive Widespread picture by Sheryl Creer.
PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : 
Fireplace releases saplings suppressed by the shade of shrubs.  Younger
palms, free of competitors for water and daylight, develop vigorously
in fire-opened websites [40].

Flower and fruit manufacturing almost doubles in crown-scorched bushes
through the first postfire rising season [8,32].


FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : 
Fireplace is a vital factor of California palm regeneration and oasis
upkeep.  Fireplace suppression, practiced in lots of oases for over 60
years, has resulted in dense understories of brush and younger palms.  The
Thousand Palms Oasis, for instance, situated within the Colorado Desert,
California, developed little or no understory for 10 to 15 years
following its final fireplace.  Saltgrass was the understory pioneer.  It was
displaced by a dense development of mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa; P.
pubescens) and goldenbush.  After 35 years of fireside suppression the oasis
supported a dense, tall undergrowth with a damp microclimate.  Litter
accumulations have been "huge" [40].  California palm's skill to withstand
fireplace underneath such extremely flammable situations is unknown.  Managers are
involved that present gasoline loading in lots of oases constitutes a extreme
fireplace hazard to palms, and that the subsequent fireplace will kill substantial
numbers of mature bushes [1,40].  Manually eradicating parts of the
understory, adopted by pure prescribed and/or prescribed fireplace is
advisable [1].

Fireplace kills desert palm borer beetle larvae close to the trunk exterior
[8]. 

REFERENCES

SPECIES: Washingtonia filifera
REFERENCES : 1. Agee, James Okay. 1974. Fireplace administration within the Nationwide Parks. Western Wildlands. 1(3): 27-33. [18558] 2. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic areas and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Word 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Division of the Inside, Bureau of Land Administration. 169 p. [434] 3. Bomhard, Miriam L. 1950. Palm bushes in america. Data Bulletin No. 22. Washington, DC: U.S. Division of Agriculture. 26 p. [17162] 4. Gartner, F. Robert. 1977. Ecological modifications on pine grassland burned in fall and spring. Closing Report Contract No. PX 120051027, U.S. Division of the Inside Nationwide Park Service, Rocky Mountain Regional Workplace. Fast Metropolis, SD: South Dakota State College, Agricultural Analysis and Extension Heart. 35 p. [1001] 5. Horton, J. S.; Kraebel, C. J. 1955. Growth of vegetation after fireplace within the chamise chaparral of southern California. Ecology. 36(2): 244-262. [3737] 6. Bullock, Stephen H. 1980. Dispersal of a desert palm by opportunistic frugivores. Principes. 24(1): 29-32. [19703] 7. Cornett, James W. 1983. The incidence of the desert fan palm, Washington filifera, in southern Nevada. Desert Vegetation. 5(3): 169-172. [2985] 8. Cornett, James W. 1985. Germination of Washingtonia filifera seeds eaten by coyotes. Principes. 20(1): 19. [19220] 9. Cornett, James W. 1987. Chilly tolerance within the desert fan palm, Washingtonia filifera (Arecaceae). Madrono. 34(1): 57-62. [19913] 10. Cornett, James W. 1987. Dietary worth of desert fan palm fruits. Principes. 31(4): 159-161. [19918] 11. DeGraaf, Richard M.; Scott, Virgil E.; Hamre, R. H.; [and others]. 1991. Forest and rangeland birds of america: Pure historical past and habitat use. Agric. Handb. 688. Washington, DC: U.S. Division of Agriculture, Forest Service. 625 p. [15856] 12. DeMason, Darleen A. 1988. Seedling improvement in Washingtonia filifera (Arecaceae). Botanical Gazette. 149(1): 45-56. [4476] 13. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cowl kinds of america and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 14. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental options of forest and vary ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Division of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998] 15. Holland, Robert F. 1986. Preliminary descriptions of the terrestrial pure communities of California. Sacramento, CA: California Division of Fish and Recreation. 156 p. [12756] 16. Kearney, Thomas H.; Peebles, Robert H.; Howell, John Thomas; McClintock, Elizabeth. 1960. Arizona flora. 2nd ed. Berkeley, CA: College of California Press. 1085 p. [6563] 17. Khan, M. I. 1982. Allelopathic potential of dry fruits of Washingtonia filifera (L. Linden) H. Wendl. II. Inhibition of seedling development. Biologia Plantarum (Praha). 24(4): 275-281. [19886] 18. Komarek, E. V., Sr. 1965. Fireplace ecology-grasslands and man. In: Proceedings, 4th annual Tall Timbers fireplace ecology convention; 1965 March 18-19; Tallahassee, FL. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Analysis Station: 169-220. [18921] 19. Krugman, Stanley L. 1974. Washingtonia filifera (Linden) H.Wendl. California washingtonia. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., ed. Seeds of woody crops in america. Agriculture Handbook No. 450. Washington: U. S. Division of Agriculture, Forest Service: 855-856. [7778] 20. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Handbook to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Particular Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384] 21. Lotan, James E.; Brown, James Okay. 1984. Fireplace's results on wildlife habitat--symposium proceedings;. 1984 March 21; Missoula, MT. Basic Technical Report INT- 186. Ogden, UT: U.S. Division of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Analysis Station; 1985. 96 p. [1476] 22. McClenaghan, Leroy R., Jr.; Beauchamp, Arthur C. 1986. Low genic differentiation amongst remoted populations of the California fan palm (Washingtonia filifera). Evolution. 40(2): 315-322. [3260] 23. Mayeux, Herman S., Jr. 1987. Utility of herbicides on rangelands with a carpeted curler: timing of remedy in dense stands of honey mesquite. Journal of Vary Administration. 40(4): 348-352. [29] 24. Munz, Philip A. 1974. A flora of southern California. Berkeley, CA: College of California Press. 1086 p. [4924] 25. Lohmiller, Robert George. 1963. Drought and its impact on situation and manufacturing of a desert grassland vary. College Park, NM: New Mexico State College. 57 p. M.S. thesis. [2715] 26. Parish, S. B. 1907. A contribution towards a data of the genus Washingtonia. Botanical Gazette. 44: 408-433. [3063] 27. Parish, S. B. 1930. Vegetation of the Mohave and Colorado Deserts of southern California. Ecology. 11(3): 481-499. [15095] 28. Preston, Richard J., Jr. 1948. North American bushes. Ames, IA: The Iowa State Faculty Press. 371 p. [1913] 29. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life types of crops and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843] 30. Roberts, Warren G.; Howe, J. Greg; Main, Jack. 1980. A survey of riparian forest wildlife in California. In: Sands, Anne, editor. Riparian forests in California: Their ecology and conservation: Symposium proceedings. Davis, CA: College of California, Division of Agricultural Sciences: 3-19. [5271] 31. Rodman, John. 1990. Reflections on tamarisk bashing. In: Hughes, H. Glenn; Bonnicksen, Thomas M., eds. Restoration '89: the brand new administration problem: Proceedings, 1st annual assembly of the Society for Ecological Restoration; 1989 January 16-20; Oakland, CA. Madison, WI: The College of Wisconsin Arboretum, Society for Ecological Restoration: 59-68. [14688] 32. Schwenkmeyer, Dick. 1986. The palm oasis: our tropical vestige. Setting Southwest. 514: 18-23. [5606] 33. Shantz, H. L.; Piemeisel, R. L. 1924. Indicator significance of the pure vegetation of the Southwestern desert area. Journal of Agricultural Analysis. 28(8): 721-803. [12222] 34. Szaro, Robert C. 1989. Riparian forest and scrubland neighborhood kinds of Arizona and New Mexico. Desert Vegetation. 9(3-4): 70-138. [604] 35. Thorne, Robert F. 1976. The vascular plant communities of California. In: Latting, June, ed. Symposium proceedings: plant communities of southern California; 1974 Might 4; Fullerton, CA. Particular Publication No. 2. Berkeley, CA: California Native Plant Society: 1-31. [3289] 36. Tomlinson, P. B. 1960. Essays on the morphology of palms. I. Germination and the seedling. Principes. 4: 56-61. [19917] 37. U.S. Division of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982. Nationwide checklist of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. Record of plant names. SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p. [11573] 38. Viosca, Percy, Jr. 1931. Spontaneous combustion within the marshes of southern Louisiana. Ecology. 12(2): 439-443. [14582] 39. Vogl, Richard J. 1967. Fireplace diversifications of some southern California crops. In: Proceedings, Tall Timbers fireplace ecology convention; 1967 November 9-10; Hoberg, California. No. 7. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Analysis Station: 79-109. [6268] 40. Vogl, Richard J.; McHargue, Lawrence T. 1966. Vegetation of California fan palm oases on the San Andreas Fault. Ecology. 47(4): 532-540. [3044] 41. Holden, M. 1993, pers. com.

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