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Vitis vinifera – Useful Tropical Plants

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L.

Vitaceae

Cissus vinifera (L.) Kuntze

Vitis sylvestris C.C.Gmel.

Widespread Identify: Grape

Vitis vinifera

Common Data

Grape is a vigorous climbing shrub producing woody stems that may be 15 – 20 metres lengthy. The plant attaches itself to the encompassing vegetation by the use of coiled tendrils.
A broadly grown and very fashionable fruit all through the world, the plant additionally has a variety of different edible and medicinal makes use of in addition to supplying dyes, oil, cream of tartar and wooden.

Recognized Hazards

None recognized

Botanical References

11

Title
Bushes and Shrubs Hardy in Nice Britain. Vol 1 – Four and Complement.
Publication
 
Writer
Bean. W.
Writer
Murray
12 months
1981
ISBN
Description
A traditional with a wealth of data on the crops, however poor on photos.

,

17

Title
Flora of the British Isles.
Publication
 
Writer
Clapham, Tutin and Warburg.
Writer
Cambridge College Press
12 months
1962
ISBN
Description
A really complete flora, the usual reference e book however it has no photos.

,

200

Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Writer
Huxley. A.
Writer
MacMillan Press
12 months
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Wonderful and really complete, although it accommodates quite a lot of foolish errors. Readable but additionally very detailed.

Vary

Central and southern Europe; Northern Africa; Western Asia and the Caucasus.

Habitat

Riversides and damp woods[

200

Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

].

Properties

Cultivation Particulars

Grapes are natives of temperate to subtropical areas, however cultivars have been developed that may be grown at increased elevations within the tropics, usually between 300 – 2,000 metres[

418

Title
Ecocrop
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Basic information on a wide range of useful plants, plus details of environmental needs where available.

]. The plant grows finest in areas the place annual daytime temperatures are inside the vary 18 – 30°c, however can tolerate 10 – 38°c[

418

Title
Ecocrop
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Basic information on a wide range of useful plants, plus details of environmental needs where available.

]. When dormant, the plant can survive temperatures right down to about -20°c, however younger development could be severely broken at -3°c[

418

Title
Ecocrop
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Basic information on a wide range of useful plants, plus details of environmental needs where available.

]. The plant grows most satisfactorily when the winter is sufficiently chilly to make sure a interval of full dormancy annually[

418

Title
Ecocrop
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Basic information on a wide range of useful plants, plus details of environmental needs where available.

]. It prefers a imply annual rainfall within the vary 700 – 850mm, however tolerates 400 – 1,200mm[

418

Title
Ecocrop
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Basic information on a wide range of useful plants, plus details of environmental needs where available.

].
Succeeds in solar or partial shade although a heat sunny sheltered place is required for the fruit to ripen[

200

Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

]. Prefers a deep wealthy moist well-drained reasonably fertile loam[

1

Title
RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956
Publication
 
Author
F. Chittendon.
Publisher
Oxford University Press
Year
1951
ISBN
Description
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaced in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).

,

200

Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Writer
Huxley. A.
Writer
MacMillan Press
12 months
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Wonderful and really complete, although it accommodates quite a lot of foolish errors. Readable but additionally very detailed.

]. Grows finest in a calcareous soil, however dislikes excessively chalky soils[

200

Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

]. Prefers a pH within the vary 5.5 – 7.5, tolerating 4.5 – 8.5[

418

Title
Ecocrop
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Basic information on a wide range of useful plants, plus details of environmental needs where available.

].
Reported yields of fruit vary from 10 – 90 tonnes per hectare[

418

Title
Ecocrop
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Basic information on a wide range of useful plants, plus details of environmental needs where available.

].
Grapes are very prone to assaults by phylloxera, this illness is very prevalent in some areas of Europe and it nearly destroyed the grape business. Nonetheless, American species of grapes which are immune to phylloxera at the moment are used as rootstocks and this enables grapes to be grown in areas the place the illness is frequent.
Vegetation on this genus are notably prone to honey fungus[

200

Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

].
The flowers are intensely aromatic[

245

Title
Scented Flora of the World.
Publication
 
Author
Genders. R.
Publisher
Robert Hale. London.
Year
1994
ISBN
0-7090-5440-8
Description
An excellent, comprehensive book on scented plants giving a few other plant uses and brief cultivation details. There are no illustrations.

].
Any pruning must be carried out when the crops are dormant in any other case they bleed profusely[

182

Title
Ornamental Shrubs, Climbers and Bamboos.
Publication
 
Author
Thomas. G. S.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1992
ISBN
0-7195-5043-2
Description
Contains a wide range of plants with a brief description, mainly of their ornamental value but also usually of cultivation details and varieties.

].
The cultivated grape is believed to have been derived from V. Vinifera sylvestris. (Gmel.)Hegi. This way has dioecious flowers and produces small black grapes.

Edible Makes use of

Fruit – uncooked or dried for winter use[

1

Title
RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956
Publication
 
Author
F. Chittendon.
Publisher
Oxford University Press
Year
1951
ISBN
Description
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaced in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).

,

2

Title
Sturtevant’s Edible Vegetation of the World.
Publication
 
Writer
Hedrick. U. P.
Writer
Dover Publications
12 months
1972
ISBN
0-486-20459-6
Description
Numerous entries, various data in most entries and references.

,

11

Title
Bushes and Shrubs Hardy in Nice Britain. Vol 1 – Four and Complement.
Publication
 
Writer
Bean. W.
Writer
Murray
12 months
1981
ISBN
Description
A traditional with a wealth of data on the crops, however poor on photos.

,

46

Title
Dictionary of Financial Vegetation.
Publication
 
Writer
Uphof. J. C. Th.
Writer
Weinheim
12 months
1959
ISBN
Description
A superb and really complete information however it solely offers very brief descriptions of the makes use of with none particulars of how you can make the most of the crops. Not for the informal reader.

]. A completely ripened contemporary fruit is nice, juicy and scrumptious[

K

Title
Plants for a Future
Author
Ken Fern
Description
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.

]. The dried fruits are the raisins, sultanas and currants of commerce, completely different varieties producing the various kinds of dried fruit. The fruit juice could be concentrated and used as a sweetener[

183

Title
Cornucopia – A Source Book of Edible Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Facciola. S.
Publisher
Kampong Publications
Year
1990
ISBN
0-9628087-0-9
Description
Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.

]. This fruit is broadly utilized in making wine[

183

Title
Cornucopia – A Source Book of Edible Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Facciola. S.
Publisher
Kampong Publications
Year
1990
ISBN
0-9628087-0-9
Description
Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.

].

Leaves – cooked[

55

Title
Eat the Weeds.
Publication
 
Author
Harris. B. C.
Publisher
Pivot Health
Year
1973
ISBN
Description
Interesting reading.

]. Younger leaves are wrapped round different meals after which baked, they communicate a nice flavour[

183

Title
Cornucopia – A Source Book of Edible Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Facciola. S.
Publisher
Kampong Publications
Year
1990
ISBN
0-9628087-0-9
Description
Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.

].

Younger tendrils – uncooked or cooked[

85

Title
Edible Native Plants of the Rocky Mountains.
Publication
 
Author
Harrington. H. D.
Publisher
University of New Mexico Press
Year
1967
ISBN
0-8623-0343-9
Description
A superb book. Very readable, it gives the results of the authors experiments with native edible plants.

].

The flower clusters are used as a vegetable[

183

Title
Cornucopia – A Source Book of Edible Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Facciola. S.
Publisher
Kampong Publications
Year
1990
ISBN
0-9628087-0-9
Description
Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.

].

An edible oil much like sunflower oil is obtained from the seed[

7

Title
Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Chiej. R.
Publisher
MacDonald
Year
1984
ISBN
0-356-10541-5
Description
Covers plants growing in Europe. Also gives other interesting information on the plants. Good photographs.

,

183

Title
Cornucopia – A Source Book of Edible Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Facciola. S.
Publisher
Kampong Publications
Year
1990
ISBN
0-9628087-0-9
Description
Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.

]. It must be refined earlier than it may be eaten[

46

Title
Dictionary of Economic Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Uphof. J. C. Th.
Publisher
Weinheim
Year
1959
ISBN
Description
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.

]. A polyunsaturated oil, it’s appropriate for mayonnaise and cooking, particularly frying[

238

Title
Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses.
Publication
 
Author
Bown. D.
Publisher
Dorling Kindersley, London.
Year
1995
ISBN
0-7513-020-31
Description
A very well presented and informative book on herbs from around the globe. Plenty in it for both the casual reader and the serious student. Just one main quibble is the silly way of having two separate entries for each plant.

].

Sap – uncooked. Used as a drink, it has a candy style. The sap could be harvested in spring and early summer time, although it shouldn’t be taken in amount or it is going to weaken the plant.

The roasted seed is a espresso substitute[

7

Title
Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Chiej. R.
Publisher
MacDonald
Year
1984
ISBN
0-356-10541-5
Description
Covers plants growing in Europe. Also gives other interesting information on the plants. Good photographs.

].

Cream of tartar, also called potassium bitartrate, a crystalline salt, is extracted from the residue of pressed grapes, and from the sediment of wine barrels. It’s utilized in making baking powder[

238

Title
Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses.
Publication
 
Author
Bown. D.
Publisher
Dorling Kindersley, London.
Year
1995
ISBN
0-7513-020-31
Description
A very well presented and informative book on herbs from around the globe. Plenty in it for both the casual reader and the serious student. Just one main quibble is the silly way of having two separate entries for each plant.

].

Medicinal

Grapes are a nourishing and barely laxative fruit that may help the physique by way of sickness, particularly of the gastro-intestinal tract and liver[

254

Title
The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants
Publication
 
Author
Chevallier. A.
Publisher
Dorling Kindersley. London
Year
1996
ISBN
9-780751-303148
Description
An excellent guide to over 500 of the more well known medicinal herbs from around the world.

]. As a result of the nutrient content material of grapes is near that of blood plasma, grape fasts are advisable for cleansing[

254

Title
The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants
Publication
 
Author
Chevallier. A.
Publisher
Dorling Kindersley. London
Year
1996
ISBN
9-780751-303148
Description
An excellent guide to over 500 of the more well known medicinal herbs from around the world.

].
The contemporary fruit is antilithic, constructive, cooling, diuretic and strengthening[

4

Title
A Modern Herbal.
Publication
 
Author
Grieve.
Publisher
Penguin
Year
1984
ISBN
0-14-046-440-9
Description
Not so modern (1930’s?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.

,

218

Title
Medicinal Plants of China
Publication
 
Author
Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S.
Publisher
Reference Publications, Inc.
Year
1985
ISBN
0-917256-20-4
Description
Details of over 1,200 medicinal plants of China and brief details of their uses. Often includes an analysis, or at least a list of constituents. Heavy going if you are not into the subject.

]. A time frame on a weight-reduction plan primarily based totally on the fruit is very advisable within the remedy of lethargic liver or sluggish biliary perform[

7

Title
Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Chiej. R.
Publisher
MacDonald
Year
1984
ISBN
0-356-10541-5
Description
Covers plants growing in Europe. Also gives other interesting information on the plants. Good photographs.

]. The fruit can be useful within the remedy of varicose veins, haemorrhoids and capillary fragility[

254

Title
The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants
Publication
 
Author
Chevallier. A.
Publisher
Dorling Kindersley. London
Year
1996
ISBN
9-780751-303148
Description
An excellent guide to over 500 of the more well known medicinal herbs from around the world.

].
The dried fruit is demulcent, cooling, mildly expectorant, laxative and stomachic[

218

Title
Medicinal Plants of China
Publication
 
Author
Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S.
Publisher
Reference Publications, Inc.
Year
1985
ISBN
0-917256-20-4
Description
Details of over 1,200 medicinal plants of China and brief details of their uses. Often includes an analysis, or at least a list of constituents. Heavy going if you are not into the subject.

]. It has a slight impact in easing coughs[

254

Title
The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants
Publication
 
Author
Chevallier. A.
Publisher
Dorling Kindersley. London
Year
1996
ISBN
9-780751-303148
Description
An excellent guide to over 500 of the more well known medicinal herbs from around the world.

].

The leaves, particularly pink leaves, are anti-inflammatory and astringent[

4

Title
A Modern Herbal.
Publication
 
Author
Grieve.
Publisher
Penguin
Year
1984
ISBN
0-14-046-440-9
Description
Not so modern (1930’s?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.

,

7

Title
Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Chiej. R.
Publisher
MacDonald
Year
1984
ISBN
0-356-10541-5
Description
Covers plants growing in Europe. Also gives other interesting information on the plants. Good photographs.

,

218

Title
Medicinal Plants of China
Publication
 
Author
Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S.
Publisher
Reference Publications, Inc.
Year
1985
ISBN
0-917256-20-4
Description
Details of over 1,200 medicinal plants of China and brief details of their uses. Often includes an analysis, or at least a list of constituents. Heavy going if you are not into the subject.

,

254

Title
The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants
Publication
 
Author
Chevallier. A.
Publisher
Dorling Kindersley. London
Year
1996
ISBN
9-780751-303148
Description
An excellent guide to over 500 of the more well known medicinal herbs from around the world.

]. A decoction is used within the remedy of threatened abortion, inner and exterior bleeding, cholera, dropsy, diarrhoea and nausea[

4

Title
A Modern Herbal.
Publication
 
Author
Grieve.
Publisher
Penguin
Year
1984
ISBN
0-14-046-440-9
Description
Not so modern (1930’s?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.

,

218

Title
Medicinal Plants of China
Publication
 
Author
Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S.
Publisher
Reference Publications, Inc.
Year
1985
ISBN
0-917256-20-4
Description
Details of over 1,200 medicinal plants of China and brief details of their uses. Often includes an analysis, or at least a list of constituents. Heavy going if you are not into the subject.

,

254

Title
The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants
Publication
 
Author
Chevallier. A.
Publisher
Dorling Kindersley. London
Year
1996
ISBN
9-780751-303148
Description
An excellent guide to over 500 of the more well known medicinal herbs from around the world.

]. Additionally it is used as a wash for mouth ulcers and as douche for treating vaginal discharge[

254

Title
The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants
Publication
 
Author
Chevallier. A.
Publisher
Dorling Kindersley. London
Year
1996
ISBN
9-780751-303148
Description
An excellent guide to over 500 of the more well known medicinal herbs from around the world.

]. Pink grape leaves are additionally useful within the remedy of varicose veins, haemorrhoids and capillary fragility[

254

Title
The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants
Publication
 
Author
Chevallier. A.
Publisher
Dorling Kindersley. London
Year
1996
ISBN
9-780751-303148
Description
An excellent guide to over 500 of the more well known medicinal herbs from around the world.

]. The leaves are harvested in early summer time and used contemporary or dried[

238

Title
Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses.
Publication
 
Author
Bown. D.
Publisher
Dorling Kindersley, London.
Year
1995
ISBN
0-7513-020-31
Description
A very well presented and informative book on herbs from around the globe. Plenty in it for both the casual reader and the serious student. Just one main quibble is the silly way of having two separate entries for each plant.

].

The seed is anti-inflammatory and astringent[

4

Title
A Modern Herbal.
Publication
 
Author
Grieve.
Publisher
Penguin
Year
1984
ISBN
0-14-046-440-9
Description
Not so modern (1930’s?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.

,

7

Title
Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Chiej. R.
Publisher
MacDonald
Year
1984
ISBN
0-356-10541-5
Description
Covers plants growing in Europe. Also gives other interesting information on the plants. Good photographs.

,

218

Title
Medicinal Plants of China
Publication
 
Author
Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S.
Publisher
Reference Publications, Inc.
Year
1985
ISBN
0-917256-20-4
Description
Details of over 1,200 medicinal plants of China and brief details of their uses. Often includes an analysis, or at least a list of constituents. Heavy going if you are not into the subject.

].

The sap of younger branches is diuretic[

7

Title
Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Chiej. R.
Publisher
MacDonald
Year
1984
ISBN
0-356-10541-5
Description
Covers plants growing in Europe. Also gives other interesting information on the plants. Good photographs.

]. It’s used as a treatment for pores and skin ailments[

218

Title
Medicinal Plants of China
Publication
 
Author
Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S.
Publisher
Reference Publications, Inc.
Year
1985
ISBN
0-917256-20-4
Description
Details of over 1,200 medicinal plants of China and brief details of their uses. Often includes an analysis, or at least a list of constituents. Heavy going if you are not into the subject.

,

240

Title
Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement).
Publication
 
Author
Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C.
Publisher
Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi.
Year
1986
ISBN
Description
Very terse details of medicinal uses of plants with a wide range of references and details of research into the plants chemistry. Not for the casual reader.

] and can be a wonderful lotion for the eyes[

4

Title
A Modern Herbal.
Publication
 
Author
Grieve.
Publisher
Penguin
Year
1984
ISBN
0-14-046-440-9
Description
Not so modern (1930’s?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.

,

7

Title
Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Chiej. R.
Publisher
MacDonald
Year
1984
ISBN
0-356-10541-5
Description
Covers plants growing in Europe. Also gives other interesting information on the plants. Good photographs.

,

254

Title
The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants
Publication
 
Author
Chevallier. A.
Publisher
Dorling Kindersley. London
Year
1996
ISBN
9-780751-303148
Description
An excellent guide to over 500 of the more well known medicinal herbs from around the world.

].

The tendrils are astringent and a decoction is used within the remedy of diarrhoea[

7

Title
Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Chiej. R.
Publisher
MacDonald
Year
1984
ISBN
0-356-10541-5
Description
Covers plants growing in Europe. Also gives other interesting information on the plants. Good photographs.

].

The plant is utilized in Bach flower cures – the key phrases for prescribing it are ‘Dominating’, ‘Rigid’ and ‘Formidable'[

209

Title
Handbook of the Bach Flower Remedies
Publication
 
Author
Chancellor. P. M.
Publisher
C. W. Daniel Co. Ltd.
Year
1985
ISBN
85207 002 0
Description
Details the 38 remedies plus how and where to prescribe them.

].

Agroforestry Makes use of:

Grapes develop nicely within the firm of hyssop, chives, basil and charlock[

201

Title
A – Z of Companion Planting.
Publication
 
Author
Allardice.P.
Publisher
Cassell Publishers Ltd.
Year
1993
ISBN
0-304-34324-2
Description
A well produced and very readable book.

]. They develop badly with radishes, each the grapes and the radishes creating an off style[

201

Title
A – Z of Companion Planting.
Publication
 
Author
Allardice.P.
Publisher
Cassell Publishers Ltd.
Year
1993
ISBN
0-304-34324-2
Description
A well produced and very readable book.

].

Different Makes use of

A yellow dye is obtained from the contemporary or dried leaves[

168

Title
Nature’s Colors – Dyes from Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Grae. I.
Publisher
MacMillan Publishing Co. New York.
Year
1974
ISBN
0-02-544950-8
Description
A very good and readable book on dyeing.

].

An oil from the seed is used for lighting and as an ingredient in soaps, paints and so forth[

46

Title
Dictionary of Economic Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Uphof. J. C. Th.
Publisher
Weinheim
Year
1959
ISBN
Description
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.

,

61

Title
A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man.
Publication
 
Author
Usher. G.
Publisher
Constable
Year
1974
ISBN
0094579202
Description
Forget the sexist title, this is one of the best books on the subject. Lists a very extensive range of useful plants from around the world with very brief details of the uses. Not for the casual reader.

].

Cream of tartar, extracted from the residue of pressed grapes, is utilized in making fluxes for soldering[

238

Title
Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses.
Publication
 
Author
Bown. D.
Publisher
Dorling Kindersley, London.
Year
1995
ISBN
0-7513-020-31
Description
A very well presented and informative book on herbs from around the globe. Plenty in it for both the casual reader and the serious student. Just one main quibble is the silly way of having two separate entries for each plant.

].

Particularly when rising in hotter international locations, the stems of very previous vines attain measurement and have been used to provide a really sturdy timber[

4

Title
A Modern Herbal.
Publication
 
Author
Grieve.
Publisher
Penguin
Year
1984
ISBN
0-14-046-440-9
Description
Not so modern (1930’s?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.

].

Propagation

Seed – finest sown in a chilly body as quickly as it’s ripe[

K

Title
Plants for a Future
Author
Ken Fern
Description
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.

]. Six weeks chilly stratification improves the germination fee, and so saved seed is finest sown in a chilly body as quickly as it’s obtained. Germination ought to happen within the first spring, however generally takes one other 12 months. Prick out the seedlings into particular person pots when they’re giant sufficient to deal with and develop them on in a chilly body for his or her first winter. Plant out in early summer time.
Cuttings of mature wooden of the present seasons development, December/January in a body. These cuttings could be of wooden 15 – 30cm lengthy or they are often of brief sections of the stem about 5cm lengthy with only one bud on the prime of the part. On this case a skinny, slim strip of the bark about 3cm lengthy is faraway from the underside half of the facet of the stem. This may encourage callusing and the formation of roots. Because of the measurement of those cuttings they should be stored in a extra protected setting than the longer cuttings.
Layering.

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