Teak | tree | Britannica

Teak | tree | Britannica

Teak, (genus Tectona grandis), massive deciduous tree of the household Verbenaceae, or its wooden, one of the vital helpful timbers. Teak has been broadly utilized in India for greater than 2,000 years. The identify teak is from the Malayalam phrase tēkka.

The tree has a straight however typically buttressed stem (i.e., thickened on the base), a spreading crown, and four-sided branchlets with massive quadrangular pith. The leaves are reverse or typically whorled in younger specimens, about 0.5 metre (1.5 ft) lengthy and 23 cm (9 inches) large. In form they resemble these of the tobacco plant, however their substance is difficult and the floor tough. The branches terminate in lots of small white flowers in massive, erect, cross-branched panicles. The fruit is a drupe (fleshy, with a stony seed) 1.7 cm (two-thirds of an inch) in diameter. The bark of the stem is about 1.Three cm (half an inch) thick, grey or brownish grey, the sapwood white; the unseasoned heartwood has a nice and powerful fragrant perfume and a fantastic golden yellow color, which on seasoning darkens into brown, mottled with darker streaks. The timber retains its fragrant perfume to a fantastic age.

Native to India, Myanmar (Burma), and Thailand, the tree grows as far north as concerning the 25th parallel in most of this space however to the 32nd parallel within the Punjab. The tree isn’t discovered close to the coast; probably the most helpful forests are on low hills as much as about 900 metres (3,000 ft). Stands are additionally discovered within the Philippines and in Java and elsewhere within the Malay Archipelago. Teak can be planted in Africa, Central America, and South America.

In the course of the dry season the tree is leafless; in sizzling localities the leaves fall in January, however in moist locations the tree stays inexperienced till March. On the finish of the dry season, when the primary monsoon rains fall, the brand new foliage emerges. Though the tree flowers freely, few seeds are produced as a result of most of the flowers are sterile. The forest fires of the dry season, which in India often happen in March and April after the seeds have ripened and have partly fallen, impede the unfold of the tree by self-sown seed. In Burmese plantations, teak timber on good soil have attained a mean top of 18 metres (59 ft) in 15 years, with a girth, breast excessive, of 0.5 metre (1.5 ft). Within the pure forests of Myanmar and India, teak timber with a girth of about 2 metres (6.5 ft) and a diameter of 0.6 metre (2 ft) is rarely lower than 100 and sometimes greater than 200 years outdated. Mature timber are often no more than 46 metres (150 ft) excessive.

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Teak timber is valued in heat nations principally for its extraordinary sturdiness. In India and Myanmar, beams of the wooden in good preservation are sometimes present in buildings many centuries outdated, and teak beams have lasted in palaces and temples greater than 1,000 years. The timber is virtually imperishable underneath cowl.

Teakwood is used for shipbuilding, superb furnishings, door and window frames, wharves, bridges, cooling-tower louvres, flooring, paneling, railway automobiles, and venetian blinds. An essential property of teak is its extraordinarily good dimensional stability. It’s sturdy, of medium weight, and of common hardness. Termites eat the sapwood however hardly ever assault the heartwood; it’s not, nevertheless, utterly immune to marine borers.

Myanmar produces many of the world’s provide, with Indonesia, India, and Thailand rating subsequent in manufacturing. Because the mid-1980s, quite a few nations have restricted teak logging to regulate deforestation.

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