Taxodium distichum (L.) Wealthy.
Taxodiaceae — Redwood household
T. distichum (L.) Wealthy. var. distichum Baldcypress
T. distichum var. nutans (Ait.)
L. P. Wilhite and J. R. Toliver
Baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) is a deciduous conifer that
grows on saturated and seasonally inundated soils of the Southeastern and
Gulf Coastal Plains. Two varieties share basically the identical pure
vary. Selection nutans, generally referred to as pondcypress, cypress, or
black-cypress, grows in shallow ponds and moist areas westward solely to
southeastern Louisiana. It doesn’t normally develop in river or stream
swamps. Selection distichum, generally referred to as baldcypress, cypress,
southern -cypress, swamp-cypress, red-cypress, yellow-cypress,
white-cypress, tidewater red-cypress, or gulf-cypress, is extra widespread
and typical of the species. Its vary extends westward into Texas and
northward into Illinois and Indiana.
Pondcypress is much less seemingly than baldcypress to have knees, and its knees
are shorter and extra rounded. Its fluted base tends to have rounded fairly
than sharp ridges and its bark normally is extra coarsely ridged (24). Its
branchlets are extra ascending than these of baldcypress (44), however
sadly it was given the varietal identify nutans (nodding) from
remark of a cultivated variation having drooping branches (43).
Typical specimens of pondcypress have almost scale like leaves, that are
appressed alongside the twig in a number of ranks. Seedlings and fast-growing
shoots of pondcypress, nevertheless, usually have disichous (two-ranked) leaves
very like typical baldcypress foliage (39). Regardless of the standard variations
in look between the 2 varieties, not all specimens are typical,
and it’s usually tough and typically unattainable to tell apart them
The native vary of baldcypress extends alongside the decrease Atlantic Coastal
Plain from southern Delaware to southern Florida and thence alongside the
decrease Gulf Coast Plain to southeastern Texas. Inland, baldcypress grows
alongside the various streams of the center and higher coastal plains and
northward by way of the Mississippi Valley to southeastern Oklahoma,
southeastern Missouri, southern Illinois, and southwestern Indiana (31).
– The native vary of baldcypress. The damaged line signifies
the northern restrict of the range nutans, pondcypress.
Humid, moist subhumid, and dry subhumid climatic sorts happen inside the
vary of baldcypress. Regular precipitation will increase from about 1120 mm.
(44 in) per 12 months in southern Delaware and southern Illinois to about 1630
mm. (64 in) alongside the central Gulf Coast, then decreases to about 760 mm
(30 in) in southeastern Texas (31). It ought to be famous, nevertheless, that
baldcypress normally grows on intermittently flooded websites. Drainage,
due to this fact, could also be extra vital than rainfall in figuring out website
suitability for baldcypress.
The rising season inside the pure vary of baldcypress will increase
from about 190 days in southern Illinois to nearly 365 days in southern
Florida, and common annual minimal temperatures enhance from about -18°
C (0° F) to about 4° C (40° F) throughout this vary (31).
Baldcypress bushes planted within the Northeastern United States and southern
Canada stand up to minimal winter temperatures of -29° to -34° C
(-20° to -29° F) (23).
Thus, baldcypress can develop throughout a large climatic vary. Few seeds
mature within the excessive northern a part of the species’ native vary (44)
nevertheless, and baldcypress grows greatest in heat climates (28).
Soils and Topography
Greater than 90 p.c of the pure baldcypress stands are on flat
topography or in slight depressions at elevations of lower than 30 m (100
ft) above sea stage. The higher restrict of its development within the Mississippi
Valley is at an elevation of about 150 m (500 ft). Just a few remoted stands
happen at elevations of 300 to 530 m (1,000 to 1,750 ft) bordering deep
hollows on the Edwards Plateau of Texas (44). As a result of baldcypress normally
grows on almost flat topography, little is understood about its development in
relation to topographic components.
Baldcypress websites are characterised by frequent, extended flooding.
Floodwaters could also be Three m (10 ft) deep or extra and will move at charges as much as 6
km (Four mi) per hour or could also be stagnant at instances (17).
Usually, baldcypress is discovered on intermittently flooded and really poorly
drained phases of Spodosols, Ultisols, Inceptisols, Alfisols, and Entisols
(40). The native vary of the species is within the thermic and hyperthermic
soil temperature regimes.
On the Atlantic Coastal Plain, baldcypress grows greatest within the backside
lands of “pink water” rivers, which originate within the Piedmont and
mountains and through floods deposit a reddish, nutrient-rich silt into the
backside lands. Development is poorer on the much less fertile, coarser textured soils
of the underside lands of “black water” rivers, which originate in
the Coastal Plain and are dark-colored with natural matter. Apart from these
alluvial soils, there are broad interstream areas of baldcypress swamps
the place soils vary from heavy clays to coarse sand to mucks and peats, and
the place website high quality is extraordinarily variable (41). Baldcypress additionally grows
alongside estuaries close to the coast however apparently can not tolerate water
containing greater than 0.89 p.c salt (36). Stomatal conductance and web
photosynthesis of 1-year-old baldcypress seedlings was lowered when
salinity exceeded three ppt (.003 p.c), indicating that salt water
intrusion can adversely have an effect on cypress at a lot decrease concentrations (37).
Horticulturally, baldcypress might be grown on many upland soils, and it’s
seen in cities as a shade tree or decorative.
Related Forest Cowl
Baldcypress is a dominant species in forest cowl sorts Baldcypress
(Society of American Foresters Kind 101) and Baldcypress-Tupelo (Kind
102). It’s an affiliate species in Cabbage Palmetto (Kind 74),
Sweetgum-Willow Oak (Kind 92), Black Willow (Kind 95), Pondcypress (Kind
100), Water Tupelo-Swamp Tupelo (Kind 103), and Sweetbay-Swamp
Tupelo-Redbay (Kind 104) (17).
Tree associates of baldcypress embody water tupelo (Nyssa
aquatica), swamp tupelo (N. sylvatica var. biflora), pink
maple (Acer rubrum), sweetbay (Magnolia virginiana), southern
magnolia (M. grandifolia), sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua),
and numerous oaks Quercus spp.), ashes (Fraxinus
spp.), and pines Tinus spp.) (2,29,46). Lesser
vegetation associates embody frequent buttonbush (Cephalanthus
occidentalis), poison-ivy (Toxicodendron radicans), muscadine
grape (Vitis rotundifolia), Spanish moss (Tillandsia
usneoides), cattail (Typha latifolia), lizardtail (Saururus
cernuus), and numerous hollies (Ilex spp.), viburnums
(Viburnum spp.), lyonias (Lyonia spp.), sedges,
grasses, and ferns (2,44).
Baldcypress grows alongside streams that may deposit or take away soil to the
extent that the soil floor, and consequently the depth to the water
desk, can fluctuate a number of meters (a number of ft) throughout the lifetime of a
stand. Subsequently, its understory and even arboreal associates can differ
from species tolerant of extended flooding to species requiring
well-drained circumstances (44).
Life Historical past
Replica and Early Development
Flowering and Fruiting- Baldcypress is monoecious. Male and
feminine strobili mature in a single rising season from buds shaped the earlier
12 months. The male catkins are about 2 mm (0.08 in) in diameter and are borne
in slender, purplish, drooping clusters 7 to 13 cm (Three to five in) lengthy that
are conspicuous throughout the winter on this deciduous conifer. Pollen is
shed in March and April. Feminine conelets are discovered singly or in clusters
of two or three. The globose cones flip from inexperienced to brownish purple as
they mature from October to December. The cones are 13 to 36 mm (0.5 to
1.41 in) in diameter and include 9 to 15 4-sided scales that break free
irregularly after maturity. Every scale can bear two irregular,
triangle-shaped seeds which have thick, attractive, warty coats and projecting
flanges (19,39,44,45). Variety of seeds per cone averages 16 and
ranges from 2 to 34 (20). Cleaned seeds quantity from about 5600 to
18,430/kg (2,540 to eight,360/lb) (39,44,45).
Seed Manufacturing and Dissemination- Some seeds are produced each
12 months, and good seed crops happen at 3- to 5-year intervals (45). At
maturity, the cone scales with their resin-coated seeds adhering to them,
or typically complete cones, drop to the water or floor (42). This drop of
mature seeds is usually hastened by squirrels, which eat baldcypress seeds
however normally drop a number of scales with undamaged seeds nonetheless connected from
every cone that they choose (5). Floodwaters unfold the scales or cones alongside
streams and are crucial technique of seed dissemination (44).
Seedling Growth- Germination is epigeal (45). Beneath
swamp circumstances, germination typically takes place on a sphagnum moss or
a wet-muck seedbed. Seeds won’t germinate beneath water, however some will
stay viable for 30 months beneath water. Alternatively, seeds normally
fail to germinate on higher drained soils due to the dearth of floor
water. Thus, a soil saturated however not flooded for a interval of 1 to three
months after seedfall is required for germination (44).
After germination, seedlings should develop quick sufficient to maintain at the very least half
of their crowns above floodwaters for many of the rising season
(10,12,13). Baldcypress seedlings can endure partial shading however require
overhead mild for good development (49). Seedlings in swamps usually
attain heights of 20 to 75 cm (Eight to 30 in) their first 12 months (7). Development is
checked when a seedling is totally submerged by flooding, and extended
submergence kills the seedling (44).
In nurseries, Taxodium seeds present an obvious in ternal dormancy that
might be overcome by numerous remedies that normally embody chilly
stratification or submerging in water for 60 days (19). Nursery
beds are sown in spring with pretreated seeds or in fall with untreated
seeds (45). Seedlings normally attain 75 to 100 cm (30 to 40 in) in
peak throughout their first (and normally solely) 12 months within the nursery (49).
Common measurement of 1-Zero nursery-grown seedlings in a seed supply take a look at
together with 72 households was 81.Four cm (32 in) tall and 1.1 cm (0.43 in) in
Management of competing vegetation could also be crucial for a 12 months or extra for
baldcypress planted exterior of swamps. 5 years after planting
baldcypress on a harrowed and bedded poorly drained website in Florida,
survival was excessive however heights had elevated solely 30 cm (12 in), in all probability
due to heavy herbaceous competitors (25). Seedlings grown in a
crawfish pond in Louisiana, the place weed management and soil moisture had been
glorious by way of June, averaged 2.9 m (9.7 ft) and three.5 cm (1.Four in) d.b.h.
after 5 years. Nevertheless, a replicate of the identical sources planted on an previous
soybean subject, the place weed management and soil moisture had been poor, resulted in
the identical d.b.h. however a smaller common seedling peak of two.1 m (7.Zero ft)
(John R. Toliver, unpublished knowledge). When planted in a residential
yard and weeded and watered averaged 3.7 m (12 ft) tall Three years later (49).
Vegetative Replica- Baldcypress is likely one of the few conifer
species that sprouts. Thrifty sprouts are typically produced from stumps
of younger bushes, however bushes as much as 60 years previous additionally ship up wholesome sprouts
if the bushes are minimize throughout the fall or winter. Nevertheless, survival of those
sprouts is usually poor and people who stay are normally poorly formed and do
not make high quality sawtimber bushes (10,13,38). Stumps of bushes as much as 200
years previous may additionally sprout, however the sprouts are usually not as vigorous and are
extra topic to wind injury because the stump decays (44). In the one
report on the rooting of baldcypress cuttings discovered within the literature,
cuttings from bushes 5 years previous rooted higher than these from older bushes
Sapling and Pole Phases to Maturity
Development and Yield- Baldcypress is reputed to be sluggish rising and
very long-lived, however throughout some rising seasons, maybe in response to
soil-moisture fluctuations, many baldcypress seem to provide greater than
one ring of stemwood. Counting these false rings in with true annual rings
has led to overestimations of ages and consequently to underestimations of
A examine in three baldcypress plantations of recognized age revealed that on
increment cores beneath magnification, true latewood appeared as slender
bands of small, thick-walled cells, and the stains that trigger false
latewood tended to vanish. The bigger bushes within the examine had extra
obvious rings than smaller bushes of the identical age, and standard ring
counts averaged about 1.6 instances the precise age (44).
A few years earlier than that examine, an investigator having no bushes of recognized
age to verify his age counts, however stating that he may distinguish the
stains of false latewood from true latewood bands, concluded that bushes
400 to 600 years previous had been frequent in lots of virgin stands of baldcypress and
that a number of bushes reached about 1,200 years (44).
Beneath forest circumstances, baldcypress stems typically require about 200
years to succeed in adequate measurement to yield a excessive proportion of heartwood
lumber (28). Additionally at about age 200, peak development ceases (44). After this
age many baldcypress slowly die again from the highest as a fungus-caused rot
progresses downward by way of the stem.
Baldcypress is famous for the big measurement it may well attain. In virgin
forests, the biggest bushes had been 215 to 365 cm (84 to 144 in) in d.b.h. and
43 to 46 m (140 to 150 ft) in peak (44). Within the 1982 “Nationwide
Register of Huge Bushes,” the champion baldcypress, which grows in
Louisiana, was reported to be 520.7 cm (205 in) in d.b.h. and 25 m (83 ft)
Baldcypress is also famous for its excessive merchantable yields. In virgin
stands, yields of 112 to 196 m³/ha (8,000 to 14,000 fbm/acre) over
tracts a whole bunch of hectares in extent had been frequent, and a few stands seemingly
exceeded 1400 m/ha (100,000 fbm/acre). One tree in Okefenokee Swamp in
Georgia scaled 168 m³ (12,000 fbm) (44).
Some second-growth stands are approaching the yields of the very best virgin
stands. A 96-year-old stand in Mississippi contained 980 m³/ha
(70,000 fbm/acre) and its crop bushes averaged 36.Three m (119 ft) tall (49). A
63-year-old second-growth stand in Louisiana averaged 1,260 cypress and
258 swamp tupelo bushes per hectare, respectively (504 and 103/acre),
leading to volumes of 409 and 107 m³/ha (6,356 and 1,423 ft³/acre),
The pattern is restricted, however some plantations, at the very least, develop sooner than
pure stands. In Mississippi, one plantation established on deserted
cropland had dominants averaging 21 m (69 ft) tall at 41 years (49), and
one other plantation that had been cultivated or mowed for the primary 10
years contained 175 m³/ha (2,333 ft³/acre) at age 31 and the 30
largest bushes averaged 21.6 m (72 ft) tall and 36 cm (14.2 in.) d.b.h.
Ten-year quantity development (from age 21 to 31 yrs) of the bushes on this
plantation was 77.5 m³/ha (1,033 ft³/acre) (29).
Baldcypress grows nicely at excessive stand densities. From age 60 to 70 years,
a baldcypress-hardwood. stand in Florida elevated from 39 to 43 m³/ha
(168 to 189 ft³/acre) in basal space and from 359 to 428 m³/ha
(57 to 68 cords/acre) in quantity. The baldcypress grew at a sooner charge
than the tupelo and sweetgum. Thinning plots inside the stand to varied
densities at age 60 resulted in sooner development of particular person crop bushes,
however in slower development per unit space than for the unthinned a part of the
Density was even increased in a second-growth stand of baldcypress in
Mississippi: 61 m²/ha (265 ft²/acre) at age 78. Thinning that
stand to 46 m²/ha (200 ft²/acre) elevated development by way of age 96
greater than did no thinning or a heavier thinning (49). Quantity development of a
63-year-old second-growth stand in Louisiana, with a mean density of
50 m²/ha (220 ft²/acre) in basal space, was 54 m³/ha (716 ft³/acre)
over a 5-year interval. Crown thinning on this stand elevated diameter
development and appeared to extend sawtimber quantity per hectare after 5
years. Heavier thinning intensities stimulated epicormic branching on many
bushes, which may decrease log high quality. Nevertheless, the biggest dominant crop
bushes had been least affected by epicormic branching (15).
Cypress swamps and different forested wetlands that obtain periodic
nutrient subsidies from floodwaters in all probability are a few of the world’s most
productive ecosystems. The annual above-ground manufacturing of biomass in a
baldcypress-ash floodplain forest in Florida was 15 700 kg/ha (14,000
lb/acre) (4). As compared, terrestrial forest communities within the
temperate area usually produce 12 300 to 15 000 kg/ha (11,000 to 13,400
lb/acre) yearly (11).
Stillwater forested wetlands don’t obtain nutrient subsidies from
floodwaters, and so they have manufacturing charges corresponding to, or decrease than,
these of terrestrial forests. Such wetlands, nevertheless, provide extra
advantages comparable to storage of water and peat (4).
Rooting Behavior- Baldcypress seedlings develop a taproot (49), and
at the very least some planted baldcypress as much as 25 cm (10 in) in d.b.h. keep
taproots (43). Older, naturally seeded baldcypress in swamps develop
a number of descending roots that present anchorage, and quite a few lateral
roots from which rise peculiar conical buildings referred to as “knees”
(23). These knees differ in peak from a number of centimeters to greater than 3.7
m (12 ft), relying apparently upon the typical water stage of the positioning
(44,47). Knees are much less prone to kind in absence of flooding or the place
completely standing water is 30 cm (12 in) or extra in depth (48).
Nevertheless, small knees have been noticed on many bushes not subjected to
flooding (3) and it’s not unusual for decorative bushes to provide knees.
Analysis has discovered no physiological perform for cypress knees. They could
be helpful as aeration organs however are usually not of essential significance to
survival (17). Knees may additionally assist to anchor bushes as a result of they develop
giant lots of roots.
The intensive root system together with a buttressed base make baldcypress
windfirm in comfortable, moist soils. Even winds of hurricane power not often overturn
Response to Competitors- The relative shade-tolerance of
baldcypress has not been undoubtedly established. Seeds usually germinate in
closely shaded locations however normally don’t survive or turn into giant
bushes (10,13). Most profitable stands regenerate in giant openings. The
species grows slowly in partial shade however the very best development happens with full
overhead mild. For these causes, intermediate shade tolerance appears the
most applicable classification. In totally stocked stands baldcypress
characteristically has a clear, easy stem and small crown, readily
pruning itself of branches, however in poorly stocked stands it is rather limby
Damaging Brokers- A fungus, Stereum taxodi, that causes a
brown pocket rot referred to as “pecky cypress” assaults the heartwood
of dwelling baldcypress bushes, particularly the overmature ones. The fungus
most continuously positive factors entrance within the crown and slowly works downward,
typically destroying a substantial a part of the heartwood on the base of
the tree. The motion of the fungus ceases when the tree is felled. The
sturdiness of baldcypress lumber, as far as is understood, is just not affected by
the presence of pecky materials (28,44).
Just a few different fungi assault the sapwood and heartwood of baldcypress and a
few needle and twig fungi have been reported, however none of those is understood
to trigger critical injury (26).
A number of bugs assault baldcypress, however injury is usually minor (21).
Nevertheless, the fruit tree leafroller, (Archips argyrospila), beforehand
unreported on baldcypress, turned epidemic in 1983, within the decrease
Atchafalaya Basin and adjoining drainages to the east and south in
Louisiana. The leafroller larvae begin webbing and feeding on cypress
needles as quickly as buds break and small leaflets broaden. Giant-scale
killing of bushes has not been noticed, however these struggling repeated
leafroller defoliation present die-back. Mortality of pole-sized bushes has
been linked to defoliation (21).
The cypress flea beetle (Systena marginalis) causes
discoloration of foliage and the cypress looper (Anacamptodes
pergracilis) causes defoliation (44). One other frequent defoliator is the
bagworm (Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis) (42). The southern cypress
bark beetle (Phloeosinus taxodii) tunnels beneath the bark of
limbs and trunks (27). The baldcypress coneworm (Dioryctria
pygmaeella) is a critical pest of cones of baldcypress and pondcypress,
able to destroying greater than 75 p.c of a single 12 months’s crop (34).
Nutria (Myocastor coypu) usually clip or uproot newly planted
cypress seedlings earlier than the foundation methods are totally established, thus
killing the seedlings (12). The place excessive nutria populations happen, complete
plantings are sometimes destroyed in a number of days. The Soil Conservation Service
recommends cessation of baldcypress planting till management measures are
discovered. Up to now, the one profitable management has been placement of a
hen wire guard round every seedling (12). Deer and swamp rabbits clip
seedlings above the bottom and eat the tender stems and branches, however
these seedlings typically resprout and proceed to develop (18,44).
Particular Makes use of
The weird and pleasing look of baldcypress-its knees, buttressed
base, large bole, and irregular crown usually festooned with Spanish
moss-has led to its introduction as a decorative in lots of components of the
Baldcypress seeds are eaten by wild turkeys, squirrels, night
grosbeaks, and wooden geese (6); they’re a minor a part of the weight loss program of different
waterfowl and wading birds (32); and so they had been an vital meals for the
now-extinct Carolina parakeet (6). Giant previous baldcypress furnish distinctive
habitats for some wildlife. Bald eagles and ospreys nest within the tops.
Yellow-throated warblers forage within the Spanish moss or resurrection fern
(Polypodium polypodioides) usually discovered on previous bushes. Prothonotary
warblers obtain their highest densities in baldcypress-tupelo stands
the place they discover nesting cavities in previous decaying baldcypress knees.
Catfish spawn in submerged hole cypress logs (22).
Baldcypress wooden has a mess of makes use of and is well-known for its
capacity to withstand decay. Cypressene, an oil extracted from the wooden, is
believed to offer baldcypress excessive decay resistance. Older baldcypress,
significantly old-growth, virgin bushes rising within the deep swamps, is understood
as tidewater redcypress and is taken into account to be very proof against rot (3).
For that reason, cypress wooden has lengthy been favored within the constructing
building, fences, planking in boats, river pilings, furnishings,
inside trim, cabinetry, sills, rafters, siding, flooring and shingles,
backyard packing containers, greenhouses, and lots of different makes use of (3). Nevertheless, second-growth
baldcypress lack the decay resistant heartwood of the old-growth bushes
(8,9). At what age or measurement decay resistance develops is unknown, however wooden
from bushes at the very least 63 years previous is vulnerable to rot (9). Warning is
really useful in the usage of lumber from these bushes in uncovered conditions,
and the wooden ought to be handled if rot resistance is important (3,9). Pecky
cypress, brought on by the fungus Stereum taxodii, is utilized in merchandise
the place sturdiness fairly than water tightness is required, and in
ornamental wall paneling (14,28).
Riverine swamps of baldcypress trigger floodwaters to unfold out, sluggish
down, and infiltrate the soil. Thus, these stands cut back injury from
floods and act as sediment and pollutant traps (46).
Acknowledged kinds of baldcypress are indicated within the introduction to
this report. Baldcypress grows throughout a variety of wetland websites and over a
extensive geographic space, nevertheless, so different races could exist. A cultivar,
‘Pendens’, having pendulous branches, has been developed (50). In Russia,
hybridization of baldcypress with redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) has
been reported (44).
Genetic variation of baldcypress seed, cone, and nursery- seedling
development was explored in two geographic seed supply research incorporating
seed collected alongside the Mississippi River flood plain from Illinois to
Louisiana. Variation amongst seed sources and families-within-source was of
important magnitude to point a possible for genetic choice and
achieve in development. Nevertheless, no particular sample of variation was famous
Pondcypress grows from southeastern Virginia to southern Florida to
southeastern Louisiana and nearly all the time at elevations under 30 m (100
Humid and moist subhumid climatic sorts happen inside the vary of
pondcypress. Regular precipitation will increase from about 1220 mm (48 in) per
12 months in southeastern Virginia to 1630 mm (64 in) alongside the east Gulf
Coast. The rising season will increase from about 240 days in southeastern
Virginia to about 300 days in southeastern Louisiana to nearly 365 days
in southern Florida. Common annual minimal temperatures enhance from
about -12° C (10° F) in southeastern Virginia to 4° C (40°
F) in southern Florida (31).
Soils and Topography
Pondcypress grows on the very poor and poorly drained phases of
Spodosols and Ultisols (40) of the thermic and hyperthermic soil
temperature regimes. Soils vary from sands to clays to mucks to peats.
Pondcypress occupies the shallow ponds and poorly drained areas of the
Coastal Plain and infrequently grows within the river and stream swamps as does
baldcypress (44). There’s proof that pondcypress doesn’t develop on
soils with a pH above 6.Eight and bald cypress doesn’t develop on soils with a
pH under 5.5 (35), however it’s not recognized if the vary during which each develop
may be narrower than pH 5.5 to six.8.
Pondcypress websites basically are a lot much less fertile than baldcypress
websites. Pondcypress grows on extra acid soils, and it seldom grows on websites
that obtain periodic subsidies of vitamins from floodwaters.
Pondcypress stands nearly all the time are discovered on flat topography or in
slight depressions usually referred to as domes (16); due to this fact, little is understood
regarding development of pondcypress in relation to increased topographic
Related Forest Cowl
Pondcypress is the dominant species within the forest cowl sort Pondcypress
(Society of American Foresters Kind 100) (17). It’s an affiliate species
in Longleaf Pine-Slash Pine (Kind 83), Slash Pine (Kind 84), Slash
Pine-Hardwood (Kind 85), Pond Pine (Kind 98), Baldcypress (Kind 101),
Water Tupelo-Swamp Tupelo (Kind 103), and Sweetbay-Swamp Tupelo-Redbay
The commonest websites for pondcypress are the shallow ponds of the
Coastal Plain. Right here, its chief tree affiliate is swamp tupelo. Alongside the
margins and on barely elevated positions inside the ponds, associates
are pines (Pinus spp.), pink maple, sweetbay, and loblolly-bay (Gordonia
lasianthus). Lesser vegetation associates embody frequent buttonbush,
yaupon (Ilex vomitoria), swamp cyrilla (Cyrilla racemiflora),
viburnums, swamp privet (Forestiera acuminata), southern bayberry
(Myrica cerifera), bitter gallberry (Ilex glabra), ferns,
and vines (17).
Along with rising within the ponds of the Coastal Plain, pondcypress is
present in a few of the swamps alongside “black water” rivers and
creeks, in Carolina bays, within the Okefenokee Swamp, and in pondcypress
savannahs. On these numerous websites, associates of pond cypress embody most
of these listed above plus many others (2,46).
Life Historical past
Replica and Early Development
A pattern of pondcypress seeds numbered 8 900/kg (4,040/lb) (45).
Typically, the flowering traits, seeds, seeding habits,
vegetative replica, and response to competitors seem like related
to these of baldcypress. Bushes are monoecious, seeds are distributed by
gravity and water, germination is epigeal, and the species is able to
sprouting and is classed as intermediate in its tolerance to shade. In
shallow ponds, each soil and water circumstances seem singularly favorable
for pondcypress seed germination and early development, for right here pure
replica is nearly all the time uniformly ample (44).
Sapling and Pole Phases to Maturity
Within the 1982 “Nationwide Register of Huge Bushes,” the champion
pondcypress, which grows in Georgia, was reported to be 229 cm (90 in) in
d.b.h. and 41.1 m (135 ft) tall (1). That is approaching the scale of the
bigger baldcypress. Such giants, nevertheless, are way more uncommon amongst
pondcypress than amongst baldcypress. Though little info is
recorded concerning the development charge of pondcypress, common observations
point out that the tree doesn’t attain the age and enormous measurement of
baldcypress, nor does it develop as quick. The smaller measurement and slower development
of pondcypress could also be inherent however are additionally attributable to the poor website
circumstances beneath which the tree normally grows (44).
Due to its typically thicker bark, pondcypress is extra proof against
hearth than baldcypress (24).
Particular Makes use of
Lumbermen generally minimize and promote pondcypress and baldcypress timber
collectively with out distinguishing between them (28).
Pondcypress ponds, domes (or heads), and savannahs present the one
breeding alternative for a lot of tree frogs, toads, and salamanders;
present nesting websites and habitats for herons, egrets, and lots of different
birds; and are watering locations for the birds, mammals, and reptiles of the
surrounding pinelands. These moist areas function recharge areas for floor
aquifers, and analysis has proven that pondcypress domes can function
tertiary sewage remedy services in bettering water high quality,
recharging floor water, and presumably growing pondcypress development charges
(46). Capabilities of those domes and cypress swamps are mentioned in depth
within the ebook “Cypress Swamps” (16).
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