Syngonium podophyllum - Wikipedia

Syngonium podophyllum – Wikipedia

Syngonium podophyllum
Zingiber malaysianum.jpg
Syngonium podophyllum var. podophyllum[1]
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Order: Alismatales
Household: Araceae
Genus: Syngonium
Species:

S. podophyllum

Binomial title
Syngonium podophyllum

Schott

Synonyms[2]
  • Syngonium podophyllum var. typicum Engl.
  • Syngonium peliocladum Schott
  • Pothos auritus Willd.
  • Arum auritum Vell. 1831, illegitimate homonym, not L. 1759
  • Xanthosoma gracile Miq.
  • Syngonium ruizii Schott
  • Syngonium vellozoanum Schott
  • Syngonium affine Schott
  • Syngonium decipiens Schott
  • Syngonium gracile (Miq.) Schott
  • Syngonium poeppigii Schott
  • Syngonium riedelianum Schott
  • Syngonium willdenowii Schott
  • Syngonium xanthophilum Schott
  • Syngonium amazonicum Engl.
  • Syngonium ternatum Gleason

Syngonium podophyllum is a species of aroid, and generally cultivated as a houseplant. Widespread names embrace: arrowhead plant, arrowhead vine, arrowhead philodendron, goosefoot, African evergreen,[3] and American evergreen.[4] The species is native to a large area of Latin America from Mexico via Bolivia, and naturalized within the West Indies, Florida, Texas, Hawaii, and different locations.[2][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13]

Etymology[edit]

Syngonium podophyllum is probably the most generally cultivated species within the genus Syngonium, and is usually referred to easily as syngonium. It was initially confused with the similar-looking African genus Nephthytis, and that is nonetheless used as a typical title for the plant. It was given its personal genus in 1879.[14]

The Latin particular epithet podophyllum means “with stout-stalked leaves”.[15]

Description[edit]

It climbs just a few meters tall over the trunks of tropical jungle timber, clinging by its roots. The cultivars cultivated indoors attain a peak of as much as 1.5 m. Through the yr, the plant grows about 30 cm and produces 6-7 leaves. Its single leaves, often arrow-shaped, are up via 30 cm lengthy. In wild, the leaves are darkish inexperienced and with out variegation. Cultivated varieties have leaves in numerous shades of inexperienced, typically gentle inexperienced and often with various kinds of lighter tannins. There are a number of variegated cultivars, the primary variations being within the place and extent of the cream or white markings. Some leaves are nearly fully white, pink or yellow.

Its flowers are small, greenish or whitish on spadices inside light-yellow via inexperienced spathes. Nonetheless, the crops grown indoors don’t bloom, other than the older, well-cared-for specimens.

Cultivation[edit]

As a vine, it requires some help. It can be grown as a groundcover plant. The soil ought to be humus and systematically watered. Varieties with leaves with pink, reddish, or white markings require a well-lit place, although these with darkish inexperienced leaves can develop in a darker place. The summer time temperature mustn’t exceed 24°C, in winter it shouldn’t be decrease than 15° C. Requiring moist air, it ought to be watered 2-Three instances every week in summer time, however a lot much less typically in winter.

To make sure ample humidity, the plant pot ought to be positioned in a bigger container with consistently moist peat and sprayed with water day by day. Dusty leaves ought to to be cleaned with a humid material. Feed in the summertime with a small dose of fertilizers dissolved in water. After just a few years of cultivation, the plant turns into unattractive, the place its chopping is advisable, then it is going to produce new shoots. It ought to be transplanted solely when crucial.[16]

It has gained the Royal Horticultural Society’s Award of Backyard Advantage.[17][18]

Propagation[edit]

The plant could be propagated by cuttings in water, or straight into potting compost. Nonetheless, each strategies have a very good success price, offering the suitable a part of the plant is minimize. Cuttings utilizing the rooting machine are rooted in a multiplier at a temperature of 18°C. Cuttings from the tops of the shoots are simpler to root than cuttings from decrease areas of shoots. [19]

Toxicity[edit]

All elements of Syngonium podophyllum are toxic and trigger extreme mouth ache if eaten.[20] It’s not uncommon to search out these rising in Sub-tropical Florida landscapes, the place owners and Gardeners want to concentrate on the extreme pores and skin burning sensations brought on by the crops sap containing oxalic acid and the attention harm potential from raphides.[21]

Varieties[edit]

Among the many wild populations, two varieties are formally acknowledged:[2][22]

  1. Syngonium podophyllum var. peliocladum (Schott) Croat – Costa Rica, Panama
  2. Syngonium podophyllum var. podophyllum – widespread as a local from Mexico to Brazil and Bolivia, in addition to Trinidad; naturalized within the West Indies (together with the Cayman Islands and the Bahamas), Florida, Texas, Hawaii, Seychelles, Borneo, and Malaysia

Gallery[edit]

Arrowhead plant, Syngonium podophyllum

Underside of the Syngonium podophyllum leaf.

‘White Butterfly’ cultivar.

Inflorescence with a spathe and spadix.

In a pot

References[edit]

  1. ^ Adolf Engler – Das Pflanzenreich vol. 71 (1920)
  2. ^ a b c Kew World Guidelines of Chosen Plant Households
  3. ^ http://www.desert-tropicals.com/Crops/Araceae/Syngonium_podophyllum.html
  4. ^ Syngonium podophyllum“. Pure Assets Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 7 December 2015.
  5. ^ Govaerts, R. & Frodin, D.G. (2002). World Guidelines and Bibliography of Araceae (and Acoraceae): 1-560. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  6. ^ Hammel, B.E. & al. (2003). Guide de Plantas de Costa Rica 2: 1-694. Missouri Botanical Backyard Press, St. Louis.
  7. ^ Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Sturdy, M.T. (2005). Monocotyledons and Gymnosperms of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Contributions from the US Nationwide Herbarium 52: 1-415.
  8. ^ Hernandez, J. (2007). In Hawaiian rainforests: unique aroid ecologies. Aroideana 30: 91-97.
  9. ^ Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  10. ^ Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  11. ^ Arruda Pontes, T., Moreira de Andrade, I. & Alves, M. (2010). Flora da Usina São José, Igarassu, Pernambuco: Araceae. Rodriguésia; Revista do Instituto de Biologia Vegetal, Jardim Botânico e Estaçao Biologica do Itatiaya 61: 689-794.
  12. ^ Oppenheimer, H. (2011). New Hawaiian plant data for 2009. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 220: 5-10.
  13. ^ Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Sturdy, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed crops of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  14. ^ http://www.arhomeandgarden.org/plantoftheweek/articles/Arrowhead_Philodendron.htm
  15. ^ Harrison, Lorraine (2012). RHS Latin for Gardeners. United Kingdom: Mitchell Beazley. ISBN 978-1845337315.
  16. ^ Dawid Longman: Nurturing home crops . Warsaw: Państwowe Wydawnictwo Rolnicze i Leśne, 1997. ISBN 83-09-01559-3 .
  17. ^ “RHS Plantfinder – Syngonium podophyllum. Retrieved 30 November 2018.
  18. ^ “AGM Crops – Decorative” (PDF). Royal Horticultural Society. July 2017. p. 100. Retrieved 30 November 2018.
  19. ^ Roskov Y., Kunze T., Orrell T., Abucay L., Paglinawan L., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Decock W., De Wever A., Didžiulis V. (ed) (2014).
  20. ^ http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/hort/shopper/poison/Syngopo.htm
  21. ^ “College of Florida advisory Toxic Backyard Crops” (PDF).
  22. ^ Biota of North America Program, 2013 county distribution map


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