Santalum album - Köhler–s Medizinal-Pflanzen-128.jpg

Santalum album – Wikipedia

Santalum album, or Indian sandalwood, is a small tropical tree, and the standard supply of sandalwood oil. It’s native to southern India and Southeast Asia. It’s thought-about sacred in some religions, and a few cultures place nice significance on its aromatic and medicinal qualities. Nonetheless, the excessive worth of the species has precipitated over-exploitation, to the purpose the place the wild inhabitants is weak to extinction. Indian sandalwood nonetheless instructions excessive costs for its important oil owing to its excessive alpha santalol content material, however because of lack of sizable bushes it’s not used for fantastic woodworking as earlier than. The plant is long-lived, however harvest is barely viable after a few years.

Description[edit]

The peak of the evergreen tree is between Four and 9 metres. They could reside to at least one hundred years of age. The tree is variable in behavior, often upright to sprawling, and will intertwine with different species. The plant parasitises the roots of different tree species, with a haustorium adaptation by itself roots, however with out main detriment to its hosts. A person will kind a non-obligate relationship with various different vegetation. As much as 300 species (together with its personal) can host the tree’s improvement – supplying macronutrients phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium, and shade – particularly throughout early phases of improvement. It could propagate itself via wooden suckering throughout its early improvement, establishing small stands. The reddish or brown bark might be virtually black and is easy in younger bushes, turning into cracked with a pink reveal. The heartwood is pale inexperienced to white because the widespread title signifies. The leaves are skinny, reverse and ovate to lanceolate in form. Glabrous floor is shiny and vivid inexperienced, with a glaucous pale reverse. Fruit is produced after three years, viable seeds after 5. These seeds are distributed by birds.

Nomenclature[edit]

The nomenclature for different “sandalwoods” and the taxonomy of the genus are derived from this species’ historic and widespread use. Etymologically it’s derived from Sanskrit चन्दनं chandanam, which means “wooden for burning incense”, and associated to candrah, which means “shining, glowing”.[2]

Santalum album is included within the household Santalaceae, and is often often known as white or East Indian sandalwood.[3] The title, Santalum ovatum, utilized by Robert Brown in Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae (1810) was described as a synonym of this species by Alex George in 1984.[4] The epithet album refers back to the “white” of the heartwood.

The species was the primary to be often known as sandalwood. Different species within the genus Santalum, such because the Australian S. spicatum, are additionally known as true sandalwoods, to tell apart them from bushes with similar-smelling wooden or oil.

Distribution[edit]

Santalum album L. is indigenous to the tropical belt of the peninsular India, jap Indonesia and northern Australia.[5][6] The principle distribution is within the drier tropical areas of India and the Indonesian islands of Timor and Sumba.[7] There’s nonetheless debate as as to whether S. album is native to Australia and India or was launched by fishermen, merchants or birds from southeast Asia centuries in the past.[8][9]

Sandalwood is now cultivated in India, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Northern Australia.

Habitat and progress[edit]

SantalumAlbumLeaf.jpg

S. album happens from coastal dry forests as much as 700 metres (2,300 ft) elevation. It usually grows in sandy or properly drained stony pink soils, however a variety of soil sorts are inhabited. This habitat has a temperature vary from zero to 38 °C (100 °F) and annual rainfall between 500 millimetres (20 in) and three,000 millimetres (120 in). S. album can develop as much as 9.1 metres (30 ft) vertically. It must be planted in good daylight and doesn’t require numerous water. The tree begins to flower after 7 years. When the tree continues to be younger the flowers are white and with age they flip pink or orange. The trunk of the tree begins to develop its perfume after about 10 years of progress.[citation needed]

Conservation[edit]

S. album is acknowledged as a “weak” species by the Worldwide Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN).[10] It’s threatened by over-exploitation and degradation to habitat via altered land use, fireplace (to which this species is extraordinarily delicate), Spike illness, agriculture, and land-clearing are the elements of most concern. To protect this weak useful resource from over-exploitation, laws protects the species, and cultivation is researched and developed.[11][12][13]

Till 2002, people in India weren’t allowed to develop sandalwood. As a result of its shortage, sandalwood shouldn’t be allowed to be minimize or harvested by people. The State grants particular permission to officers who then can minimize down the tree and promote its wooden.[14] The Indian authorities has positioned a ban on the export of the timber.[1]

Makes use of and manufacturing[edit]

S. album has been the first supply of sandalwood and the derived oil. These typically maintain an essential place inside the societies of its naturalised distribution vary. The central a part of the tree, the heartwood, is the one a part of the tree that’s used for its perfume. It’s yellow-brown in shade, laborious with an oily texture and because of its sturdiness, is the right materials for carving. The outer a part of the tree, the sapwood, is unscented. The sapwood is white or yellow in shade and is used to make turnery objects. The excessive worth of sandalwood has led to makes an attempt at cultivation, this has elevated the distribution vary of the plant.
The ISO Normal for the accepted traits of this important oil is ISO 3518:2002.[15] HPTLC and GC,[citation needed] GC-MS primarily based strategies are used for qualitative and quantitative analyses of the risky [16] important oil constituents.

Indian sandalwood has a excessive santalol content material, at about 90%, in contrast with the opposite predominant supply of the oil, Santalum spicatum (Australian sandalwood), at round 39%, and India used to dominate manufacturing of sandalwood oil world-wide, however the business has been in decline within the 21st century.[17]

The lengthy maturation interval and issue in cultivation have restricted intensive planting. Harvest of the tree includes a number of curing and processing levels, additionally including to the industrial worth. The wooden and oil are in excessive demand and are an essential commerce merchandise in three predominant areas:

India

Using S. album in India is famous in literature for over two thousand years. It has use as wooden and oil in non secular practices. It additionally options as a development materials in temples and elsewhere. The Indian authorities has banned the export of the species to scale back the menace by over-harvesting. Within the southern Indian states of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh,[18] and Tamil Nadu all bushes of better than a specified girth have been the property of the state till 2001/2.[17] Reducing of bushes, even on non-public property, have been regulated by the Forest Division[18] After that they have been allowed to be offered to personal growers, however the product can solely be offered to the state forest division. Annual manufacturing fell from a excessive of 4,000 tonnes within the early 1970s, to fewer than 300 tonnes in 2011. The decline is blamed on authorities coverage and over-exploitation, and strikes have been made to encourage planters to develop the bushes once more.[17]

Australia

The native species, Santalum spicatum is extra widespread and extensively grown in Western Australia, however as of 2020 there are two industrial Indian sandalwood plantations in full operation primarily based in Kununurra, within the far north of Western Australia: Quintis (previously Tropical Forestry Companies), which in 2017 managed round 80 per cent of the world’s provide of Indian sandalwood,[19] and Santanol, who comply with moral and sustainable practices.[20]

Sri Lanka

The harvesting of sandalwood is most well-liked to be of bushes which might be superior in age. Saleable wooden can, nevertheless, be of bushes as younger as seven years. Your complete plant is eliminated somewhat than minimize to the bottom, as in coppiced species. The intensive removing of S. album over the previous century led to elevated vulnerability to extinction.[1]

As of 2020, small plantations of Indian sandalwood additionally exist in China, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and the Pacific Islands.[21]

Ethnopharmacological Makes use of[edit]

Sandalwood oil has been broadly utilized in people medication for remedy of widespread colds, bronchitis, pores and skin problems, coronary heart illnesses, normal weak point, fever, an infection of the urinary tract, irritation of the mouth and pharynx, liver and gallbladder complaints and different maladies.[citation needed] Just lately, the in vivo anti-hyperglycemic and antioxidant potentials[22] of α-santalol and sandalwood oil have been demonstrated in Swiss Albino mice. Moreover, completely different in vitro and in vivo components of the plant have been proven to own antimicrobial[23] and antioxidant[23] properties, shikimic acid,[24] and many others.

See additionally[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Asian Regional Workshop (1998). “Santalum album“. IUCN Purple Checklist of Threatened Species. 1998. Retrieved 2007-02-08.CS1 maint: ref=harv (hyperlink)
  2. ^ “Sandalwood (n.)”. On-line Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 19 September 2020.
  3. ^ Santalum (IPNI)
  4. ^ Santalum ovatum“. Australian Plant Title Index (APNI), IBIS database. Centre for Plant Biodiversity Analysis, Australian Authorities. George, A.S. & Hewson, H.J. in George, A.S. (Ed) (1984), Flora of Australia 22: 61, 63, Fig. 18D, Map 71
  5. ^ Orwa, Mutua. “Santalum album L. (Orwa et al.2009)” (PDF). previous.worldagroforestry.org. Agroforestry Database. Retrieved Four April 2009.
  6. ^ Dhanya, Bhaskar; Viswanath, Syam; Purushothman, Seema (2010). “Sandal (Santalum album L.) conservation in southern India: A evaluate of insurance policies and their impacts”. Journal of Tropical Agriculture. 48 (1–2): 1–10. Retrieved 12 June 2010.
  7. ^ Orwa, Mutua. “Santalum album L. (Orwa et al.2009)” (PDF). previous.worldagroforestry.org. Agroforestry Database. Retrieved Four April 2009.
  8. ^ Zumbroich, Thomas J. (2007–2008). “The origin and diffusion of betel chewing: a synthesis of proof from South Asia, Southeast Asia and past”. eJournal of Indian Drugs. 1: 87–140.
  9. ^ Orwa, Mutua. “Santalum album L.” (PDF). previous.worldagroforestry.org. Agroforestry Database. Retrieved Four April 2009.
  10. ^ teamKraftt. “CONSERVATION & ENVIRONMENTAL |”. sandalwoodoilspecialist.com. Retrieved 2017-04-05.
  11. ^ http://www.newcrops.uq.edu.au/newslett/ncnl2-54.htm College of Queensland website’s element
  12. ^ Australian Arid Lands Botanic Backyard – Vegetation: Sandalwood, Santalum spicatum
  13. ^ “Archived copy” (PDF). Archived from the unique (PDF) on 2006-09-20. Retrieved 2007-01-31.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (hyperlink) WA Gov website’s element
  14. ^ Vijay, Hema. “Time to carry restrictions on planting sandalwood?”. The Hindu. Retrieved 2017-04-05.
  15. ^ ISO 3518:2002
  16. ^ Misra, Biswapriya B.; Das, Shibendu S.; Dey, Satyahari (2013). “Risky profiling from heartwood of East Indian sandalwood tree”. Journal of Pharmacy Analysis. 7 (4): 299–303. doi:10.1016/j.jopr.2013.04.030.
  17. ^ a b c Yousaf, Shamsheer (25 January 2012). “Indian sandalwood manufacturing set to lose residence floor edge”. mint. Retrieved 19 September 2020.
  18. ^ a b Karnataka Forest Division Guidelines Archived 2007-02-17 on the Wayback Machine
  19. ^ Jasper, Clint (21 March 2017). “Tropical Forestry Companies turns into Quintis as the corporate shifts focus”. ABC Information (Australian Broadcasting Company). Retrieved 19 September 2020.
  20. ^ “About Santanol”. Santanol. Retrieved 19 September 2020.
  21. ^ “Ceaselessly Requested Questions”. WA Sandalwood Plantations. Retrieved 19 September 2020.
  22. ^ Misra, Biswapriya B.; Dey, Satyahari (2013). “Analysis of in vivo anti-hyperglycemic and antioxidant potentials of α-santalol and sandalwood oil”. Phytomedicine. 20 (5): 409–16. doi:10.1016/j.phymed.2012.12.017. PMID 23369343.
  23. ^ a b Misra, B.B.; Dey, S. (2012). “Comparative phytochemical evaluation and antibacterial efficacy of in vitro and in vivo extracts from East Indian sandalwood tree (Santalum album L.)”. Letters in Utilized Microbiology. 55 (6): 476–486. doi:10.1111/lam.12005. PMID 23020220. S2CID 36484791.
  24. ^ Misra, Biswapriya B.; Dey, Satyahari (2013). “Shikimic Acid (Tamiflu Precursor) Manufacturing in Suspension Cultures of East Indian Sandalwood (Santalum album) in Air-lift Bioreactor”. Journal of Postdoctoral Analysis. 1 (1): 1–9.

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