Sabal - Wikipedia

Sabal – Wikipedia

Sabal is a genus of palms (or fan-palms) endemic to the New World. Presently, there are 17 acknowledged species of Sabal, together with one hybrid species.[4] The species are native to the subtropical and tropical areas of the Americas, from the Gulf Coast/South Atlantic states within the Southeastern United States, south via the Caribbean, Mexico, and Central America to Colombia and Venezuela. Members of this genus are sometimes recognized by the leaves which originate from a naked, unarmed petiole in a fan-like construction. All members of this genus have a costa (or midrib) that extends into the leaf blade. This midrib can range in size; and it is because of this variation that leaf blades of sure species of Sabal are strongly curved or strongly costapalmate (as in Sabal palmetto and Sabal etonia) or weakly curved (nearly flattened), weakly costapalmate, (as in Sabal minor). Like many different palms, the fruit of Sabal are drupe, that sometimes change from inexperienced to black when mature.

Species[edit]

Picture Title Distribution
Sabal antillensis M.P.Griff. Curaçao[4][5]
Sabal bermudana 3zz.jpg Sabal bermudana L.H.Bailey Bermuda palmetto (Bermuda)
Sabal causiarum2 edit.jpg Sabal causiarum (O.F. Prepare dinner) Becc. Puerto Rico palmetto (Puerto Rico, United States Virgin Islands, British Virgin Islands, Haiti, Cuba, and the Dominican Republic)
Sabal domingensis 5zz.jpg Sabal domingensis Becc. Hispaniola palmetto (Cuba, the Dominican Republic, and Haiti)
Sabal etonia 3zz.jpg Sabal etonia Swingle ex Nash scrub palmetto (peninsular Florida, United States)
Sabal gretherieae0.jpg Sabal gretheriae H.J.Quero.R. Yucatán palmetto (Quintana Roo, Mexico)
Sabal lougheediana M.P.Griff. Bonaire[5]
Sabal-maritima.jpg Sabal maritima (Kunth) Burret Jamaica and Cuba
Sabal mauritiiformis 12zz.jpg Sabal mauritiiformis (H.Karst.) Griseb. & H.Wendl. palma de vaca (southern Mexico to northern Colombia, Venezuela, and Trinidad)
Sabal mexicana 1.jpg Sabal mexicana Mart. Mexican palmetto (southern Texas south via Mexico to Nicaragua)
Gardenology.org-IMG 2114 hunt0903.jpg Sabal miamiensis Miami palmetto; southern Florida, generally handled as a definite species or included in Sabal etonia
Gardenology.org-IMG 0529 hunt07mar.jpg Sabal minor (Jacq.) Pers. dwarf palmetto (northeastern Mexico, Southeastern United States: Florida north to North Carolina, west to Texas)
Sabal palmetto (habitus).jpg Sabal palmetto (Walter) Lodd. ex Schult. & Schult.f. cabbage palmetto (Cuba, the Bahamas, Turks and Caicos Islands, Southeastern United States: Florida north to North Carolina, west to Texas)
Sabal pumos (Scott Zona) 001.jpg Sabal pumos (Kunth) Burret royal palmetto (Guerrero, Michoacán, and Puebla, Mexico)
Sabal rosei 2.jpg Sabal rosei (O.F.Prepare dinner) Becc. coast of northwestern Mexico
Sabal uresana Tucson Arizona May 2012.JPG Sabal uresana Trel. Sonoran palmetto (Chihuahua and Sonora, Mexico)
Sabal yapa 4zz.jpg Sabal yapa C.Wright ex Becc. cana rata (Yucatán Peninsula, Belize, Cuba, and Guatemala)[6][7]
  • Sabal × brazoriensis D.H.Goldman, Lockett & Learn (S. minor × S. palmetto) – Texas[8]

Prehistoric taxa[edit]

Extinct species inside this genus embrace:[9]

Previously positioned right here[edit]

Fossil file[edit]

These crops lived from the Cretaceous to Quaternary (from 66 million to 12 thousand years in the past). Fossils have been present in United States, Italy, Switzerland, Germany, Japan, the UK, and France.[9] Leaf fossils of Sabal lamanonis have been recovered from rhyodacite tuff of Decrease Miocene age in Southern Slovakia close to the city of Lučenec.[11]

Phylogenetic work in Sabal (1990s – current)[edit]

The identify Sabal was first utilized to members of the group by Michel Adanson within the 18th century.[12] Earlier names that this genus was related to embrace Corypha, Chamaerops, Rhapis.[13][12] This part highlights essential phylogenetic work accomplished throughout the genus Sabal.

In 1990, Scott Zona outlined key morphological and anatomical characters that he used to research species relationships of Sabal. By this evaluation of characters, Zona produced a cladogram that portrays evolutionary relationships amongst 15 species of Sabal.[13] Based mostly on the distribution of species inside his cladogram, Zona acknowledged 4 distinct clades.[13] The clades inside his research embrace (Clade 1) Sabal minor; (Clade 2) Sabal bermudana, Sabal palmetto, Sabal miamiensis, and Sabal etonia; (Clade 3) Sabal maritima, Sabal domingensis, Sabal causiarum, Sabal maurittiformis, Sabal yapa, Sabal mexicana, and Sabal guatemalensis; (Clade 4) Sabal uresana, Sabal rosei, and Sabal pumos.[13] These clades affiliate carefully with geographic distributions.[13] All the species inside Clade Three happen within the Larger Antilles and southern Mexico, the place species that happen within the Larger Antilles are extra carefully associated to one another than people who happen in southern Mexico.[13] Though Clade Four additionally happens in Mexico, these species happen on the west coast the place they’re geographically separated from the Mexican species throughout the southern a part of the nation.[13] The remaining two clades, Clade 1 and Clade 2 predominantly happen within the southeastern United States though S. palmetto and S. minor are additionally identified from Cuba and the Bahamas (S. palmetto) and northern Mexico (S. minor).[13]Sabal bermudana is just identified from the Bermuda Islands.[13]

In 2016 Heyduk, Trapnell, Barrett, and Leebens-Mack performed a brand new research on Sabal that analyzed molecular (e.g. nuclear, plastid) knowledge from 15 species of the group.[14] This research integrated plastid and nuclear sequence knowledge that collectively had been used to estimate the relatedness between the species of Sabal.[14] The outcomes of the research present species relationships to be totally different from the distribution of Zona’s cladogram.[13][14] Throughout the framework of this research, a significant distinction between the outcomes of Zona and this research is the position of “Clade 4” (Sabal uresana, Sabal rosei, and Sabal pumos) which break up and combine these species all through the phylogeny of Sabal.[13][14] The biggest of the clades recognized by Zona, “Clade 3” is disrupted considerably as it’s break up into a number of clades.[13][14] Though Sabal causiarum and S. domingensis retain their relationship as sister species, they’re included in a clade that additionally consists of S. maritima and S. rosei.[13][14] Regardless of the these disruptions in placement between these two research, the general integrity of “Clade 1” and “Clade 2” is in congruence with the clades established from the molecular knowledge.[14][13]

Pollinators and parasitoids[edit]

Sabal species are used as meals sources by a number of species of birds together with Mimus polyglottos, Turdus migratorius, Dendroica coronata, Corvus ossifragus, and Drycopus pileatus, Caryobruchus,[15] and varied species of hymenoptera. Bears (Ursus americanus) and racoons are additionally identified to feed on fruit of assorted species of Sabal. Sabal palmetto is recorded to have its personal lichen, Arthonia rubrocincta,[16] that solely happens on the leaf bases of the Cabbage Palm (Sabal palmetto). In Europe, the launched Lepidopteran species Paysandisia archon has grow to be a distinguished pest whose larvae are identified to feed on among the cultivated species of Sabal.

Arborescent species are sometimes transplanted from pure stands into city landscapes and are hardly ever grown in nurseries as a result of sluggish progress. A number of species are cultivated as decorative crops and since a number of species are comparatively cold-hardy, could be grown farther north than most different palms. The central bud of Sabal palmetto is edible and, when cooked, is named ‘swamp cabbage’. Mature fronds are used as thatch and for weaving mats.

Symbolic use[edit]

A silhouette of a palmetto (S. palmetto) seems on the official flag of South Carolina.[17]

Two photos of S. palmetto seem on the Florida state seal.

Sabal palmetto is the state tree of each Florida and South Carolina.

S. palmetto has been used as an indication of freedom and independence within the Southern United States for the reason that starting of the Revolutionary Warfare and particularly throughout secession within the American Civil Warfare.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Michel Adanson (1763). Familles des plantes. 2 (in French). chez Vincent. pp. 495, 599.
  2. ^ Sabal Adans”. TROPICOS. Missouri Botanical Backyard. Retrieved 2009-10-16.
  3. ^ Sabal Adans”. Germplasm Assets Data Community. United States Division of Agriculture. 2004-10-15. Archived from the unique on 2009-08-26. Retrieved 2010-04-12.
  4. ^ a b Griffith, M. Patrick; De Freitas, John; Barros, Michelle; Noblick, Larry R. (2017). “Sabal antillensis (Arecaceae): a brand new palmetto species from the Leeward Antilles”. Phytotaxa. 303: 56–64. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.303.1.4.
  5. ^ a b Griffith, M. Patrick; Coolen, Quirijn; Barros, Michelle; Noblick, Larry R. (2019). “Sabal lougheediana (Arecaceae), a critically endangered, endemic pa;m species from Bonaire”. Phytotaxa. 420: 095–102. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.420.2.1.
  6. ^ “Subordinate taxa of Sabal Adans”. TROPICOS. Missouri Botanical Backyard. Retrieved 2009-10-16.
  7. ^ a b “GRIN Species Information of Sabal“. Germplasm Assets Data Community. United States Division of Agriculture. Archived from the unique on 2015-09-24. Retrieved 2010-07-07.
  8. ^ GOLDMAN, DOUGLAS H.; KLOOSTER, MATTHEW R.; GRIFFITH, M. PATRICK; FAY, MICHAEL F.; CHASE, MARK W. (2011-08-19). “A preliminary analysis of the ancestry of a putative Sabal hybrid (Arecaceae: Coryphoideae), and the outline of a brand new nothospecies, Sabal × brazoriensis“. Phytotaxa. 27 (1): 8. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.27.1.2. ISSN 1179-3163.
  9. ^ a b Paleobiology Database
  10. ^ a b Manchester, Steven R. (1994). “Fruits and seeds of the Center Eocene Nut Beds Flora, Clarno Formation, Oregon”. Palaeontographica Americana. 58: 1–205.
  11. ^ Vojtko, Rastislav (2016-10-21). “Miocénna flóra z lokalít Kalonda a Mučín” [Miocene flora from the localities Kalonda and Mučín]. Acta Geologica Slovaca (in Slovak). 1 (1): 65–70. ISSN 1338-0044. Retrieved 2019-07-08.
  12. ^ a b Ramp, Paul F.; Thien, Leonard B. (1995). “A Taxonomic Historical past and Reexamination of Sabal minor within the Mississippi Valley”. Principes. 39 (2): 77–83.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j okay l m n Zona, Scott (1990). “A Monograph of Sabal (Arecaceae: Coryphoideae)”. Aliso. 12 (4): 583–666. doi:10.5642/aliso.19901204.02.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g Heyduk, Karolina; Trapnell, Dorset W.; Barrett, Craig F.; Leebens-Mack, Jim (2015-05-13). “Phylogenomic analyses of species relationships within the genus Sabal (Arecaceae) utilizing focused sequence seize”. Organic Journal of the Linnean Society. 117 (1): 106–120. doi:10.1111/bij.12551. ISSN 0024-4066.
  15. ^ i Monteys, Víctor Sarto; Aguilar, Lluís; Saiz‐Ardanaz, Marienza; Ventura, Daniel; Martí, Mercè (June 2005). “Comparative morphology of the egg of the castniid palm borer, Paysandisia archon (Burmeister, 1880) (Lepidoptera: Castniidae)”. Systematics and Biodiversity. 3 (2): 179–201. doi:10.1017/S1477200005001635. ISSN 1477-2000. S2CID 85748924.
  16. ^ Grube, Martin; Lucking, Robert; Umana-Tenorio, Loengrin (September 2004). “A New Isidiate Species of Arthonia (Ascomycota: Arthoniaceae) from Costa Rica”. Mycologia. 96 (5): 1159. doi:10.2307/3762099. ISSN 0027-5514. JSTOR 3762099. PMID 21148936.
  17. ^ Netstate, South Carolina State Flag

Exterior hyperlinks[edit]


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