Red Custard Apple Tree

Red Custard Apple Tree

Widespread identify: Pink Custard Apple
Botanical identify: Annona reticulata
Household: Annonaceae
Avg Top X Width: 20′ X 15′
Origin: West Indies to Central America & South Mexico
Season: Late Winter to Spring
Harm temp:

28-30 F

Pink Custard Apple Tree in a Three Gallon Container. The purple custard apple is a really shut relative to the sugar apple and atemoya. They’ve a thick creamy custard-like pulp that may be pink, purple or white. The fruit have a pleasing taste and aroma, and they’re greatest eaten out of hand or in ice cream.

Description
Origin and Distribution
Cultivars
Local weather
Soil
Propagation
Tradition
Harvesting and Yield
Pest and Ailments
Meals Makes use of
Meals Worth
Toxicity
Different Makes use of
Medicinal Makes use of

Each in tree and in fruit, the custard apple, Annona reticulata L., is usually rated because the mediocre or “ugly duckling” species among the many outstanding members of this genus. Its descriptive English identify has been extensively misapplied to different species and to the hybrid ATEMOYA, and it’s typically erroneously termed “sugar apple”, “sweetsop” and, by Spanish-speaking individuals, “anon” or “rinon”, in India, “ramphal”, all correctly utilized solely to Annona squamosa. It has, itself, acquired comparatively few acceptable regional names. Mostly employed as an alternate identify in English-speaking areas is bullock’s-heart or bull’s-heart; in French, coeur de boeuf; Portuguese, coracao de boi; in Spanish, usually merely corazon—all alluding to its type and exterior blush. The pores and skin shade is mirrored within the Bolivian identify, chirimoya roia, the Salvadoran anona rosada, and the Guatemalan anona roja or anona colorada. Within the latter nation it is usually often known as anona de seso. Araticum ape or araticum do mato are further names in Brazil. Some individuals check with it as Jamaica apple, or as netted custard apple, which is translated as anona de redecilla in Honduras and Nicaragua. Cachiman, cachiman coeur de boeuf and corossol sauvage could also be heard within the French-influenced West Indies. Within the Netherlands Antilles it’s kasjoema. This identify and boeah nona are utilized in Surinam. In Cuba, it’s mamon or chirimoya. Some Central Individuals give it the identify anona, or anonillo; Colombians, anon pelon. To the Carib Indians the fruit was often known as alacalyoua; to the Aztecs, quaultzapotl, and to the Maya, tsulimay, tsulilpox, tsulipox, pox, oop, or op. It’s usually referred to as within the Philippines sarikaya; in India ramphal, nona or luvuni, in Malaya, nona kapri, or lonang; in Thailand, noi nong”;; in Cambodia, mo bat or imply bat; in Laos, khan tua lot; in South Vietnam, binh bat; North Vietnam, qua na.


Description

The custard apple tree is just not particularly enticing. It’s erect, with a rounded or spreading crown and trunk 10 to 14 in (25-35 cm) thick. Top ranges from 15 to 35 ft (4.5-10 m). The ill-smelling leaves are deciduous, alternate, rectangular or narrow-lanceolate, Four to eight in (10-20 cm) lengthy, 3/Four to 2 in (2 5 cm) large, with conspicuous veins. Flowers, in drooping clusters, are aromatic, slender, with Three outer fleshy, slim petals 3/Four to 1 1/Four in (2 Three cm) lengthy; light-green externally and pale-yellow with a dark-red or purple spot on the within on the base. The flowers by no means absolutely open. The compound fruit, Three l/Four to six half of in (8-16 cm) in diameter, could also be symmetrically heart-shaped, lopsided, or irregular; or practically spherical, or oblate, with a deep or shallow melancholy on the base. The pores and skin, skinny however robust, could also be yellow or brownish when ripe, with a pink, reddish or brownish-red blush, and faintly, reasonably, or distinctly reticulated. There’s a thick, cream-white layer of custardlike, considerably granular, flesh beneath the pores and skin surrounding the concolorous reasonably juicy segments, in a lot of which there’s a single, exhausting, dark-brown or black, shiny seed, rectangular, easy, lower than half of in (1.25 cm) lengthy. Precise seed counts have been 55, 60 and 76. A pointed, fibrous, central core, hooked up to the thick stem, extends greater than midway via the fruit. The flavour is good and agreeable although with out the distinct character of the cherimoya, sugar apple, or atemoya.


Origin and Distribution

The custard apple is believed to be a local of the West Indies nevertheless it was carried in early instances via Central America to southern Mexico. It has lengthy been cultivated and naturalized as far south as Peru and Brazil. It’s generally grown within the Bahamas and infrequently in Bermuda and southern Florida. Apparently it was launched into tropical Africa early within the 17th century and it’s grown in South Africa as a dooryard fruit tree. In India the tree is cultivated, particularly round Calcutta, and runs wild in lots of areas. It has grow to be pretty frequent on the east coast of Malaya, and kind of all through southeast Asia and the Philippines although nowhere notably esteemed. Eighty years in the past it was reported as completely naturalized in Guam. In Hawaii it’s not well-known.


Cultivars

No named cultivars are reported however there may be appreciable variation within the high quality of fruit from completely different bushes. The yellow-skinned varieties appear superior to the brownish, and, when effectively stuffed out, have thicker and juicier flesh. Seeds of a purple-skinned, purple-fleshed type, from Mexico, had been planted in Florida and the tree has produced fruit of unremarkable high quality.


Local weather

 The custard apple tree wants a tropical local weather however with cooler winters than these of the west coast of Malaya. It prospers within the coastal lowlands of Ecuador; is uncommon above 5,000 ft (1,500 m). In Guatemala, it’s practically at all times discovered beneath 4,000 ft (1,220 m). In India, it does effectively from the plains as much as an elevation of 4,000 ft (1,220 m); in Ceylon, it can’t be grown above 3,000 ft (915 m). Round Luzon within the Philippines, it is not uncommon beneath 2,600 ft (800 m). It’s too tender for California and bushes launched into Palestine succumbed to the chilly. In southem Florida the leaves are shed on the first onset of chilly climate and the tree is dormant all winter. Totally grown, it has survived temperatures of 27º to 28ºF (-2.78º to 2.22ºC) with out critical hurt. This species is much less drought-tolerant than the sugar apple and prefers a extra humid environment.


Soil

The custard apple does greatest in low-lying, deep, wealthy soil with ample moisture and good drainage. It grows to full measurement on oolitic limestone in southern Florida and runs wild in gentle sand and numerous different forms of soil within the New and Previous World tropics however is likely much less productive within the much less fascinating websites.


Propagation

Seed is the standard technique of propagation. Nonetheless, the tree might be multiplied by inarching, or by budding or grafting onto its personal seedlings or onto soursop, sugar apple or pond apple rootstocks. Experiments in Mexico, using cherimoya, llama, soursop, custard apple, Annona sp. Af. lutescens and Rollinia jimenezii Schlecht. as rootstocks confirmed greatest outcomes when custard apple scions had been side-grafted onto self-rootstock, soursop, or A. sp. Af. lutescens. Custard apple seedlings are ceaselessly used as rootstocks for the soursop, sugar apple and atemoya.


Tradition

The tree is fast-growing and responds effectively to mulching, natural fertilizers and to frequent irrigation if there may be dry climate throughout the rising interval. The type of the tree could also be improved by considered pruning.


Harvesting And Yield

The custard apple has the benefit of cropping in late winter and spring when the popular members of the genus usually are not in season. It’s picked when it has misplaced all inexperienced shade and ripens with out splitting in order that it’s readily bought in native markets. If picked inexperienced, it is not going to shade effectively and will likely be of inferior high quality. The tree is of course a reasonably heavy bearer. With ample care, a mature tree will produce 75 to 100 lbs (34-45 kg) of fruits per yr. The brief twigs are shed after they’ve borne flowers and fruits.


Pests and Ailments

 The custard apple is closely attacked by the chalcid fly. Many if not the entire fruits on a tree could also be mummified earlier than maturity. In India, the ripening fruits have to be coated with luggage or nets to keep away from injury from fruit bats. A dry charcoal rot was noticed on the fruits in Assam in 1947. In 1957 and 1958 it made its look at Saharanpur. The causal fungus was recognized as Diplodia annonae. The an infection begins on the stem finish of the fruit and step by step spreads till it covers your complete fruit.


Meals Makes use of

In India, the fruit is eaten solely by the decrease courses, out-of-hand. In Central America, Mexico and the West Indies, the fruit is appreciated by all. When absolutely ripe it’s mushy to the contact and the stem and hooked up core might be simply pulled out. The flesh could also be scooped from the pores and skin and eaten as is or served with gentle cream and a sprinkling of sugar. Typically it’s pressed via a sieve and added to exploit shakes, custards or ice cream. I’ve made a scrumptious sauce for cake and puddings by mixing the seeded flesh with mashed banana and a bit of cream.


Meals Worth Per 100 g of Edible portion*

Energy 80-101
Moisture 68.3-80.1 g
Protein 1.17-2.47 g
Fats 0.5-0.6 g
Carbohydrates 20-25.2 g
Crude Fiber 0.9-6.6 g
Ash 0.5-1.11 g
Calcium 17.6-27 mg
Phosphorus 14.7-32.1 mg
Iron 0.42-1.14 mg
Carotene 0.007-0.018 mg
Thiamine 0.075-0.119 mg
Riboflavin 0.086-0.175 mg
Niacin 0.528-1.190 m
Ascorbic Acid 15.0-44.Four mg
Nicotinic Acid 0.5 mg
*Minimal and most ranges of constituents from analyses made in Central America, Philippines and elsewhere.


Toxicity

The seeds are so exhausting that they could be swallowed complete with no unwell results however the kernels are very poisonous. The seeds, leaves and younger fruits are insecticidal. The leaf juice kills lice. The bark comprises 0.12% anonaine. Injection of an extract from the bark prompted paralysis in a rear limb of an experimental toad. Sap from lower branches is acrid and irritant and might severely injure the eyes. The foundation bark has yielded Three alkaloids: anonaine, liriodenine and reticuline (muricinine).


Different Makes use of

The leaves have been employed in tanning they usually yield a blue or black dye. A fiber derived from the younger twigs is superior to the bark fiber from Annona squamosa. Custard apple wooden is yellow, fairly mushy, fibrous however sturdy, reasonably close-grained, with a selected gravity of 0.650. It has been used to make yokes for oxen.


Medicinal Makes use of

The leaf decoction is given as a vermifuge. Crushed leaves or a paste of the flesh could also be poulticed on boils, abscesses and ulcers. The unripe fruit is wealthy in tannin; is dried, pulverized and employed towards diarrhea and dysentery. The bark could be very astringent and the decoction is taken as a tonic and in addition as a treatment for diarrhea and dysentery. In extreme instances, the leaves, bark and inexperienced fruits are all boiled collectively for five minutes in a liter of water to make an exceedingly potent decoction. Fragments of the foundation bark are packed across the gums to alleviate toothache. The foundation decoction is taken as a febrifuge.

 

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