Quercus agrifolia – Useful Temperate Plants

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Née

Fagaceae

Quercus acroglandis Kellogg

Quercus acutiglandis Sarg.

Quercus oxyadenia Torr.

Quercus pricei Sudw.

Widespread Identify: Encina

Basic Info

Quercus agrifolia is an evergreen shrub or a tree rising 6 – 25 metres tall. Open grown timber have a broad, dense crown, branching from round 2 metres from the bottom, while in closed stands the bole will be 6 metres tall earlier than branching. The bole will be 30 – 120cm in diameter[

270

Title
Flora of N. America
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/fna/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line version of the flora with an excellent description of the plant including a brief mention of plant uses.

,

1050

Title
Fire Effects Information System
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.feis-crs.org/feis/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line information site with comprehensive information on over 1,100 species of plant. Mainly developed to supply information on the effects of fire on plants and animals, it also contains a wealth of other information on the plants

]
The tree is harvested from the wild for native use as a meals, drugs and supply of supplies. Wild stands are typically managed for the manufacturing of firewood, in addition to the business manufacturing of charcoal.[

338

Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.

,

1050

Title
Fire Effects Information System
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.feis-crs.org/feis/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line information site with comprehensive information on over 1,100 species of plant. Mainly developed to supply information on the effects of fire on plants and animals, it also contains a wealth of other information on the plants

]. The tree is utilized in land rehabilitation tasks inside its native vary and can be typically grown as a decorative.
Though Quercus agrifolia faces threats in sure localities, particularly from human growth and sudden oak demise, it covers a variety and has not skilled a big decline, neither is it believed to face future fast decline. The plant is assessed as ‘Least Concern’ within the IUCN Purple Record of Threatened Species(2013)[

338

Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.

].

Recognized Hazards

All components of the plant comprise tannins. While tannins are discovered in lots of meals, and have a variety of medicinal makes use of. They’re often solely current in low concentrations. In some meals made out of oaks (notably the seeds), the tannin content material will be fairly excessive until the meals is handled to scale back tannin content material.
Tannins are solely of low toxicity and, due to their bitter style and astringency, are unlikely to be eaten in giant portions. Nonetheless, if they’re taken in extra, they’ll trigger abdomen pains; constipation adopted by bloody diarrhoea: extreme thirst; and extreme urination[

293

Title
Poisonous Plants of North Carolina
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/hort/consumer/poison/poison.htm
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent concise but comprehensive guide to toxic plants that grow in N. Carolina. It lists even those plants that are of very low toxicity, including several well-known food plants such as carrots and potatoes.

].

Botanical References

11

Title
Timber and Shrubs Hardy in Nice Britain. Vol 1 – four and Complement.
Publication
 
Creator
Bean. W.
Writer
Murray
Yr
1981
ISBN
Description
A traditional with a wealth of data on the vegetation, however poor on footage.

,

200

Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Creator
Huxley. A.
Writer
MacMillan Press
Yr
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Glorious and really complete, although it comprises quite a few foolish errors. Readable but additionally very detailed.

,

270

Title
Flora of N. America
Publication
 
Creator
 
Web site
http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/fna/
Writer
 
Yr
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line model of the flora with a superb description of the plant together with a quick point out of plant makes use of.

Vary

South-western N. America – western California, Baja California.

Habitat

A dominant tree, forming open groves of nice extent in valleys and on not too dry slopes in woods; additionally co-dominant in walnut woodland and combined evergreen forest; and located as a shrub on coastal sand dunes; at elevations to 1,500 metres[

71

Title
A California Flora.
Publication
 
Author
Munz P.A. & Keck D.D.
Publisher
University of California Press; Los Angeles
Year
1959
ISBN
Description
An excellent flora but no pictures. Not for the casual reader.

,

82

Title
Manual of the Trees of N. America.
Publication
 
Author
Sargent. C. S.
Website
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/
Publisher
Dover Publications Inc. New York.
Year
1965
ISBN
0-486-20278-X
Description
Two volumes, a comprehensive listing of N. American trees though a bit out of date now. Good details on habitats, some details on plant uses. Not really for the casual reader. It can be downloaded from the internet.

,

338

Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.

].

Properties

Cultivation Particulars

Quercus agrifolia is just not very cold-hardy, tolerating temperatures falling to round -8°c when dormant. It grows in a mediterranean local weather, characterised by delicate, moist winters and sizzling, dry summers. It usually adapts nicely to maritime climates, although will typically not fruit nicely until the summers are sizzling[

11

Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 – 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.

,

49

Title
Shrubs for the Milder Counties.
Publication
 
Author
Arnold-Forster.
Publisher
 
Year
 
ISBN
 
Description
Trees and shrubs that grow well in Cornwall and other mild areas of Britain. Fairly good, a standard reference book.

,

59

Title
Trees and Shrubs in Cornwall.
Publication
 
Author
Thurston.
Publisher
 
Year
 
ISBN
 
Description
Trees and shrubs that succeed in Cornwall based on the authors own observations. Good but rather dated.

]. Timber fruited very closely at Kew Gardens, London (hardiness zone 7 – 8) within the sizzling summer season of 1989[

K

Title
Plants for a Future
Author
Ken Fern
Description
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.

].
Prefers an excellent deep fertile loam which will be on the stiff facet[

1

Title
RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956
Publication
 
Author
F. Chittendon.
Publisher
Oxford University Press
Year
1951
ISBN
Description
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaced in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).

,

11

Title
Timber and Shrubs Hardy in Nice Britain. Vol 1 – four and Complement.
Publication
 
Creator
Bean. W.
Writer
Murray
Yr
1981
ISBN
Description
A traditional with a wealth of data on the vegetation, however poor on footage.

]. Crops are lime tolerant[

188

Title
The RHS Gardener’s Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers
Publication
 
Author
Brickell. C.
Publisher
Dorling Kindersley Publishers Ltd.
Year
1990
ISBN
0-86318-386-7
Description
Excellent range of photographs, some cultivation details but very little information on plant uses.

]. Younger vegetation tolerate cheap ranges of facet shade[

200

Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

]. Tolerates reasonable publicity, surviving nicely however being considerably stunted[

200

Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

]. Established vegetation are reasonably drought resistant[

1050

Title
Fire Effects Information System
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.feis-crs.org/feis/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line information site with comprehensive information on over 1,100 species of plant. Mainly developed to supply information on the effects of fire on plants and animals, it also contains a wealth of other information on the plants

].
Seedlings quickly develop a taproot and grow to be illiberal of root disturbance, they need to be planted into their everlasting positions while younger[

11

Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 – 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.

]. As timber get older, the taproot often turns into non-functional, the tree creating an intensive system of floor roots[

1050

Title
Fire Effects Information System
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.feis-crs.org/feis/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line information site with comprehensive information on over 1,100 species of plant. Mainly developed to supply information on the effects of fire on plants and animals, it also contains a wealth of other information on the plants

].
Native People used to plant the seeds of this tree in favoured positions in order that they may harvested the acorns for meals. The tree is planted as a decorative, typically getting used as a road tree or in parks and many others[

1050

Title
Fire Effects Information System
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.feis-crs.org/feis/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line information site with comprehensive information on over 1,100 species of plant. Mainly developed to supply information on the effects of fire on plants and animals, it also contains a wealth of other information on the plants

].
A slow-growing however long-lived tree within the wild, with timber greater than 250 years outdated[

229

Title
The Complete Trees of N. America. Field Guide and Natural History.
Publication
 
Author
Elias. T.
Publisher
Van Nostrand Reinhold Co.
Year
1980
ISBN
0442238622
Description
A very good concise guide. Gives habitats, good descriptions, maps showing distribution and a few of the uses. It also includes the many shrubs that occasionally reach tree proportions.

,

1050

Title
Fire Effects Information System
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.feis-crs.org/feis/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line information site with comprehensive information on over 1,100 species of plant. Mainly developed to supply information on the effects of fire on plants and animals, it also contains a wealth of other information on the plants

].
The tree flowers on new progress produced in spring, the seed ripening in its first 12 months[

200

Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

,

229

Title
The Complete Trees of N. America. Field Guide and Natural History.
Publication
 
Author
Elias. T.
Publisher
Van Nostrand Reinhold Co.
Year
1980
ISBN
0442238622
Description
A very good concise guide. Gives habitats, good descriptions, maps showing distribution and a few of the uses. It also includes the many shrubs that occasionally reach tree proportions.

].
The bark of mature timber is thick and might shield the tree from reasonable fires, although extreme fires will often kill prime progress[

1050

Title
Fire Effects Information System
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.feis-crs.org/feis/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line information site with comprehensive information on over 1,100 species of plant. Mainly developed to supply information on the effects of fire on plants and animals, it also contains a wealth of other information on the plants

].
Timber can resprout from the trunk and/or root crown if they’re felled or top-killed by hearth[

1050

Title
Fire Effects Information System
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.feis-crs.org/feis/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line information site with comprehensive information on over 1,100 species of plant. Mainly developed to supply information on the effects of fire on plants and animals, it also contains a wealth of other information on the plants

].
That is the dominant tree in California’s southern and central coastal oak woodlands, and populates the chaparral section of the southern oak woodland as a shrub[

338

Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.

].
The bark of immature timber is easy and develops deep ridges with age, with branches typically reaching the bottom in areas missing grazing. Offering a few of the most essential habitats for a lot of bugs, birds and mammals in California, Quercus agrifolia additionally feeds many birds and rodents with its acorns, and offers a crucial supply of meals for Black-tailed Deer with its foliage[

338

Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.

]
Hybridizes freely with different members of the genus[

200

Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

].
This species reportedly hybridizes with Quercus kelloggii and Quercus wislizenii[

270

Title
Flora of N. America
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/fna/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line version of the flora with an excellent description of the plant including a brief mention of plant uses.

].
Mature Quercus agrifolia are very prone to sudden oak demise, which might wipe out an initially wholesome tree inside a number of weeks to a number of years. In California the illness has reached “epidemic proportions” and there may be specific danger on California’s central coast[

338

Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.

].
This species is notably immune to honey fungus[

88

Title
The Garden. Volume 112.
Publication
 
Author
RHS.
Publisher
Royal Horticultural Society
Year
1987
ISBN
Description
Snippets of information from the magazine of the RHS. In particular, there are articles on plants that are resistant to honey fungus, oriental vegetables, Cimicifuga spp, Passiflora species and Cucurbits.

,

200

Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

].

Edible Makes use of

Seed – cooked[

2

Title
Sturtevant’s Edible Plants of the World.
Publication
 
Author
Hedrick. U. P.
Publisher
Dover Publications
Year
1972
ISBN
0-486-20459-6
Description
Lots of entries, quite a lot of information in most entries and references.

,

63

Title
Nuts.
Publication
 
Author
Howes. F. N.
Publisher
Faber
Year
1948
ISBN
Description
Rather old but still a masterpiece. Has sections on tropical and temperate plants with edible nuts plus a section on nut plants in Britain. Very readable.

,

84

Title
A Field Guide to the Common and Interesting Plants of Baja California.
Publication
 
Author
Coyle. J. and Roberts. N. C.
Publisher
Natural History Publishing Co.
Year
1975
ISBN
Description
A very readable pocket flora with good illustrations, it gives quite a few plant uses.

,

92

Title
Early Uses of Californian Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Balls. E. K.
Publisher
University of California Press
Year
1975
ISBN
0-520-00072-2
Description
A nice readable book.

,

95

Title
Edible and Useful Wild Plants of the United States and Canada.
Publication
 
Author
Saunders. C. F.
Publisher
Dover Publications
Year
1976
ISBN
0-486-23310-3
Description
Useful wild plants of America. A pocket guide.

]. The seed is 15 – 35mm lengthy and 10 15mm vast[

270

Title
Flora of N. America
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/fna/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line version of the flora with an excellent description of the plant including a brief mention of plant uses.

]. It’s used as a staple meals by a number of native North American tribes[

257

Title
Native American Ethnobotany
Publication
 
Author
Moerman. D.
Publisher
Timber Press. Oregon.
Year
1998
ISBN
0-88192-453-9
Description
Very comprehensive but terse guide to the native uses of plants. Excellent bibliography, fully referenced to each plant, giving a pathway to further information. Not for the casual reader.

]. It may be dried, floor right into a powder and used as a thickening in stews and many others or combined with cereals for making bread. The seed is as much as 40mm lengthy and 20m vast[

82

Title
Manual of the Trees of N. America.
Publication
 
Author
Sargent. C. S.
Website
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/
Publisher
Dover Publications Inc. New York.
Year
1965
ISBN
0-486-20278-X
Description
Two volumes, a comprehensive listing of N. American trees though a bit out of date now. Good details on habitats, some details on plant uses. Not really for the casual reader. It can be downloaded from the internet.

,

229

Title
The Complete Trees of N. America. Field Guide and Natural History.
Publication
 
Author
Elias. T.
Publisher
Van Nostrand Reinhold Co.
Year
1980
ISBN
0442238622
Description
A very good concise guide. Gives habitats, good descriptions, maps showing distribution and a few of the uses. It also includes the many shrubs that occasionally reach tree proportions.

], comprises bitter tannins.
In some species, particularly lots of these categorized as ‘white oaks’, the seeds are low in tannins and have a kind of candy and agreeable flavour. The seed of most species, nevertheless, have a really bitter flavour, due particularly to the presence of tannins. In these species there are numerous processes that may take away or no less than scale back the quantity of those bitter substances (though different water-soluble substances, together with some minerals, can even be eliminated).
Tannins are water-soluble and subsequently the best strategy to take away or scale back tannin ranges is by soaking in water. A couple of completely different strategies are listed:-
A standard methodology of getting ready the seed was to bury it in boggy floor overwinter and permit the moist soil to steadily leach the tannins. The germinating seed was dug up within the spring when it will have misplaced most of its astringency and bitterness.
One other methodology was to wrap the seeds in a material bag and place them in a stream for a number of weeks.
Drying the seed and grinding it to a powder earlier than soaking quickens the method. The quickest methodology is to make use of sizzling water, by cooking the powder and altering the water a number of occasions till the cooking water is not bitter. Alternatively, you should use chilly water (which is reported to supply the very best quality flour). On this case, you soak the powdered seed in chilly water for 12 – 24 hours then discard the water. Repeat this course of for quite a few occasions till the soak water is not bitter.

The roasted seed of many Quercus species has been used as a espresso substitute.

Medicinal

Quercus (oak) species are used within the conventional drugs of many cultures, being valued particularly for his or her tannins. Varied components of the plant can be utilized, most often it’s the leaves, bark, seeds, seed cups or the galls which are produced on account of insect injury. A decoction or infusion is astringent, antibacterial, antifungal, antiseptic, styptic and haemostatic. It’s taken internally to deal with situations corresponding to acute diarrhea, dysentery and haemorrhages. Externally, it’s used as a mouthwash to deal with toothache or gum issues and is utilized topically as a wash on cuts, burns, varied pores and skin issues, haemorrhoids and oral, genital and anal mucosa irritation[

4

Title
A Modern Herbal.
Publication
 
Author
Grieve.
Publisher
Penguin
Year
1984
ISBN
0-14-046-440-9
Description
Not so modern (1930’s?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.

]. Extracts of the plant will be added to ointments and used for the therapeutic of cuts[

4

Title
A Modern Herbal.
Publication
 
Author
Grieve.
Publisher
Penguin
Year
1984
ISBN
0-14-046-440-9
Description
Not so modern (1930’s?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.

,

1231

Title
Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Some Quercus Species Growing in Turkey
Publication
FABAD J. Pharm. Sci., 32, 127-130, 2007
Author
Didem Söhretoğlu; Melike Ekizoğlu; Ekrem Kiliç; M. Koray Sak
Publisher
 
Year
2007
ISBN
 
Description
 

].

A decoction of the chipped bark has been used as a wash on pores and skin sores[

257

Title
Native American Ethnobotany
Publication
 
Author
Moerman. D.
Publisher
Timber Press. Oregon.
Year
1998
ISBN
0-88192-453-9
Description
Very comprehensive but terse guide to the native uses of plants. Excellent bibliography, fully referenced to each plant, giving a pathway to further information. Not for the casual reader.

].

Agroforestry Makes use of:

Quercus agrifolia aids within the management of abrasion by stabilizing soil on slopes, and is favoured to be used in rehabilitation tasks together with watershed enchancment and wildlife habitat restoration. Additionally it is an essential factor in landscaping[

1050

Title
Fire Effects Information System
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.feis-crs.org/feis/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line information site with comprehensive information on over 1,100 species of plant. Mainly developed to supply information on the effects of fire on plants and animals, it also contains a wealth of other information on the plants

].

Different Makes use of

The leaves of most species on this genus are kind of wealthy in tannins. A mulch of the partially decayed leaves will be positioned round susceptible vegetation to be able to repel slugs, snails, grubs and many others, and these will in time break down so as to add humus and vitamins to the soil. Recent leaves must be used with warning, nevertheless, since as these decay they make the most of a few of the nitrogen within the soil and thus can inhibit plant progress[

20

Title
Companion Planting for Successful Gardening.
Publication
 
Author
Riotte. L.
Publisher
Garden Way, Vermont, USA.
Year
1978
ISBN
0-88266-064-0
Description
Fairly good.

,

K

Title
Plants for a Future
Author
Ken Fern
Description
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.

]..

Oak galls are excrescences which are typically produced in nice numbers on the tree and are attributable to the exercise of the larvae of various bugs. The bugs stay inside these galls, acquiring their nutrient therein. When the insect pupates and leaves, the gall can be utilized as a wealthy supply of tannin, that will also be used as a dyestuff and can be utilized by many cultures to make ink[

4

Title
A Modern Herbal.
Publication
 
Author
Grieve.
Publisher
Penguin
Year
1984
ISBN
0-14-046-440-9
Description
Not so modern (1930’s?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.

,

331

Title
Flora of Guatemala
Publication
 
Author
Standley P.C. & J. A. Steyermark
Website
http://www.archive.org/
Publisher
 
Year
1946 – 1976
ISBN
 
Description
A superb reference, though somewhat dated. Gives lots of plant uses as well as information on plant habit and habitat. The entire flora (13 volumes) can now be downloaded from http://www.archive.org/

].
The bark of oak timber can be often wealthy in tannins and can be utilized as a dyestuff and for waterproofing rope[

331

Title
Flora of Guatemala
Publication
 
Author
Standley P.C. & J. A. Steyermark
Website
http://www.archive.org/
Publisher
 
Year
1946 – 1976
ISBN
 
Description
A superb reference, though somewhat dated. Gives lots of plant uses as well as information on plant habit and habitat. The entire flora (13 volumes) can now be downloaded from http://www.archive.org/

,

K

Title
Plants for a Future
Author
Ken Fern
Description
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.

].

The seed cups are used as buttons[

95

Title
Edible and Useful Wild Plants of the United States and Canada.
Publication
 
Author
Saunders. C. F.
Publisher
Dover Publications
Year
1976
ISBN
0-486-23310-3
Description
Useful wild plants of America. A pocket guide.

].

The wooden is fine-grained, arduous, very heavy but in addition very brittle. It’s not exploited commercially as a result of it cracks simply and warps badly[1050.
The wood is highly valued as a fuel and is used to make a good quality charcoal[

82

Title
Manual of the Trees of N. America.
Publication
 
Author
Sargent. C. S.
Website
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/
Publisher
Dover Publications Inc. New York.
Year
1965
ISBN
0-486-20278-X
Description
Two volumes, a comprehensive listing of N. American trees though a bit out of date now. Good details on habitats, some details on plant uses. Not really for the casual reader. It can be downloaded from the internet.

,

229

Title
The Complete Trees of N. America. Field Guide and Natural History.
Publication
 
Author
Elias. T.
Publisher
Van Nostrand Reinhold Co.
Year
1980
ISBN
0442238622
Description
A very good concise guide. Gives habitats, good descriptions, maps showing distribution and a few of the uses. It also includes the many shrubs that occasionally reach tree proportions.

,

257

Title
Native American Ethnobotany
Publication
 
Author
Moerman. D.
Publisher
Timber Press. Oregon.
Year
1998
ISBN
0-88192-453-9
Description
Very comprehensive but terse guide to the native uses of plants. Excellent bibliography, fully referenced to each plant, giving a pathway to further information. Not for the casual reader.

,

1050

Title
Fire Effects Information System
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.feis-crs.org/feis/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line information site with comprehensive information on over 1,100 species of plant. Mainly developed to supply information on the effects of fire on plants and animals, it also contains a wealth of other information on the plants

]. Wild stands are typically managed for the manufacturing of firewood, in addition to the business manufacturing of charcoal.[

338

Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.

,

1050

Title
Fire Effects Information System
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.feis-crs.org/feis/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line information site with comprehensive information on over 1,100 species of plant. Mainly developed to supply information on the effects of fire on plants and animals, it also contains a wealth of other information on the plants

].

Propagation

Seed – it shortly loses viability whether it is allowed to dry out. It may be saved moist and funky overwinter however is finest sown as quickly as it’s ripe in an outside seed mattress, although it should be shielded from mice, squirrels and many others. Small portions of seed will be sown in deep pots in a chilly body. Crops produce a deep taproot and should be planted out into their everlasting positions as quickly as doable, in actual fact seed sown in situ will produce the most effective timber[

11

Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 – 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.

]. Timber shouldn’t be left in a nursery mattress for greater than 2 rising seasons with out being moved or they’ll transplant very badly.

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