Pyrus communis sativa – Useful Temperate Plants

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(DC.) DC.

Rosaceae

This entry is for the cultivated pear, which is extensively grown as a fruit crop. The wild types of the pear are all included underneath Pyrus communis since there are not any vital variations in the way in which they’re used[

K

Title
Plants for a Future
Author
Ken Fern
Description
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.

].
Despite their broad geographic distribution, the varied species within the genus Pyrus are intercrossable with out main incompatibility obstacles. Additionally, the excessive morphological variety and the shortage of distinguishing characters among the many species have been reported. Subsequently, the classification of species on this genus is problematic and infrequently complicated, giving totally different populations designated as totally different species by some authors. It’s probably that, when the genus is reviewed, there will probably be a number of adjustments to the nomenclature[

K

Title
Plants for a Future
Author
Ken Fern
Description
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.

].

Aria crenata (D.Don) Decne.

Cormus crenata (D.Don) Koehne

Crataegus excelsa Salisb.

Pyrus amphigenea Dostálek

Pyrus domestica (Borkh.) Borkh.

Pyrus sativa (DC.) C.Koch

Sorbus pyrus Crantz

Widespread Title: Pear

Pyrus communis sativa

Pyrus communis sativa
Pyrus communis sativa

Common Data

Pyrus communis sativa is a deciduous tree, generally armed, often rising as much as 15 metres tall however sometimes as much as 30 metres[

266

Title
Flora of China
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/china/
Publisher
Missouri Botanical Garden Press; St. Louis.
Year
1994
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent, comprehensive resource in 25 volumes. In addition to the botanical information the flora also gives basic information on habitat and some uses. An on-line version is also available.

]. The tree is usually grafted onto dwarfing rootstocks after which is usually not more than 5 metres tall.
The pear is likely one of the hottest and generally cultivated tree fruits within the temperate and subtropical zones; it’s extensively grown, particularly in locations akin to southern Europe, Australia, New Zealand and N. America.

Identified Hazards

Though no particular data has been seen for this plant, the seed of many species within the household Rosaceae are prone to comprise cyanogenic glycosides. When injested, these compounds break down within the digestive tract to launch cyanide. Utilized in small portions in each conventional and standard medication, this exceedingly toxic compound has been proven to stimulate respiration, enhance digestion, and promote a way of well-being[

238

Title
Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses.
Publication
 
Author
Bown. D.
Publisher
Dorling Kindersley, London.
Year
1995
ISBN
0-7513-020-31
Description
A very well presented and informative book on herbs from around the globe. Plenty in it for both the casual reader and the serious student. Just one main quibble is the silly way of having two separate entries for each plant.

]. It is usually claimed by some to be of profit within the therapy of most cancers – although this declare has been largely refuted.
In bigger concentrations, nonetheless, cyanide may cause gasping, weak spot, pleasure, pupil dilation, spasms, convulsions, coma and respiratory failure resulting in dying[

293

Title
Poisonous Plants of North Carolina
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/hort/consumer/poison/poison.htm
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent concise but comprehensive guide to toxic plants that grow in N. Carolina. It lists even those plants that are of very low toxicity, including several well-known food plants such as carrots and potatoes.

].
The degrees of toxin could be detected by the extent of bitterness:- candy almonds, for instance, comprise solely very low ranges of it and are suitable for eating in amount, while bitter almonds (that are used as a flavouring in meals akin to marzipan) comprise a lot greater ranges and will solely be eaten in very small portions. Nice warning must be employed if the style is reasonably to very bitter[

K

Title
Plants for a Future
Author
Ken Fern
Description
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.

].

Botanical References

266

Title
Flora of China
Publication
 
Writer
 
Web site
http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/china/
Writer
Missouri Botanical Backyard Press; St. Louis.
Yr
1994
ISBN
 
Description
A superb, complete useful resource in 25 volumes. Along with the botanical data the flora additionally offers fundamental data on habitat and a few makes use of. An on-line model can also be accessible.

Vary

A backyard cultivar, in all probability derived from Pyrus communis, Pyrus cordata and Pyrus nivalis[

11

Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 – 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.

].

Habitat

Not recognized within the wild.

Properties

Cultivation Particulars

Pyrus communis sativa is a really cold-hardy plant, tolerating temperatures right down to at the very least -20°c when dormant[

200

Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

].
Prefers an excellent well-drained loam in full solar[

200

Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

]. Grows nicely in heavy clay soils[

200

Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

]. Tolerates mild shade however doesn’t fruit so nicely in such a place. Tolerates atmospheric air pollution, extreme moisture and a variety of soil sorts if they’re reasonably fertile, although crops can turn into chlorotic on very alkaline soils[

200

Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

]. Established crops are drought tolerant[

200

Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

].
The pear is extensively cultivated for its edible fruit in temperate and subtropical areas. There are greater than 6,000 named varieties with fruits differing in dimension, form, color, flavour, season of ripening and so forth. Differect cultivars could be chosen to supply fruit from mid summer season spherical to the spring of the next yr.
That is the collective identify for all of the pear cultivars which have been derived from Pyrus communis, in all probability by way of hybridization with Pyrus cordata and Pyrus nivalis.
The place house is at a premium, or on the limits of their climatic vary, pears could be grown in opposition to a wall. Most cultivars will develop nicely in opposition to a sunny south or west going through wall however, due to their comparatively early flowering, they don’t seem to be actually appropriate for north or east going through partitions[

219

Title
Gardening on Walls
Publication
 
Author
Grey-Wilson. C. & Matthews. V.
Publisher
Collins
Year
1983
ISBN
0-00-219220-0
Description
A nice little book about plants for growing against walls and a small section on plants that can grow in walls.

].
Most cultivars will not be self-fertile and various cultivars have incompatible pollen, so care have to be taken to make sure the availability of an appropriate pollen accomplice[

200

Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

].
Bushes develop much less nicely in grass, root secretions from the grass inhibiting the foundation development of the pear[

201

Title
A – Z of Companion Planting.
Publication
 
Author
Allardice.P.
Publisher
Cassell Publishers Ltd.
Year
1993
ISBN
0-304-34324-2
Description
A well produced and very readable book.

].

Edible Makes use of

Fruit – uncooked or cooked. The flavour ranges from fairly harsh and astringent (primarily cultivars used for making alcoholic drinks or for cooking) by way of to tender, candy, fragrant and really juicy. One of the best dessert fruits have an beautiful candy flavour, often with a really tender flesh, while cooking varieties have tougher much less candy flesh[

K

Title
Plants for a Future
Author
Ken Fern
Description
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.

].

Medicinal

The fruit is astringent, febrifuge and sedative[

240

Title
Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement).
Publication
 
Author
Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C.
Publisher
Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi.
Year
1986
ISBN
Description
Very terse details of medicinal uses of plants with a wide range of references and details of research into the plants chemistry. Not for the casual reader.

].

Different Makes use of

A yellow-tan dye is obtained from the leaves[

106

Title
The Dictionary of Useful Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Coon. N.
Publisher
Rodale Press
Year
1975
ISBN
0-87857-090-x
Description
Interesting reading but short on detail.

,

115

Title
The Useful Plants of Great Britain.
Publication
 
Author
Johnson. C. P.
Publisher
 
Year
 
ISBN
 
Description
Written about a hundred years ago, but still a very good guide to the useful plants of Britain.

].
A light-weight brown dye is obtained from the bark[

74

Title
Flora of the USSR.
Publication
 
Author
Komarov. V. L.
Website
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org
Publisher
Israel Program for Scientific Translation
Year
1968
ISBN
Description
An immense (25 or more large volumes) and not yet completed translation of the Russian flora. Full of information on plant uses and habitats but heavy going for casual readers. It can be downloaded from the Internet.

].

The seeds comprise 12 – 21% fatty oils[

74

Title
Flora of the USSR.
Publication
 
Author
Komarov. V. L.
Website
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org
Publisher
Israel Program for Scientific Translation
Year
1968
ISBN
Description
An immense (25 or more large volumes) and not yet completed translation of the Russian flora. Full of information on plant uses and habitats but heavy going for casual readers. It can be downloaded from the Internet.

].

The reddish-brown wooden is ok grained, heavy, arduous, powerful, sturdy. It weighs 51lb per cubic foot[

227

Title
Trees of North Texas
Publication
 
Author
Vines. R.A.
Publisher
University of Texas Press.
Year
1982
ISBN
0292780206
Description
A readable guide to the area, it contains descriptions of the plants and their habitats with quite a bit of information on plant uses.

]. A superb timber, it’s utilized by cupboard and musical instrument makers and for lathework[

11

Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 – 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.

,

61

Title
A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man.
Publication
 
Author
Usher. G.
Publisher
Constable
Year
1974
ISBN
0094579202
Description
Forget the sexist title, this is one of the best books on the subject. Lists a very extensive range of useful plants from around the world with very brief details of the uses. Not for the casual reader.

,

74

Title
Flora of the USSR.
Publication
 
Author
Komarov. V. L.
Website
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org
Publisher
Israel Program for Scientific Translation
Year
1968
ISBN
Description
An immense (25 or more large volumes) and not yet completed translation of the Russian flora. Full of information on plant uses and habitats but heavy going for casual readers. It can be downloaded from the Internet.

,

100

Title
Flowers of Europe – A Field Guide.
Publication
 
Author
Polunin. O.
Publisher
Oxford University Press
Year
1969
ISBN
0192176218
Description
An excellent and well illustrated pocket guide for those with very large pockets. Also gives some details on plant uses.

,

149

Title
Trees of Central Texas.
Publication
 
Author
Vines. R. A.
Publisher
University of Texas Press
Year
1987
ISBN
0-292-78958-3
Description
A good, concise guide, it gives details of habitats and some of the uses of trees growing in Texas.

]. When coated with black varnish it is a superb ebony substitute[

74

Title
Flora of the USSR.
Publication
 
Author
Komarov. V. L.
Website
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org
Publisher
Israel Program for Scientific Translation
Year
1968
ISBN
Description
An immense (25 or more large volumes) and not yet completed translation of the Russian flora. Full of information on plant uses and habitats but heavy going for casual readers. It can be downloaded from the Internet.

].

Propagation

Seed – finest sown in a chilly body as quickly as it’s ripe within the autumn, it would then often germinate in mid to late winter. Saved seed requires 8 – 10 weeks chilly stratification at 1°c and must be sown as early within the yr as doable[

200

Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

]. Temperatures over 15 – 20°c induce a secondary dormancy within the seed[

200

Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

]. Prick out the seedlings into particular person pots when they’re giant sufficient to deal with and develop them on in mild shade in a chilly body or greenhouse for his or her first yr. Plant them out in late spring or early summer season of the next yr. The seed of pear cultivars is not going to often breed true to kind.

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