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Pterocarpus marsupium – Useful Tropical Plants

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Roxb.

Fabaceae

Frequent Identify: Indian Kino

Pterocarpus marsupium

Tree rising within the open
{Photograph} by: Biswarup Ganguly
Inventive Commons Attribution 3.0

Common Data

Pterocarpus marsupium is a big deciduous tree with spreading branches reaching a top of as much as 33 metres[

418

Title
Ecocrop
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Basic information on a wide range of useful plants, plus details of environmental needs where available.

]. When rising underneath beneficial circumstances, the tree can produce a straight bole[

418

Title
Ecocrop
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Basic information on a wide range of useful plants, plus details of environmental needs where available.

].
A multi-purpose tree producing a really priceless timber, it’s typically planted by the Indian forestry[]. The tree additionally has a variety of different makes use of – it’s generally harvested for medicinal functions in addition to offering meals and a variety of commodities. It’s grown as a shade tree in espresso plantations and is usually cultivated as a multipurpose tree in dwelling gardens and as part of agroforestry methods in India and Sri Lanka [].
Pterocarpus marsupium is closely exploited for its timber, resin and medicinal bark[

338

Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.

]. Its inhabitants is declining, particularly in Sri Lanka and complete populations in India are prone to be small. The tree nearly reaches the factors for ‘Weak’, however is at the moment listed as ‘Close to Threatened’ within the IUCN Crimson Checklist of Threatened Species(2017)[

338

Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.

].

Identified Hazards

None identified

Botanical References

Vary

E. Asia – India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka.

Habitat

Primarily present in moist or dry, blended deciduous forests in hilly areas; at elevations as much as 1,200 metres[

146

Title
A Manual of Indian Timbers.
Publication
 
Author
Gamble. J. S.
Publisher
Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh
Year
1972
ISBN
Description
First written in the 19th century, but still a classic, giving a lot of information on the uses and habitats of Indian trees. Not for the casual reader.

,

338

Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.

].

Properties

Cultivation Particulars

A plant discovered primarily of lowland tropical areas, discovered at elevations from 200 – 500 metres, however exceptionally to 1,200 metres[

418

Title
Ecocrop
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Basic information on a wide range of useful plants, plus details of environmental needs where available.

]. It grows greatest in areas the place the imply annual temperature falls inside the vary 22 – 34°c, however can tolerate 4 – 47°c[

418

Title
Ecocrop
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Basic information on a wide range of useful plants, plus details of environmental needs where available.

]. It’s present in areas the place there’s a distinct dry season, preferring a imply annual rainfall of 1,000 – 1,500mm, however tolerating 750 – 2,000mm[

418

Title
Ecocrop
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Basic information on a wide range of useful plants, plus details of environmental needs where available.

].
Requires a sunny place in a properly drained soil[

418

Title
Ecocrop
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Basic information on a wide range of useful plants, plus details of environmental needs where available.

]. Grows greatest in a deep, wealthy, gentle to medium soil[

418

Title
Ecocrop
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Basic information on a wide range of useful plants, plus details of environmental needs where available.

]. Prefers a pH within the vary 6 – 7, however tolerates 5.5 – 7.5[

418

Title
Ecocrop
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Basic information on a wide range of useful plants, plus details of environmental needs where available.

].
This species has a symbiotic relationship with sure soil micro organism, these micro organism type nodules on the roots and repair atmospheric nitrogen. A few of this nitrogen is utilized by the rising plant however some can be utilized by different crops rising close by[

200

Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

].

Edible Makes use of

Flowers[

301

Title
Cornucopia II
Publication
 
Author
Facciola. S.
Publisher
Kampong Publications, California.
Year
1998
ISBN
0-9628087-2-5
Description
The second edition of an excellent guide to the edible uses of plants, though it does not give any details of cultivation etc.

].

Seeds[

301

Title
Cornucopia II
Publication
 
Author
Facciola. S.
Publisher
Kampong Publications, California.
Year
1998
ISBN
0-9628087-2-5
Description
The second edition of an excellent guide to the edible uses of plants, though it does not give any details of cultivation etc.

].

Medicinal

Indian kino is usually utilized in natural medication in India, the leaves, bark and mostly the resin getting used. A strongly astringent herb, it is usually alterative[

254

Title
The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants
Publication
 
Author
Chevallier. A.
Publisher
Dorling Kindersley. London
Year
1996
ISBN
9-780751-303148
Description
An excellent guide to over 500 of the more well known medicinal herbs from around the world.

,

304

Title
Handbook of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants
Publication
 
Author
Kapoor. L. D.
Publisher
CRC Press, Florida.
Year
2001
ISBN
0-8493-2929-9
Description
A very detailed book on some of the key Ayurvedic herbs, giving both technical and non-technical information on each plant. The whole is very well referenced.

]. As well as, varied trials have proven a hypoglycaemic impact from an aqueous extract of the heartwood[

304

Title
Handbook of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants
Publication
 
Author
Kapoor. L. D.
Publisher
CRC Press, Florida.
Year
2001
ISBN
0-8493-2929-9
Description
A very detailed book on some of the key Ayurvedic herbs, giving both technical and non-technical information on each plant. The whole is very well referenced.

].

The resin obtained from wounds within the bark is astringent[

46

Title
Dictionary of Economic Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Uphof. J. C. Th.
Publisher
Weinheim
Year
1959
ISBN
Description
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.

]. It accommodates about 75% kinotannic acid[

46

Title
Dictionary of Economic Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Uphof. J. C. Th.
Publisher
Weinheim
Year
1959
ISBN
Description
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.

,

146

Title
A Manual of Indian Timbers.
Publication
 
Author
Gamble. J. S.
Publisher
Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh
Year
1972
ISBN
Description
First written in the 19th century, but still a classic, giving a lot of information on the uses and habitats of Indian trees. Not for the casual reader.

]. It’s used within the remedy of continual diarrhoea and the irritation brought on by gastric an infection and colitis[

254

Title
The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants
Publication
 
Author
Chevallier. A.
Publisher
Dorling Kindersley. London
Year
1996
ISBN
9-780751-303148
Description
An excellent guide to over 500 of the more well known medicinal herbs from around the world.

].
Though it has an disagreeable flavour, it makes a great mouthwash and gargle[

254

Title
The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants
Publication
 
Author
Chevallier. A.
Publisher
Dorling Kindersley. London
Year
1996
ISBN
9-780751-303148
Description
An excellent guide to over 500 of the more well known medicinal herbs from around the world.

]. It’s generally utilized in instances of toothache and in addition as a douche to deal with vaginal discharge[

254

Title
The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants
Publication
 
Author
Chevallier. A.
Publisher
Dorling Kindersley. London
Year
1996
ISBN
9-780751-303148
Description
An excellent guide to over 500 of the more well known medicinal herbs from around the world.

,

304

Title
Handbook of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants
Publication
 
Author
Kapoor. L. D.
Publisher
CRC Press, Florida.
Year
2001
ISBN
0-8493-2929-9
Description
A very detailed book on some of the key Ayurvedic herbs, giving both technical and non-technical information on each plant. The whole is very well referenced.

].
The resin is utilized topically within the remedy of pores and skin circumstances[

338

Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.

].

The bark is used, both as a powder or in decoction, within the remedy of diarrhoea[

304

Title
Handbook of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants
Publication
 
Author
Kapoor. L. D.
Publisher
CRC Press, Florida.
Year
2001
ISBN
0-8493-2929-9
Description
A very detailed book on some of the key Ayurvedic herbs, giving both technical and non-technical information on each plant. The whole is very well referenced.

]. A decoction of the bark could be very helpful for diabetic sufferers[

304

Title
Handbook of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants
Publication
 
Author
Kapoor. L. D.
Publisher
CRC Press, Florida.
Year
2001
ISBN
0-8493-2929-9
Description
A very detailed book on some of the key Ayurvedic herbs, giving both technical and non-technical information on each plant. The whole is very well referenced.

].
The heartwood is taken into account to be anthelmintic, antiinflammatory, antioxidant and astringent. It’s used to deal with a variety of complaints[

338

Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.

].

The bruised leaves are used as a poultice on boils, sores and pores and skin ailments[

304

Title
Handbook of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants
Publication
 
Author
Kapoor. L. D.
Publisher
CRC Press, Florida.
Year
2001
ISBN
0-8493-2929-9
Description
A very detailed book on some of the key Ayurvedic herbs, giving both technical and non-technical information on each plant. The whole is very well referenced.

,

338

Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.

].

Agroforestry Makes use of:

Grown as shade tree for espresso plantations, and infrequently cultivated as a multipurpose tree in dwelling gardens and as part of agroforestry methods in India and Sri Lanka[]. It supplies a great bulk of leaves for inexperienced manure and in addition fixes atmospheric nitrogen[].
The tree can be used as a pioneer for revegetating the land and bettering the soil[

338

Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.

].

Different Makes use of

The tree yields a crimson gum referred to as ‘kino’. It’s obtained from wounds made within the bark – the crimson liquid which exudes copiously from the wound shortly hardens upon publicity to the air. The gum, which accommodates 75% kinotannic acid, has medicinal makes use of and can be used as a supply of tannins and for dyeing[,

387

Title
Economic Products of India. Volume 1.
Publication
 
Author
Watt. G.
Publisher
Government of India: Calcutta.
Year
1883
ISBN
 
Description
Although over 100 years old, it still contains a wealth of information on useful plants. Many of the botanical names have been changed since then, so you have to check for up to date names. The book can be downloaded from the Internet.

].
The heartwood, which is saturated with the gum, could also be used to offer a yellow dye.[

387

Title
Economic Products of India. Volume 1.
Publication
 
Author
Watt. G.
Publisher
Government of India: Calcutta.
Year
1883
ISBN
 
Description
Although over 100 years old, it still contains a wealth of information on useful plants. Many of the botanical names have been changed since then, so you have to check for up to date names. The book can be downloaded from the Internet.

].

Extracts of the wooden and bark are used as pores and skin and hair conditioners in industrial beauty preparations[

].
An extractsof the leaves is used as a pores and skin conditioner in industrial beauty preparations[].

The heartwood is yellowish brown with darker streaks[

146

Title
A Manual of Indian Timbers.
Publication
 
Author
Gamble. J. S.
Publisher
Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh
Year
1972
ISBN
Description
First written in the 19th century, but still a classic, giving a lot of information on the uses and habitats of Indian trees. Not for the casual reader.

]. The wooden is powerful, robust, very exhausting, sturdy, fine-grained, takes a positive polish and seasons properly[

46

Title
Dictionary of Economic Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Uphof. J. C. Th.
Publisher
Weinheim
Year
1959
ISBN
Description
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.

,

146

Title
A Manual of Indian Timbers.
Publication
 
Author
Gamble. J. S.
Publisher
Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh
Year
1972
ISBN
Description
First written in the 19th century, but still a classic, giving a lot of information on the uses and habitats of Indian trees. Not for the casual reader.

,

304

Title
Handbook of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants
Publication
 
Author
Kapoor. L. D.
Publisher
CRC Press, Florida.
Year
2001
ISBN
0-8493-2929-9
Description
A very detailed book on some of the key Ayurvedic herbs, giving both technical and non-technical information on each plant. The whole is very well referenced.

]. An excellent high quality wooden, it’s used for varied functions together with musical devices, door and window frames, posts, agricultural implements, boat constructing, carts, railway carriages, railway ties and so forth[

46

Title
Dictionary of Economic Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Uphof. J. C. Th.
Publisher
Weinheim
Year
1959
ISBN
Description
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.

,

338

Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.

].

Propagation

Seed –

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