Pinus resinosa - Wikipedia

Pinus resinosa – Wikipedia

Species of plant (coniferous tree)

Pinus resinosa, referred to as purple pine[1][2] or Norway pine, is a pine native to North America. It happens from Newfoundland west to Manitoba, and south to Pennsylvania, with a number of smaller, disjunct populations occurring within the Appalachian Mountains in Virginia and West Virginia, in addition to just a few small pockets in excessive northern New Jersey and northern Illinois.[3][4]

The purple pine is the state tree of Minnesota.[5] In Minnesota the usage of the title “Norway” might stem from early Scandinavian immigrants who likened the American purple pines to the European purple pines again residence.[6]


Purple pine is a coniferous evergreen tree characterised by tall, straight progress in a wide range of habitats.[7] It often ranges from 20–35 m (66–115 ft) in peak and 1 m (3 ft 3 in) in trunk diameter, exceptionally reaching 43.77 m (143 ft 7 in) tall.[8] The crown is conical, changing into a slim rounded dome with age. The bark is thick and gray-brown on the base of the tree, however skinny, flaky and shiny orange-red within the higher crown; the tree’s title derives from this distinctive character. Some purple colour could also be seen within the fissures of the bark. The species is self pruning; there have a tendency to not be lifeless branches on the bushes, and older bushes might have very lengthy lengths of branchless trunk beneath the cover.

The leaves are needle-like, darkish yellow-green, in fascicles of two,[7] 12–18 cm (4 34–7 in) lengthy, and brittle. The leaves snap cleanly when bent; this character, acknowledged as diagnostic for purple pine in some texts, is nevertheless shared by a number of different pine species. The cones are symmetrical ovoid, 4–6 cm (1 122 14 in) lengthy by 2.5 cm (1 in) broad, and purple earlier than maturity, ripening to nut-blue and opening to 4–5 cm (1 12–2 in) broad, the scales with no prickle and virtually stalkless.[1]

Purple pine is notable for its very fixed morphology and low genetic variation all through its vary, suggesting it has been by means of a close to extinction in its current evolutionary historical past.[9][10] A genetic research of nuclear microsatellite polymorphisms amongst populations distributed all through its pure vary discovered that purple pine populations from Newfoundland are genetically distinct from most mainland populations, per dispersal from completely different glacial refugia on this extremely self-pollinating species.[11]


It’s illiberal of shade, however does effectively in windy websites; it grows greatest in well-drained soil. It’s a long-lived tree, reaching a most age of about 500 years.[12] The wooden is commercially useful in forestry for timber and paper pulp, and the tree can also be used for landscaping.


  1. ^ a b Moore, Gerry; Kershner, Bruce; Tufts, Craig; Mathews, Daniel; Nelson, Gil; Spellenberg, Richard; Thieret, John W.; Purinton, Terry; Block, Andrew (Could 9, 2008). Nationwide Wildlife Federation Discipline Information to Bushes of North America. New York: Sterling Publishing. p. 66. ISBN 978-1-4027-3875-3.
  2. ^ “Purple Pine”. Minnesota Division of Pure Sources.
  3. ^ Conifer Specialist Group (1998). “Pinus resinosa“. IUCN Purple Checklist of Threatened Species. 1998. Retrieved 12 Could 2006.CS1 maint: ref=harv (hyperlink)
  4. ^ Hilty, John (2016). “Pinus resinosa”. Illinois Wildflowers. Retrieved Could 1, 2017.
  5. ^ “State Tree- Norway Pine”. Minnesota Secretary of State.
  6. ^ “What’s a Norway Pine Tree?”.
  7. ^ a b Kral, Robert (1993). “Pinus resinosa“. In Flora of North America Editorial Committee (ed.). Flora of North America North of Mexico (FNA). 2. New York and Oxford – through, Missouri Botanical Backyard, St. Louis, MO & Harvard College Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
  8. ^ Earle, Christopher J., ed. (2018). “Pinus resinosa“. The Gymnosperm Database. Retrieved 5 February 2012.
  9. ^ Fowler, D. P.; Morris, R. W. (1977). “Genetic range in Purple Pine: proof for low genic heterozygosity”. Canadian Journal of Forest Analysis. 7 (2): 343–347. doi:10.1139/x77-043.
  10. ^ Simon, Jean-Pierre; Bergeron, Yves; Gagnon, Daniel (1986). “Isozyme uniformity in populations of Purple Pine (Pinus resinosa) within the Abitibi Area, Quebec”. Canadian Journal of Forest Analysis. 16 (5): 1133–1135. doi:10.1139/x86-198.
  11. ^ Jacquelyn Boys, Marilyn Cherry, Selvadurai Dayanandan (2005). “Microsatellite Evaluation Reveals Genetically Distinct Populations of Purple Pine”. American Journal of Botany. 92 (5): 833–841. doi:10.3732/ajb.92.5.833. PMID 21652464. Retrieved Could 1, 2017.CS1 maint: makes use of authors parameter (hyperlink)
  12. ^ “Jap OLDLIST: A database of most tree ages for Jap North America”.

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