Pinus halepensis ( الصنوبر الحلبي ) description

Conservation status

Pinus halepensis

Miller 1768

Frequent names

Aleppo pine; الصنوبر الحلبي [Arabic]; Pin d’Alep [French]; pino d’Aleppo [Italian]; Alepski bor [Croation]; Halep çamı [Turkish]; אורן ירושלים [Hebrew]; pino carrasco [Spanish]. Aleppo is in Syria, the place the species was first described.

Taxonomic notes

Synonymy (Farjon 1998):

  • P. alepensis Poir. in Lamarck 1804
  • Pinus maritima Mill. 1768
  • Pinus sylvestris L. var. maritima Aiton 1789
  • Pinus maritima Aiton 1813 non Mill. 1768
  • Pinus penicillus Lepeyr. 1813
  • Pinus arabica Sieber ex Spreng. 1826
  • Pinus genuensis S.E. Prepare dinner 1834
  • Pinus halepensis Mill. var. genuensis (S.E. Prepare dinner) Antoine 1840
  • Pinus hispanica J. Prepare dinner 1834
  • Pinus halepensis Mill. var. minor Antoine 1840
  • Pinus carica D. Don in Fellows 1841
  • Pinus halepensis Mill. var. carica (D. Don) Carr. 1855
  • Pinus abasica Carr. 1855
  • Pinus halepensis Mill. var. abasica (Carr.) Carr. 1867
  • Pinus loiseleuriana Carr. 1855
  • Pinus pseudohalepensis Denhardt ex Carr. 1855
  • Pinus parolinii Vis. 1856
  • Pinus × saportae Rouy 1913
  • Pinus ceciliae Llorens et L. Llorens 1984
  • Pinus halepensis Mill. var. ceciliae (Llorens et L. Llorens) Rosello et al. 1992


Timber 15–25 m tall and as much as 150 cm DBH. Single spherical trunk, typically divided to kind in mature timber a rounded or flat-topped crown of slender, irregular horizontal, upturned branches; crown kind typically formed by wind, particularly close to the ocean. Bark at first clean silvery grey, later becomings purple-brown, longitudinally grooved and fissured into scaly plates. Branchlets clean, barely ridged, gray-green. Winter buds conic, Eight mm lengthy, the scales fringed and infrequently reflexed. Needles in fascicles of two(–3), 5–12 cm × 1 mm, twisted, edges minutely serrate, with stomata on all surfaces; reasonably sparsely arrayed alongside the branchlets. Fascicle sheath persistent however fragile. Seed cones on thick, scaly peduncles; at maturity ovoid, pendant, 6–12 × 4–7 cm, symmetrical, red- to purple-brown, solitary or in whorls of two–3. Cones take Three years to mature and stay on branches for lengthy thereafter. Cone scales shiny, yellow- or red-brown, about 2.5 × 1.5 cm, apophysis rhomboid, flat or barely raised and keeled, and not using a prickle. Seed 5-6 mm lengthy with a 2.5 cm wing (Dallimore et al. 1967, Farjon 1984).

Distribution and Ecology

Mediterreanean and W Asia: Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Israel, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, Turkey, Greece, Albania, Montenegro, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Italy, Malta, France, and Spain. In South Africa, the place it’s cultivated for shelter poles and firewood, it has naturalized and invaded grassland and fynbos, significantly on dry soils, and turn into widespread within the Japanese Cape and the Western Cape (Palgrave 2002). It’s also domestically naturalized in USA: California (PLANTS database 2009.03.31). Hardy to Zone 8 (chilly hardiness restrict between -12.1°C and -6.7°C) (Bannister and Neuner 2001).

Massive tree

I’ve no information on wild timber. A specimen in Arderne Gardens, Claremont, Cape City, South Africa was measured at 172 cm dbh and m tall (Robert Van Pelt pers. comm., 2003.11.24).



Pioneering work was carried out by Gindel (1944). Additional work may be positioned on the Bibliography of Dendrochronology.


Within the japanese Mediterranean, Pinus halepensis forests are necessary for resin, fuelwood and forest honey manufacturing and in addition for livestock grazing. “Resin assortment actions in Mediterranean nations had at all times performed a big function within the welfare of forest communities, a few of which lived marginally on the fringe of subsistence. In some low-income areas, resin assortment was (and proceed to be) the one dependable supply of labor. As well as, most of the resin producing forests are neighborhood forests and manufacturing advantages go to resin neighborhood co-operatives. One other necessary side of those forests is that a number of goal forestry is utilized and different actions apart from resin assortment co-exist, similar to apiculture… Revenue from the wooden of a Pinus halepensis tree, for instance, is simply 2% of the earnings generated from resin all through the lifetime of the tree (a mean dimension tree can produce 3–Four kilograms of resin per 12 months). Furthermore, it has been noticed that forests which have energetic resin manufacturing have decrease incidence of forest fires. This outcomes from the truth that adjoining communities have an energetic curiosity in preserving the integrity of the forest ecosystems” (Moussouris and Regato 1999).




Gindel, J. 1944. Aleppo pine as a medium for tree-ring evaluation. Tree-Ring Bulletin 11(1):6-8.

Miller, P. 1768. The Gardener’s Dictionary, ed. 8. London. Pinus no. 8. Out there:, accessed 2011.05.20.

See additionally

Elwes and Henry 1906-1913 on the Biodiversity Heritage Library. This sequence of volumes, privately printed, offers among the most participating descriptions of conifers ever printed. Though they solely deal with species cultivated within the U.Ok. and Eire, and the taxonomy is a bit dated, nonetheless these accounts are thorough, treating such matters as species description, vary, varieties, exceptionally previous or tall specimens, outstanding timber, and cultivation. Regardless of being over a century previous, they’re typically correct, and are illustrated with some outstanding images and lithographs.

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