Slash pine, yellow slash pine, swamp pine.
Syn: Pinus heterophylla (Elliott) Sudworth, 1893, not Ok. Koch, 1849; P.taeda Linnaeus var. heterophylla Elliott (Kral 1993). Two varieties, elliottii and densa.
“Bushes to 30 m; trunk to 0.eight m diam., straight to contorted; crown conic, changing into rounded or flattened. Bark orange- to purple-brown, irregularly furrowed and cross-checked into massive, irregularly rectangular, papery-scaly plates. Branches spreading to ascending; twigs stout (to ca. 1 cm thick), orange-brown, ageing darker brown, rough-scaly. Buds cylindric, silvery brown, 1.5-2 cm; scale margins fringed. Leaves 2 or Three per fascicle, spreading or ascending, persisting ca. 2 years, 15-20(23) cm x 1.2-1.5 mm, straight, barely twisted, pliant, yellow- to blue-green, all surfaces with stomatal strains, margins finely serrulate, apex abruptly acute to acuminate; sheath 1-2 cm, base persistent. Pollen cones cylindric, 30-40 mm, purplish. Seed cones maturing in 2 years, falling the yr after seed-shed, single or in pairs, symmetric, lance-ovoid earlier than opening, ovoid or ovoid-cylindric when open, (7-)9-18(-20) cm, mild chocolate brown, on stalks to three cm; apophyses lustrous (as if varnished), barely raised, strongly cross-keeled; umbo central, depressed-pyramidal, with quick, stout prickle. Seeds ellipsoid, oblique-tipped; physique 6-7mm, darkish brown; wing to 20mm” (Kral 1993).
Distribution and Ecology
E US. Launched in subtropical and heat temperate areas worldwide (Kral 1993). In South Africa, it’s cultivated for timber, and has invaded forest margins and grassland in Mpumalanga. It has additionally invaded lower-altitude, higher-rainfall areas in Zimbabwe (Palgrave 2002). Hardy to Zone 9 (chilly hardiness restrict between -6.6°C and -1.1°C) (Bannister and Neuner 2001). See additionally Thompson et al. (1999).
Distribution knowledge from USGS (1999).
See var. elliottii.
Though it isn’t typically regarded as a long-lived species, Grissino-Mayer et al. (2001) used it thus far episodes of its use in resin (turpentine) manufacturing. It has additionally been utilized in local weather research, secure isotope research, and numerous work associated to wooden anatomy, in addition to some slightly distinctive issues like a research of the consequences of hurricane-driven salt spray on wooden manufacturing. For particulars, go to the Bibliography of Dendrochronology.
See the variability descriptions.
See the variability descriptions.
Engelmann, G.E. 1880. Revision of the genus Pinus, and outline of Pinus elliottii. Transactions of the Academy of Science of Saint Louis 4:161-190 (p. 186, plates 1-3). Accessible from Google Books, accessed 2011.05.20).
Grissino-Mayer, H.D., Blount, H.C., Miller, A.C. 2001. Tree-ring courting and the ethnohistory of the naval shops business in southern Georgia. Tree-Ring Analysis 57(1):3-13.
Huffman, J.M., W.J. Platt, H. Grissino-Mayer, and C.J. Boyce. 2004. Fireplace historical past of a barrier island slash pine (Pinus elliottii) savanna. Pure Areas Journal 24(3): 258-268. Accessible: http://www.stjosephbaypreserves.org/docs/NAAR2403_Huffman_258-268.pdf (2008.10.15).
Nelson, C. D., Nance, W. L. and Wagner, D. B. 1994. Chloroplast DNA variation amongst and inside taxonomic forms of Pinus caribaea and Pinus elliottii. Can. J. For Res. 24:424-426.
Nikles, D. G. 1966. Comparative variability and relationship of Caribbean Pine (Pinus caribaea Mor.) and Slash Pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm.). Ph.D. Thesis. NC State College. 201 pp.
Prasad and Iverson (1999).
The PROTA database account for this species (accessed 2019.02.28). PROTA accounts are centered on industrial forest makes use of in Africa, and sometimes embrace pictures, drawings, names, distribution, and a wide range of info related to administration of the species.
Wagner, D. B., Nance, W. L., Nelson, C. D., Li, T., Patel, R. N. and Govindaraju, D. R. 1991. Taxonomic patterns and inheritance of chloroplast variation in a survey of Pinus echinata, Pinus elliottii, Pinus palustris, and Pinus taeda. Canadian Journal of Forest Analysis 22:683-689.