Species of plant
Pinus cembra, also called Swiss pine, Swiss stone pine or Arolla pine or Austrian stone pine or simply Stone pine, is a species of pine tree that grows within the Alps and Carpathian Mountains of central Europe, in Poland (Tatra Mountains), Switzerland, France, Italy, Austria, Germany, Slovenia, Slovakia (Tatra Mountains), Ukraine and Romania. It sometimes grows at 1,200 metres (3,900 ft) to 2,300 metres (7,500 ft) altitude. It usually reaches the alpine tree line on this space. The mature dimension is usually between 25 metres (82 ft) and 35 metres (115 ft) in peak, and the trunk diameter might be as much as 1.5 metres (4.9 ft). In its pure setting, this tree normally reaches reproductive maturity on the age of 50 years (if situations are extra excessive, then even 80 years). The species is long-lasting and might attain an age between 500 and 1000 years. Nevertheless, it grows very slowly and it could take 30 years for the tree to achieve 1.Three metres (4.3 ft).
It’s a member of the white pine group, Pinus subgenus Strobus, and like all members of that group, the leaves (‘needles’) are in fascicles (bundles) of 5, with a deciduous sheath. The needle-like leaves are 5 centimetres (2.0 in) to 9 centimetres (3.5 in) lengthy. The cones, which include the seeds (or nuts), of the Swiss pine are Four centimetres (1.6 in) to eight centimetres (3.1 in) lengthy. The eight millimetres (0.31 in) to 12 millimetres (0.47 in) lengthy seeds have solely a vestigial wing and are dispersed by noticed nutcrackers.
The very related Siberian pine (Pinus sibirica) is handled as a range or subspecies of Swiss pine by some botanists. It differs in having barely bigger cones, and needles with three resin canals as an alternative of two as within the Swiss pine.
Like different European and Asian white pines, Swiss pine could be very proof against white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola). This fungal illness was by chance launched from Europe into North America, the place it has triggered extreme mortality within the American native white pines in lots of areas, notably, Western white pine and the intently associated whitebark pine. Swiss pine is of nice worth for analysis into hybridisation to develop rust resistance in these species.
Swiss pine associates with quite a few species of mycorrhizal fungi from a younger age, normally from the genus Suillus. This symbiosis encourages the timber progress and survival fee.
Swiss pine is a well-liked decorative tree in parks and enormous gardens, giving regular although not quick progress on a variety of websites the place the local weather is chilly. It is vitally tolerant of extreme winter chilly, hardy all the way down to at the least −50 °C (−58 °F), and likewise of wind publicity. The seeds are additionally harvested and bought as pine nuts. When cultivated, it’ll doubtless begin producing cones after the age of 12 years, a lot sooner than within the wild. This relies on the local weather, soil kind, mycorrhizal fungi and so on. To make the tree bear cones sooner, the tree might be inoculated with ectomycorrhizal fungi, similar to Suillus luteus, Suillus americanus, Suillus placidus and so on. These are the best. Pine cones reduce into slices are used to taste schnapps, which is then bought as “Zirbenschnaps” or “Zirbeler” schnapps.
The wooden is essentially the most used for carvings in Val Gardena for the reason that 17th century.
The cone of the Swiss pine was the sphere signal of the Roman legion stationed in Rhaetia in 15 BC, and therefore it’s used because the heraldic cost (often known as Zirbelnuss in German) within the coat of arms of town of Augsburg, the positioning of the Roman fort Augusta Vindelicorum.
It is usually a species that’s usually utilized in bonsai.
Pinus cembra might be discovered within the uppermost forest belt the place it helps to attenuate the danger of avalanches and soil erosion. Because of this capability, the tree is valued as a stabilizing issue for afforestation tasks at excessive elevations.
- Farjon, A. (2017). “Pinus cembra“. IUCN Purple Record of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T42349A95684563. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-2.RLTS.T42349A95684563.en.
- Ulber, M.; Gurgerli, F. & Bozic, G. (2004), Swiss stone pine – Pinus cembra: Technical tips for genetic conservation and use (PDF), European Forest Genetic Sources Programme, p. 6
- Rainer, Georg; Kuhnert, Regina; Unterholzer, Mara; Dresch, Philipp; Gruber, Andreas; Peintner, Ursula (2015-04-30). “Host-Specialist Dominated Ectomycorrhizal Communities of Pinus cembra should not Affected by Temperature Manipulation”. Journal of Fungi. 1 (1): 55–75. doi:10.3390/jof1010055. ISSN 2309-608X. PMC 5770009. PMID 29376899.