Philodendron spiritus-sancti, Philodendron Santa Leopoldina, Exotic Rainforest rare tropical plants

Philodendron spiritus-sancti, Philodendron Santa Leopoldina, Exotic Rainforest rare tropical plants

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Philodendron spiritus-sancti
G.S. Bunting

Philodendron spiritus-sancti Photo courtesy the International Aroid Society

Philodendron spiritus-sancti
G.S. Bunting

Recognized by some as “Philodendron Santa Leopoldina”

The curse of a standard identify.  Ought to multiple plant
share the identical identify?


Printed to science i 1987 by George Bunting in Phytologia 61(7),
Philodendron spiritus-sancti
is discovered solely in Brazil
the state of Espirito Santo close to the city of Domingos Martins. The
species is discovered at an elevation of roughly
Philodendron spiritus-sancti, Photo copyright 2007, Steve Lucas, www.ExoticRainforesst.com800 meters above sea
stage.  Domingos Martins is close to the Atlantic coast northeast of
Rio de Janeiro.   Virtually all
severe aroid collectors know of an extraordinarily uncommon Philodendron
discovered solely in southeastern Brazil.  Dr. Eduardo Gonalves and Emerson Salviani printed
an article within the 2001 version of Aroideana, quantity 24
relating to the species.  Aroideana is the journal of the
Worldwide Aroid Society. 
In case you are not an IAS member you’ll be able to
discover a hyperlink to hitch right here:

Be part of the Worldwide Aroid Society

Philodendron spiritus-sancti
is a hemiepiphytic vine.  Hemiepiphytes are species that will both
start life as a seed which has fallen to the bottom which proceeds to
climb a tree or a species that begins life as an epiphyte after which
climbs downward to set root within the soil.  The leaf blades of 
P. spiritus-sancti are supported on petioles ranging in size
from 35 to 60 cm (12.75 to 23.6 inches).  The blades are darkish boring
inexperienced and sometimes measure 57 to 63 cm (22.5 to 28.75 inches) lengthy by
11 to 12.5 cm (4.5 to 4.9 inches broad.  Cultivated specimens are
usually shorter in addition to broader in measurement.   The blades are
roughly an elongated triangle (cordate-sagittate) with an acute apex. 
The abaxial floor (underside) is markedly paler in colour whereas the
leaf margins (edges) are recognized scientifically as being vinaceous which
signifies the purple coloration of a grape.  The blades are
considerably skinny (chartaceous to subcoriaceous) with 4 major lateral
veins per facet together with one to 4 basal veins within the higher lobes
(see scientific drawing under). 

Specimens develop finest as epiphytes
however will be grown in extraordinarily porous soil that drains in a short time. 
Growers in Brazil suggest using primarily dried leaves, shredded
mosses (equivalent to sphagnum) mixed with minimal soil, bark and different
amendments equivalent to orchid bark and charcoal that may maintain moisture however
not stay soggy.

In keeping with Dr.
Gonalves and Emerson Salviani there at the moment are solely six
recognized specimens of the very uncommon and endangered species left wild (see photograph proper
and under).  In keeping with  private communication with 
Dr.  Gonalves Philodendron spiritus-sancti is endangered and close to extinction because of the extreme
clearing of habitat.  The remaining six specimens
in Brazil is a personal farm that’s intently guarded.   There at the moment are extra vegetation
(nonetheless only a few) within the arms of personal collectors than within the wild. 
The Kautsky household owns the farm the place all of the remaining specimens of Philodendron
stay within the wild. 

In Brazil, Philodendron
is thought by some as “Philodendron Santa
Leopoldina”.  Within the
opening of the article described above Dr. Gonalves writes,

“One of the crucial
aesthetically fascinating species within the genus Philodendron (P.
spiritus-sancti G.S. Bunting), generally referred to as Philodendron Santa
Leopoldina has been rediscovered within the wild within the forests of
southeastern Espirito Santo State, near the city of Domingo

The identify Santa Leopoldina
is related by Brazilians with the city and area the place Philodendron
  was first situated.  The identify “Philodendron Santa
Leopoldina” was first launched to nearly all of plant fans in
a 1983 Worldwide Aroid Society article (Aroideana, quantity 6) by Bette Waterbury who
was one of many founders of the Worldwide Aroid Society (IAS) relating to
her seek for the species Philodendron spiritus-sancti alongside
with just a few different comparable vegetation.  The identify Philodendron Santa
Leopoldina is a standard identify additionally utilized by sellers for a lot of vegetation different
P. spiritus-sancti and isn’t

Bette pointed on the market had been a number of vegetation referred to as Santa Leopoldina within the wild however
none of those are the identical species because the true Philodendron
and lots of are merely juvenile types of recognized
species.  The controversy over which plant ought to or
shouldn’t be actually recognized by the widespread identify Philodendron Santa Leopoldina
was apparently begun by Higher
herself when she wrote, Luis
and Roberto Kautsky are of the opinion that there are 4

variations of P. “Santa Leopoldina”: Two varieties have the very lengthy
sagittate leaf the primary sort is deep pink on the
underside, and the
second sort is totally inexperienced. The third sort is extra hastate and
nearly fully silvery inexperienced. The fourth sort can be hastate however is
reddish on the underside. Apparently P. “Santa Leopoldina” will not be
proliferous in any kind or present in any amount within the wild, as
wherever we went, we might see one or two on the most in any non-public
assortment or nursery. Even Roberto Burle-Marx had solely two of sort one,
although he had a number of of sort three, it seems to be a treasure even
down there.”
The time period sagittate in botany signifies a leaf that’s arrow formed. 
Hastate means to have the form of an arrowhead however with the basal lobes
pointing outward at proper angles.

was unable to gather “sort 4” as she referred to it and it’s unclear which plant that will
have been.  Since her unique publication there have been numerous vegetation
sharing the one widespread identify “Philodendron Santa Leopoldina” which has
brought about a substantial amount of confusion amongst plant collectors.  All too
usually any plant that has an elongated leaf blade that’s unknown to the
vendor finally ends up being bought as a “kind” of “Philodendron Santa Leopoldina”
and vegetation initially collected a thousand or extra miles away from the
area of Brazil the place Philodendron spiritus-sancti was
initially discovered are sometimes given the identical widespread identify.

Her commentary
seems to have been taken to
extra by many anxious to promote vegetation which might be far much less uncommon as a “sort”
of Philodendron spiritus-sancti when in truth none have any direct
relationship.  Members of the Worldwide Aroid
Society have clearly recognized two of Bette’s “variations” and one will not be
clearly understood and it’s debated if the plant even exists.  IAS
Don Bittel identified in an e-mail to your entire Aroid l
dialogue group the next,

“The second main confusion
about Santa Leopoldina got here from Bette Waterbury’s article. The image
on web page Eight exhibits a protracted leafed kind, and the

caption says that that is
sort 3, which is extra hastate and silvery inexperienced.  THIS IS A TYPO.
It was by no means corrected in a future
Aroideana. In Bette’s letters, she
makes word of the typo, however doesn’t say what the proper sort is. It’s
clearly sort 1 or sort 2, that are spiritus-sancti. If the photograph was in
colour we may inform if it was the pink kind or the inexperienced kind. We might
by no means know because the unique pictures are misplaced.” 

Bette’s article seems to indicate the first
distinction is barely the colour on the reverse of the leaf, pink or inexperienced. 
IAS members have each seen and verified these colour variations
and as will be seen in Leland Miyano’s photograph.  The photograph (proper)
exhibits the reverse of the
leaf having a matte inexperienced abaxial floor (underside) with a
reddish midrib, parts of the petiole and a few of the venation whereas
the photograph under (left) exhibits the reddish abaxial (underside) floor.

The identify
“Philodendron Santa Leopoldina” will not be a registered cultivar and because of this the identify can’t be used with single
quotes (Philodendron ‘Santa Leopoldina’) because it typically is used.  Registered cultivars of
aroid species require registration with the Worldwide Aroid Society
and no such registration has been made. 
It is usually improper to publish the identify “Philodendron Santa Leopoldina”
in italics because it has by no means been printed as a scientific identify. 

As a result of using the identify
“Philodendron Santa Leopoldina” in relation to the very uncommon
species Philodendron spiritus-sancti there has arisen a minor controversy over using the widespread identify for
many far much less uncommon species. 
Specimens of Philodendron spiritus-sancti have regularly bought for
quantities within the hundreds of {dollars}.

Widespread names are merely “made-up”
and can’t be claimed by any single plant and haven’t any
scientific significance.  Anybody can use any identify they select for
any plant  until that identify is registered.  On the identical time scientific
names can’t be registered for personal use.  Because the time period
“Philodendron Santa Leopoldina” will not be a scientific identify anybody can use the identify for
any plant!  However the query has arisen, ought to plant sellers use the
widespread identify of a particularly uncommon plant to promote apparently widespread vegetation
in a approach that will
lead an unwary purchaser to consider they’re shopping for one thing actually
uncommon?  In that case, “buyer-beware” is definitely price

For a while plant sellers have
been promoting a good variety of vaguely comparable
species and hybrids utilizing
Philodendron spiritus-sancti’s Brazilian widespread identify, 
“Philodendron Santa Leopoldina”.  Some comparable lengthy blade
species do originate from the identical space however they not the identical
species.  Some have elected to make use of the
“Philodendron Santa Leopoldina II”, or “Philodendron Santa Leopoldina III”
apparently trying to capitalize on Bette Waterbury’s article.  

In case you possess a specimen
acquired with the widespread identify “Philodendron Santa Leopoldina and it does
not appear like the pictures of Philodendron spiritus-sancti on this
web page  it is not Philodendron spiritus-sancti and will not have
even originated in Brazil.

of the species typically bought with the identify “Philodendron Santa Leopoldina”
is presently being studied for for scientific publication.  Work on
the plant is being accomplished by Dr. Gonalves in Brazil and is
now being referred to as Philodendron superbum.  The species has not been
scientifically printed.    In an e-mail Australian
collector Michael Pascal made these feedback, 

“Eduardo IDd
this for me , it got here into Australia a few years in the past as a Santa
Leopoldina.  It has flowered just a few instances and has been unfold round
Queensland a good bit, it grows very properly in sub-tropics.  Simply
noticed with the d formed very flat topped petiole with advantageous
grooves and
its tiny internodes.”
Michael elected to name 
the plant
Leopoldina.  Within the pictures under, this plant together with the spathe is
famous as specimen quantity 2.  

Please word:  Regardless that the plant
originates in the identical space as Philodendron spiritus-sancti and
is usually name “Philodendron Santa Leopoldina” it’s
not a type of P. spiritus-sancti  and is a completely
completely different species.

John Criswick from
the island of Grenada offered pictures of a
plant he too has referred to as “Philodendron Santa Leopoldina”.  That specimen has
distinctly burgundy undersides however doesn’t have the sharply pointed
higher lobes of Philodendron spiritus-sancti.   Some
growers know this and one different plant as Philodendron ‘Roberto’ however no
such registration will be discovered.  These vegetation are seen on the
illustration under as numbers Four and 6.  One is the
juvenile type of Philodendron atabapoense however neither are types of Philodendron spiritus-sancti.

Philodendron atabapoense juvenile, Photo Copyright 2002, Steve Lucas, www.ExoticRainforest.comOne other
kind as “Philodendron
Santa Leopoldina” was recognized by Dr. Tom Croat of the Missouri
Botanical Backyard as both  Philodendron angustilobum or Philodendron
Philodendron mexicanum
.  Regardless that the vegetation are sometimes bought
on websites equivalent to eBay as “Philodendron Santa Leopoldina” neither species
will not be present in Brazil!  These species are from Mexico and Central America
and there’s no function aside from to attempt to pump up the worth to name
them “Santa Leopoldina”.  See quantity 5
under.  Neither is a type of Philodendron spiritus-sancti.

As is clear, the
use of the widespread identify “Philodendron Santa Leopoldina” serves no function
aside from to confuse consumers.  I’ve all the time had a
dislike for widespread names on account of the confusion they trigger.  How can anybody probably know what plant you
are talking about  if all you may have is a standard identify and lots of
vegetation share the identical widespread identify? 

instance is the widespread identify “elephant ear”.  Crops from
six completely different
genera have managed to amass that
single widespread identify!  So far as Philodendron species are
involved, many of those pseudo-names apparently got here from the books Tropica
and Exotica.  Critical collectors are conscious of quite a few errors in each
books because the creator was not a botanist or taxonomist. 
The creator did a beautiful factor by making so many species recognized to
collectors, however the pseudo-names created in these books create a big
variety of issues since few are botanically verified.  The creator was extra fascinated with making the world conscious of the huge
number of tropical species quite than in utilizing correct scientific names.  
Lots of the names utilized in these texts are merely incorrect.

Morphogenesis within Philodendron atabapoense, Photos Copyright 2008, Leland MiyanoCollector Leland Miyano from
Hawaii made an attention-grabbing commentary relating to the pictures posted under. 
was a private good friend of Roberto Burle-Marx and is properly acquainted
with lots of the vegetation within the Burle-Marx assortment and has spent an important
deal of time
working with these vegetation.  Roberto Burle=Marx was a well-known Brazilian
plant collector, artist, and panorama designer.  Bette Waterbury situated her unique
specimens of
Philodendron spiritus-sancti
with Roberto’s help.   Leland commented,

“If any
Philodendron bought as P. spiritus-sancti has lengthy internodes or grows quick
it’s an imposter.  Even very small vegetation of Philodendron spiritus-sancti
have the quick internodes.  Philodendron billietiae as a teenager is the
best to move as spiritus-sancti.  Development in Philodendron spiritus-sancti
could be very sluggish…I’ve seen vegetation sit there for years with out gaining a lot
size within the stem.”

You probably have a plant you
know as “Philodendron Santa Leopoldina” the possibilities are distant it
is the uncommon Philodendron

I used to be requested just lately why I need
to protect a standard identify.  If the reality was recognized, I do not!  Leland summed my
emotions properly when he stated, “
‘Santa Leopoldina’ ought to be dropped from widespread utilization.  It’s of no assist
and different scientific names ought to be used for the sundry imposters.” 

horticulturists who’re not often botanists can name any plant of their assortment by any widespread identify they
select however ought to plant sellers knowingly use the identify “Philodendron Santa
Leopoldina” for any lengthy
bladed plant and not using a recognized identify?  Some argue since A.B. Graf in his books
the plant he
identifies ought to take
priority.  Mr. Graf was not a
botanist and had no standing within the scientific world of vegetation however was
a horticulturist and collector.   Regardless that his books are sometimes
thought-about a “bible” to plant collectors, they haven’t any standing in science.  Nonetheless Brazilian authority Dr.

Gonalves states
spiritus-sancti is the nearer selection!!!!”

Julius Boos then made this
commentary relating to Philodendron spiritus-sancti
“this species has been acknowledged for a lot of
years as being ‘particular’, and vegetation from the unique space have been in
collections for a very long time (60 years??).   Keep in mind that these vegetation
are suspected of dwelling for tons of of years.  The fabric utilized by
Dr. Gonalves in his description is definitely of this species.  The
studies of the small variety of these vegetation surviving in ‘the wild’ are very
correct, as tough as it’s to even comprehend, nearly your entire space
of what was jungle is now cow pastures, a really small remnant of
patches small of jungle stay, and the land and these priceless patches
(and the remaining vegetation) are owned by a person (a good friend of Dr. Gonalves)
who acknowledges this distinctive plant.  Learn Dr. Gonalves’ description of
the width-to-length ratio of the leaf, take a look at the pictures and drawings, and
you’ll and may have NO doubt when you’ve got or don’t have or are dealing
with a legit. specimen of P. s. sancti.”

Can any plant with a
lengthy blade be bought as “Philodendron Santa Leopoldina”?  Does it actually matter?  Jonathan Ertlet might have summed it up finest in an e-mail to
the Aroid l dialogue group,

what you may have run into is the curse of the widespread identify.  It’s a
problem compounded right here for a number of causes, the primary being monetary,
since at the least some are going to equate the widespread identify ‘Santa Leopoldina’
with the extraordinarily uncommon and subsequently extraordinarily worthwhile Philodendron

Jonathan then continued,
“The entire concept of
which plant takes priority for holding this widespread identify is sort of implying
some kind of pseudo-scientific standing for the widespread identify, of which there’s

does not actually matter which plant Graf assigned that widespread identify to – the
incontrovertible fact that it has grow to be extra widespread is simply the way in which it’s.  Some
will argue a “rightful proprietor” for the widespread identify, however since it’s a widespread
identify the argument does not have a lot substance.

The one that might clarify all of this finest is Dr. Gonalves.  Eduardo despatched this
extraordinarily informative response to the Aroid l group,

“Santa Leopoldina is a
metropolis in Espirito Santo state (Southeastern Brazil) the place the fabric was
imagined to be collected very long time in the past. For a bizarre purpose, evidently
vegetation from that space are proned to have lengthy leaves. (Keep in mind P.
stenolobum was additionally collected close by). Since than, individuals have talked about an
excellent  lengthy leaf P. “Santa Leopoldina’, however since you may have many
species round with lengthy leaves, the identify began to be disputed. 
Philodendron spiritus-sancti was collected initially in Domingos Martins
county (that’s the simply on the southwestern nook of Santa Leopoldina
county). George Bunting by no means talked about the identify Santa Leopoldina when
describing P. spiritus-sancti, however each names had been related additional by
………. .  After I re-described wild specimens of P. spiritus-sancti, I
bolstered that the one Philodendron “Santa Leopoldina” formally described
was this one. To me (as a taxonomist), solely formally printed names are
actual names. It’s true that different morpho-species (to be named P. superbum as
quick as we are able to receive wild-collected materials of this) has been additionally
related to the toponym Santa Leopoldina, possibly earlier than another
materials. Nonetheless,
Graf’s books are nice for the horticulturist, however they
are very removed from being formal in a taxonomic standpoint. Since taxonomy
is the one official scientific

solution to cope with the plant range, Graf’s
opinion on nomenclature is totally ineffective. I will not resist to quote that
the Amazonian Philodendron billietae and P. atabapoense, and even the
southern P. curvilobum have been named P. “Santa
Leopoldina” too. That is
the humorous facet of life…A brand new regulation merely appeared: since most philos from
Santa Leopoldina have lengthy

leaves so each plant with lengthy leaf ought to be
from Santa Leopoldina!!! Fairly sensible! (LOL)” 

Eduardo continues,
“My remaining phrase? Be taught along with your experiences and use one of many mottos:
1. Discussing widespread names is humorous, however nugatory. If you need one thing
that comes nearer to unambiguous nomenclature, ask you good friend taxonomist to
make a sort specimen and describe your new plant formally. 
2. In case you assume Horticultural names ought to be free from “official” taxonomy,
comply with the horticultural guidelines and register your cultivar. 
3. In case you do not like official guidelines (horticultural or taxonomic), name your
vegetation as you need, however do not hassle to debate it. 
4. In case you are a plant collector and prefer to have names in your vegetation, hold
geographical info with them. All of the ache could possibly be averted if vegetation
of the “outdated” P. Santa Leopoldina had a geographical label on it. Proper now,
we’re not 100% certain that the outdated P. Santa Leopoldina got here in truth from
Santa Leopoldina. Philodendron spiritus-sancti is the nearer selection!!!!”

Dr. Gonalves added
this remaining remark in regard to a query posted on Aroid l:

“We visited
Robert Kautsky, the unique collector of the nomenclatural sort of P.
spiritus-sancti. He gave the plant George Bunting described.  We noticed
the cultivated specimen he nonetheless retains on his farm (from which dry specimens
had been ready) and we noticed comparable materials round. We’ve been
accumulating in Espirito Santo state for years and we may solely discovered this
species in Kautsky’s farm. Clearly we used basic taxonomic characters to
ID it, together with sections on flowers. That was not that onerous as a result of there
is not any different species that could possibly be REALLY confused with P. spiritus-sancti,
though you’ll be able to confuse many species beneath the favored “unfastened” definition
of “Santa Leopoldina”.  Proper now we’re utilizing clones of the sort specimen
to make a profile based mostly on the “DNA barcode” idea, in to make
identifications of P. spiritus-sancti extra dependable.  Sadly,
the “actual” id of P. “Santa Leopoldina” might be onerous to seek out out,
primarily as a result of you’ll be able to’t extract DNA from an horticultural legend!”

In case you plan on
buying a plant just because it’s referred to as
“Philodendron Santa Leopoldina” and also you assume it could be uncommon please hold Dr. 
feedback, together with certainly one of Julius’ ideas in thoughts, “
mentioned (learn Eduardo`s article) Santa Leopoldina doesn’t appear to be a
reputable identify, so mainly anybody can name any Philodendron P. Santa
Leopoldina and do with it what they need, so let the er beware.”

Beneath are the
vegetation now we have gathered to this point utilizing the identical widespread identify.  In case you search for
“Philodendron Santa Leopoldina” on the web you will discover much more! 
Solely plant #1 seems to be the Philodendron Santa Leopoldina recognized by Brazilian plant
fans.   A lot of the confusion over the
identify “Philodendron Santa Leopoldina” clearly dates again to the unique article
printed by Bette Waterbury.  Keep in mind, Philodendron species are recognized to be variable!
Not each leaf of each specimen
will all the time seem the identical.  This hyperlink explains in
non-technical language the science of pure variation and

Click on
right here.


Wish to be taught extra
about aroids?


Out of print copies of Aroideana can usually be ordered straight from the Worldwide Aroid Society:

Crops Usually Offered As Santa Leopoldina

Photograph descriptions will be discovered
beneath this photograph set.

Philodendron specimens sold as Philodendron Santa Leopoldina, Copyright

Plant #1  That is the
Philodendron spiritus-sancti,
recognized in Brazil by some as Santa Leopoldina. 
The primary photograph got here from an Worldwide Aroid Society public sale.  However take a look at the second photograph,
additionally as #1.  That photograph belongs to Brazilian Mauro Piexoto.  Mauro
could be very acquainted with the plant.  His photograph will be discovered on the web as
an official photograph of P. spiritus-sancti.  Have a look at the lobes,
it too seems to point out variation. 

second to final photograph was
furnished by Enid Offolter of a plant in Hawaii.  That photograph is of the
actual P. spirtus-sancti.  And the ultimate photograph is from Leland Miyano. 
Notice the unusually slender leaf blades and pointed lobes of the true
Philodendron spiritus-sancti.

Plant #2 is a plant belonging to
Michael Pascall.  It too is called Santa Leopoldina.  We
consider this to be superbum.

Plant #3  is a plant
belonging to Brian Williams.  It is called Santa Leopoldina.

Plant #4  This plant
belongs to collector Cindy Grossman and is nothing greater than a juvenile kind
of Philodendron atabapoense.  It is usually referred to as Santa
Leopoldina however might have the widespread identify ‘Roberto’ in Australia.  
A fuller rationalization will be present in #6 under.

Plant #5  That is certainly one of my
personal vegetation and was d by certainly one of my daughters on eBay as Santa
Leopoldina.  Dr. Croat  ID’d this specimen as both

P. angustilobum
or P. mexicanum.  It’s
just too younger to make sure presently.  Brian commented, “
#5 I even have and I consider it’s a hybrid of mexicanum it doesn’t get as
close to a protracted a leaf and far wider again lobes.”

Plant #6 
A juvenile type of Philodendron atabapoense, this
specimen is usually bought because the “pink backed” type of Santa Leopoldina
initially collected by Bette Waterbury in Brazil.  Our specimen
got here from collector Russ Hammer.  He d the plant as Santa
Leopoldina.  This plant has very distinctive blade undersides which might be
burgundy.  This one can be recognized by some as ‘Roberto’.  Each #4
and #6 have been recognized as potential variations of

P. atabapoense,
nevertheless that info is unverified. 

Brian once more commented, “Your #6 is the
mostly referred to as Santa kind. Dewey Fisk gave me a botanical identify on this
just a few years again. I’ve sense misplaced it.”

Plant #7  Plant belonging
to Brian Williams referred to as Santa Leopoldina.

Plant #8  and Plant #9 belonging
to Brian Williams referred to as Santa Leopoldina.  Brian commented,

“Quantity Eight and 9 are
the identical plant one is juvenile and grown in a drier space the opposite photograph is
extra mature. I consider that is the shape that may quickly be named Superbum.”

Plant #9  Plant belonging
to Brian Williams referred to as Santa Leopoldina.

Plant #10  Plant belonging
to Brian Williams referred to as Santa Leopoldina.  This one could be very comparable
to # 6 with the exception the blade underside is inexperienced as a substitute of burgundy. 
Brian commented, “
is a collected species unknown from Brazil.”  Michael commented it
may probably be a type of P. atabapoense.

Plant #11  Plant belonging
to Brian Williams referred to as Santa Leopoldina.  Brian commented, “an unknown species comparable in look to
the Santa varieties, it has a bluish look to the leaf very shinny wanting additionally.” 
I am not going to inform you what Michael stated we should always name it at first however
then commented it may probably be P.



In case you are in search of info on different uncommon
species, click on on “Aroids and different genera within the Assortment” on the prime and search for





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