The Pergamon Altar (Historical Greek: Βωμός τῆς Περγάμου) is a monumental building constructed through the reign of king Eumenes II within the first half of the 2nd century BC on one of many terraces of the acropolis of the traditional Greek metropolis of Pergamon in Asia Minor.
The construction is 35.64 metres huge and 33.Four metres deep; the entrance stairway alone is nearly 20 metres huge. The bottom is embellished with a frieze in excessive aid exhibiting the battle between the Giants and the Olympian gods generally known as the Gigantomachy. There’s a second, smaller and fewer well-preserved excessive aid frieze on the interior court docket partitions which encompass the precise fireplace altar on the higher degree of the construction on the high of the steps. In a set of consecutive scenes, it depicts occasions from the lifetime of Telephus, legendary founding father of the town of Pergamon and son of the hero Heracles and Auge, certainly one of Tegean king Aleus’s daughters.
In 1878, the German engineer Carl Humann began official excavations on the acropolis of Pergamon, an effort that lasted till 1886.
In Berlin, Italian restorers reassembled the panels comprising the frieze from the 1000’s of fragments that had been recovered. With a view to show the outcome and create a context for it, a brand new museum was erected in 1901 on Berlin’s Museum Island. As a result of this primary Pergamon Museum proved to be each insufficient and structurally unsound, it was demolished in 1909 and changed with a a lot bigger museum, which opened in 1930. This new museum remains to be open to the general public on the island. Even if the brand new museum was dwelling to quite a lot of collections past the friezes (for instance, a well-known reconstruction of the Ishtar Gate of historic Babylon), the town’s inhabitants determined to call it the Pergamon Museum for the friezes and reconstruction of the west entrance of the altar. The Pergamon Altar is right now probably the most well-known merchandise within the Berlin Assortment of Classical Antiquities, which is on show within the Pergamon Museum and within the Altes Museum, each of that are on Berlin’s Museum Island.
It was introduced that on September 29, 2014 the Pergamon Exhibit might be closed throughout 5 years for an entire reworking of the exhibit corridor, together with however not restricted to building of a brand new glass ceiling and a brand new local weather management system.
The altar in antiquity
The Pergamene kingdom based by Philetaerus initially of the third century BC was initially a part of the Hellenistic Seleucid empire. Attalus I, successor and nephew of Eumenes I, was the primary to realize full independence for the territory and proclaimed himself king after his victory over the Celtic Galatians in 228 BC. This victory over the Galatians, a risk to the Pergamene kingdom, secured his energy, which he then tried to consolidate. With conquests in Asia Minor on the expense of the weakened Seleucids he may briefly improve the dimensions of his kingdom. A Seleucid counteroffensive below Antiochos III reached the gates of Pergamon however couldn’t put an finish to Pergamene independence. Because the Seleucids have been changing into stronger within the east, Attalus turned his consideration westward to Greece and was capable of occupy virtually all of Euboea. His son, Eumenes II, additional restricted the affect of the Galatians and dominated alongside his brother Attalus II, who succeeded him. In 188 BC, Eumenes II was capable of create the Treaty of Apamea as an ally of Rome, thus lowering the affect of the Seleucids in Asia Minor. The Attalids have been thus an rising energy with the will to display their significance to the surface world by the development of imposing buildings.
The endowment, courting and performance of the altar
As is the case with most younger dynasties, the Attalids sought to anchor their legitimacy with endowments and monumental building tasks. The imposing altar accordingly had additionally a political dimension.
Up till the second half of the 20th century it had been assumed by some students that the altar was endowed in 184 BC by Eumenes II after a victory over the Celtic Tolistoagian tribe and their chief Ortiagon. Within the meantime, later datings relating the altar to archaeological findings and historic occasions are below dialogue. It isn’t crucial to attach the altar endowment with particular army occasions such because the Roman victories over Antiochos III in 184 BC in alliance with Eumenes II, or Eumenes II’s personal victory over the Galatians in 166 BC. Investigation of the altar’s building and friezes has led to the conclusion that it was not conceived as a monument to a selected victory. The design of Pergamene victory monuments is understood from the literature and monument relics. Essentially the most well-known are Roman copies of bronze statues of the “Nice Gaul”, representations of defeated Celts after the victory of Attalos I over the Tolistoagians, or reliefs exhibiting booty weapons from the halls of the Pergamene Athena sanctuary, which was devoted by Eumenes II to the goddess who introduced victory after the overcome the Seleucids and their allies in 184 BC.
The Gigantomachy frieze on the surface partitions of the Pergamon altar avoids to an excellent extent any direct references to up to date army campaigns — apart from the “Star of Macedonia” on the spherical protect of one of many Giants on the japanese frieze, or a Celtic rectangular protect within the hand of a god on the northern frieze. The battle of the Olympian gods, supported by Heracles, the astrological deities governing the times and hours and originating within the historic race of the Titans, personifications of the forces of warfare and destiny, sea creatures, and Dionysus along with his followers, seems a lot fairly to be a cosmological occasion of normal moral relevance. It may maybe be interpreted within the sense of stoicism, and was definitely not designed with out political concerns, as was the case with all creative picture metaphors depicting the battle between the nice and simply precept — the Olympian gods and their helpers — and evil — the chaotic forces of nature within the type of the earthbound Giants. The scanty remnants of the dedicatory inscription additionally appear to point that the altar was consecrated to the gods due to “favors” that they had bestowed. The divine addressees may very well be particularly Zeus, father of the gods, and his daughter Athena, since they seem in outstanding areas of the Gigantomachy frieze. An essential courting criterion can be the incorporation of the altar from the attitude of metropolis planning. As an important marble edifice of the Hellenistic residence and certainly erected in a outstanding place, it was assuredly not begun solely on the conclusion of quite a few initiatives to improve the acropolis of Pergamon below Eumenes II.
That occasions from the final years of Eumenes II’s reign, the rising uncoupling from the Romans, and the victory over the Celts in 166 BC at Sardis are mirrored within the two friezes of the Pergamon Altar is merely hypothesis that doesn’t present a enough basis for a late courting of the altar. The interior Telephus frieze relates the legendary lifetime of Heracles’ son Telephus and is supposed to convey the prevalence of Pergamon in contrast with the Romans. Thus the founding father of Rome, Romulus, was historically nursed solely by a she-wolf, whereas Telephus, to whom the Attalids hint their ancestry, is proven within the frieze being suckled by a she-lion. It’s estimated that the frieze was constructed between 170 BC and no less than the demise of Eumenes II (159 BC).
One of many final solutions for courting the development of the altar comes from Bernard Andreae. In response to his findings, the altar was erected between 166 and 156 BC as a normal victory monument commemorating the triumphs of the Pergamenes, and particularly of Eumenes II, over the Macedonians, the Galatians and the Seleucids, and was designed by Phyromachos, the seventh and final of the best Greek sculptors, who included Myron, Phidias, Polykleitos, Scopas, Praxiteles and Lysippos. Within the basis of the altar a pottery shard was discovered which may very well be dated to 172/171 BC; the constructing should accordingly have been erected later. Since giant quantities of cash needed to be spent on warfare till 166 BC, it’s possible that building of the altar may solely begin from this date.
Opposite to fashionable perception, the Pergamon Altar shouldn’t be a temple, however in all probability the altar of a temple, though altars have been typically positioned open air in entrance of their temples. It’s supposed that the Athena temple positioned on the acropolis terrace above it might have been its cultic level of reference, and the altar probably served solely as a spot of sacrifice. This concept is supported by a number of statue bases and consecrating inscriptions discovered within the neighborhood of the altar and whose donors named Athena. One other chance is that each Zeus and Athena have been collectively honored. It may be that the altar had an impartial perform. In distinction to a temple, which all the time had an altar, an altar didn’t essentially must have a temple. Altars may, for instance, be fairly small and positioned in homes or, much less generally, have gigantic dimensions as within the case of the Pergamon Altar. The few remnants of inscriptions don’t provide sufficient info to find out to which god the altar was devoted.
To date, none of those theories is mostly accepted. This example led a long-time director of excavations in Pergamon to conclude that:
No analysis is undisputed regarding this most well-known creative masterpiece of Pergamon, neither the builder nor the date nor the event nor the aim of the development. –Wolfgang Radt
Simply as unsure is the character of the sacrifices made there. Judging from the stays of the particular, comparatively small fireplace altar inside the large altar edifice, it will possibly no less than be concluded that its form resembled a horseshoe. It was apparently an altar with two projecting aspect wings and one or a number of steps in entrance. Presumably the thighs of sacrificial animals have been burned right here. However it’s simply as doable that the altar served just for libations — the providing of sacrifices within the type of incense, wine and fruits. It’s possible that solely clergymen, members of the royal family and illustrious international friends have been allowed entry to the hearth altar.
Already Attalos I started to rework the acropolis of Pergamon. In the midst of time the unique buildings have been augmented by a Dionysus temple, a theater named after Dionysus, a heroon, an higher agora for the town, and the nice altar identified right now because the Pergamon Altar. There have been additionally a number of palaces, and a library within the Athena sanctuary.
The altar till the shut of antiquity
In all probability within the 2nd century, the Roman Lucius Ampelius recorded in his liber memorialis (“Pocket book”), in Chapter VIII (Miracula Mundi), “At Pergamum there’s a nice marble altar, 40 toes (12 m) excessive, with colossal sculptures. It additionally exhibits a Gigantomachy”.
In addition to a remark by Pausanias, who compares sacrificial follow in Olympia with that in Pergamon, that is the one written reference to the altar in all of antiquity. That is all of the extra shocking as a result of the writers of antiquity in any other case wrote an excellent deal about such artistic endeavors and Ampelius, in spite of everything, thought of the altar to be one of many wonders of the world. The absence of written sources from antiquity concerning the altar has given rise to a lot of interpretations. One chance is that the Romans didn’t regard this Hellenistic altar as essential because it didn’t date from the traditional epoch of Greek, particularly Attic, artwork. Solely this artwork and later evocation of the related values have been thought of important and price mentioning. This view was held significantly by German researchers beginning within the 18th century, particularly after the work of Johann Joachim Winckelmann turned identified. The one graphic representations of the altar are on cash of the Roman Empire, which present the altar in a stylized type.
Ever since a reassessment of the notion and interpretation of antiquities courting from aside from “classical” durations happened in the middle of the 20th century, it’s undisputed that the nice altar of Pergamon is likely one of the most vital works, if not the apex, of Hellenistic artwork. The uninformed, low opinion of the altar appears unusual right now. The Laocoön and His Sons within the Vatican Museums, certainly one of solely a only a few sculptures that are right now considered particularly advantageous examples of the artwork of antiquity, and which was already in antiquity declared to be a “masterpiece surpassing all different works of portray and sculpture”, could also be based mostly on an authentic that additionally got here from a Pergamene workshop and was created at about the identical time because the altar. It’s noteworthy that the opponent of the goddess Athena on the aspect of the Giants, Alcyoneus, strongly resembles Laokoon in posture and portrayal. When the frieze fragment was discovered, a cry was to be heard, “Now we’ve got a Laokoon too!”
From discovery to presentation in Berlin
From antiquity to 19th century excavations
The altar misplaced its perform on the newest in Late Antiquity, when Christianity changed and suppressed polytheistic religions. Within the seventh century the acropolis of Pergamon was strongly fortified as a protection in opposition to the Arabs. Within the course of the Pergamon Altar, amongst different buildings, was partially destroyed with a purpose to reuse the constructing materials. Town was however defeated in 716 by the Arabs, who quickly occupied it earlier than abandoning it as unimportant. It was solely resettled within the 12th century. Within the 13th century Pergamon fell to the Turks.
Between 1431 and 1444 the Italian humanist Cyriacus of Ancona visited Pergamon and described it in his commentarii (diary). In 1625 William Petty, chaplain to Thomas Howard, 21st Earl of Arundel, a collector and artwork patron, traveled by Turkey, visited Pergamon, and introduced again to England two aid panels from the altar. These items have been forgotten after the Earl’s assortment was dispersed and have been solely rediscovered within the 1960s. Because of this these two panels are missing within the Berlin reconstruction. Different vacationers identified to have visited Pergamon through the late 18th and early 19th centuries have been, for instance, the French diplomat and classical scholar Comte de Choiseul-Gouffier, the English architect Charles Robert Cockerell and two Germans, the archaeologist Otto Magnus von Stackelberg and the classical scholar Otto Friedrich von Richter. Choiseul-Gouffier was the primary to suggest excavations in Pergamon; the opposite three vacationers made drawings of the town’s acropolis.
The German engineer Carl Humann got here to Pergamon for the primary time in 1864/65. He was charged with geographic investigations and repeatedly visited the town within the following years. He urged the preservation of the antiquities on the acropolis and tried to search out companions to help in an excavation; as a personal particular person he was not equal to such a serious process, missing the monetary and logistic assets. It was essential to start excavation work as quickly as doable as a result of the native inhabitants of Bergama (the trendy title of the traditional metropolis of Pergamon) have been utilizing the altar and different above-ground ruins as a quarry, have been looting the remnants of vintage constructions with a purpose to erect new buildings, and have been burning a few of the marble for lime. In 1871 the Berlin classicist Ernst Curtius and several other different German students got here to Pergamon at Humann’s invitation. He organized to ship a few of the finds to Berlin, together with two fragments of the altar frieze. He described the reliefs as (translated) “a battle with males, horses and wild animals”. These items have been placed on show however have been at first largely ignored.
Alexander Conze, who was appointed director of the sculpture assortment of Berlin’s royal museums in 1877, was the primary particular person to attach the fragments with the Ampelius textual content and understand their significance. The timing was good, as a result of the German authorities was anxious to match the opposite nice powers additionally on a cultural degree after the German Empire was established in 1871:
It is rather essential for the museums’ collections, that are to this point very poor in Greek originals […] to now achieve possession of a Greek murals of a scope which, roughly, is of a rank near or equal to the sculptures from Attica and Asia Minor within the British Museum.
Conze instantly contacted Humann, who on the time was in Turkey working for a street building firm. Issues then moved shortly. The German authorities organized for a license to dig in Turkey and in September 1878 excavations started, headed by Humann and Conze. By 1886, giant components of the acropolis had been investigated and within the following years additionally scientifically appraised and revealed. Primarily based on an settlement between the Ottoman Empire and the German authorities, beginning in 1879 the aid panels from the Pergamon Altar together with another fragments got here to Berlin and into the possession of the Assortment of Antiquities. The German aspect was effectively conscious that by doing this a murals was being faraway from its authentic location and was not fully pleased about this example.
We aren’t insensitive to what it means to take away the remnants of an excellent monument from their authentic location and convey them to a spot the place we will by no means once more present the lighting and atmosphere by which they have been created and by which they as soon as conveyed their full impact. However we did rescue them from a destruction that was changing into ever extra full. There was not but an Osman Hamdi Bey round, who quickly turned a detailed good friend of Humann, and on the time we couldn’t think about what has develop into doable within the meantime along with his assist, that the ruins nonetheless on the website may very well be protected against the stone robbers of the trendy metropolis …
The Pergamon Altar in Berlin
The items couldn’t initially be introduced in an applicable exhibition context and have been positioned within the overfilled Altes Museum, the place particularly the Telephus frieze couldn’t be effectively displayed (the person slabs have been merely leant in opposition to the wall going through the altar). Because of this a brand new purpose-built museum was erected. The primary “Pergamon Museum” was constructed between 1897 and 1899 by Fritz Wolff and opened in 1901 with the revealing of a bust of Carl Humann by Adolf Brütt. This constructing was used till 1908 however was considered being solely an interim resolution and was accordingly referred to as the “short-term constructing”. Initially 4 archaeological museums have been deliberate, certainly one of them for the Pergamon Altar. However the first museum needed to be demolished due to issues with the muse. Additionally, it had initially been supposed just for finds which couldn’t be introduced within the different three archaeological museums and thus from the start it was too small for the altar. After the museum was demolished, the Telephus frieze was set into the partitions of the colonnade on the japanese aspect of the Neues Museum, however with home windows permitting a view of the artwork objects.
The brand new constructing, designed by Alfred Messel, took till 1930 to assemble, as a result of delays brought on by World Struggle I, the German Revolution of 1918–1919 and the hyperinflation of 1922/1923. This new Pergamon Museum introduced the altar principally as it’s seen right now. There was a partial reconstruction within the central gallery of the museum with the frieze fragments put in on the encompassing partitions. The Telephus frieze is, as within the authentic building, reached by way of the flight of stairs, however solely an abbreviated model is on show. It isn’t identified why the entire altar was not reconstructed when the brand new museum was constructed and the frieze put in. When conceiving the exhibit, Theodor Wiegand, the museum’s director at the moment, adopted the concepts of Wilhelm von Bode, who had in thoughts an excellent “German Museum” within the type of the British Museum. However there was clearly no total idea, and given the reigning concept of a serious structure museum presenting examples of all Historical Close to Japanese and Mediterranean cultures, the show of the altar needed to be condensed. Up till the top of World Struggle II, solely the japanese a part of the museum with the three giant structure galleries was referred to as the “Pergamon Museum”.
In 1939 the museum closed due to World Struggle II. Two years later the reliefs have been taken down and saved elsewhere. On the finish of the warfare, the items of the altar which had been positioned in an air-raid shelter close to the Berlin zoo fell into the fingers of the Pink Military and have been taken to the Soviet Union as warfare trophies. They have been saved within the depot of the Hermitage Museum in Leningrad till 1958. In 1959 a big a part of the gathering was returned to East Germany (GDR), together with the altar fragments. Below the management of the museum’s then director, Carl Blümel, solely the altar was introduced because it had been earlier than the warfare. The opposite antiquities have been newly organized, not least as a result of the Altes Museum had been destroyed. In October of that 12 months the museum reopened. In 1982 a brand new entrance space was created which permitted a go to to the museum to start with the Pergamon Altar. Beforehand, the doorway had been within the west wing of the constructing, in order that guests needed to go by the Vorderasiatisches Museum Berlin (Center East Museum) to get to the Pergamon Altar. In 1990, 9 heads from the Telephus frieze, which had been evacuated to the western a part of Berlin due to the warfare, returned to the Pergamon Museum. All these war-related occasions had destructive penalties for the remaining altar and frieze fragments. It additionally turned out that earlier restorations had created issues. The clamps and fasteners which linked the person fragments and likewise served to anchor the frieze and sculpture to the wall have been product of iron, which had began to rust. As this rust unfold it threatened to crack open the marble from the within. Restoration turned pressing after 1990. From 1994 to 1996 the Telephus frieze, components of which had not been accessible within the 1980s, was labored on. Afterward the Gigantomachy was restored below the management of Silvano Bertolin. First the western frieze, then the northern and southern parts, and eventually the japanese frieze have been restored, an effort which value over three million euro. On June 10, 2004 the fully restored frieze was introduced for public viewing. The Pergamon altar can now be seen in a type reflecting present scientific insights.
In 1998 and once more in 2001 the Turkish Minister of Tradition, Istemihan Talay, demanded the return of the altar and different artifacts. Nevertheless, this demand didn’t have an official character and wouldn’t have been enforceable below right now’s requirements. Generally, the Staatliche Museen Berlin (Berlin state museums) in addition to different museums in Europe and the USA rule out, with few exceptions, the doable return of vintage objects of artwork. In the present day, a lot of the altar basis in addition to a number of wall remnants are on the authentic location. Additionally in Turkey are a number of smaller parts of the frieze which have been discovered later.
Altar building and design
Earlier variations of the altar have been leveled in Pergamon, and to boost the utility of the acropolis a number of terraces have been laid out. The trail connecting the decrease a part of the city with the acropolis led straight previous the self-contained and now prolonged sacred altar space, which may very well be accessed from the east. Thus guests in antiquity first noticed the frieze on the japanese face of the altar, on which the chief Greek gods have been portrayed. First, on the proper (northern) aspect of the japanese frieze, Hera, Heracles, Zeus, Athena and Ares have been proven engaged in battle. Within the background to the fitting there was not solely the wall of one other terrace, presumably containing many statues; the customer additionally seen the straightforward Doric Athena temple which had been erected 150 years earlier on the terrace above. The western aspect of the altar with the stairway was in alignment with the Athena temple, regardless of the elevation distinction. It was in all probability the case that the altar arose in direct relationship to the redesigning of the acropolis and was to be considered a major, new building and votive providing to the gods. In its freely accessible association the altar was conceived in order that guests may stroll round it. This inevitably led to additional supposed strains of sight.
The form of the altar was virtually a sq.. On this respect it adopted Ionic fashions, which specified a wall enclosing the precise sacrificial altar on three sides. On the open aspect the altar may very well be accessed by way of a stairway. For cultic causes such altars have been normally oriented towards the east in order that these bringing sacrifices entered the altar from the west. The Pergamene altar follows this custom, however to a very monumental extent. The massive, virtually sq. base was 35.64 meters huge and 33.Four meters lengthy and included 5 steps surrounding your complete construction. The stairway on the western aspect is nearly 20 meters huge and intersects with the decrease degree, which itself is nearly six meters excessive. The core of the muse consists of intersecting tuff partitions organized like a grating, which elevated earthquake stability. This basis remains to be preserved and might be examined on website in Pergamon. The higher seen construction consisted of a pedestal, a frieze of slabs 2.Three meters in peak with excessive aid scenes, and a thick, projecting cornice. Gray-veined marble from the island of Marmara was used, which was typical for Pergamon. Along with the Proconnesian marble of the massive frieze, the Telephus frieze and the muse, darker marble with recognizable fossil inclusions was additionally used for the bottom; it got here from Lesbos-Moria.
The frieze is 113 meters lengthy, which makes it the longest surviving frieze of Greek Antiquity after the Parthenon frieze. On the western aspect it’s interrupted by the ca. 20 meter huge stairway, which cuts into the muse on that aspect and results in a superstructure with columns. On each side of this stairway there are projections constructed and embellished in a way much like the remainder of the encircling frieze. The three-wing superstructure is comparatively slim in contrast with the bottom. The pillars surrounding the superstructure have platforms with profiles and Ionic capitals. There are various statues on the roof: a quadriga of horses, lion griffins, centaurs and deities, in addition to uncompleted gargoyles. The higher corridor offers a spacious impression because of the extensively spaced columns. An extra columned corridor was additionally deliberate for the interior courtyard the place the hearth altar itself was positioned, however not carried out. A frieze was put in there at eye degree depicting the lifetime of the legendary founding father of the town, Telephus. Though no stays of paint have been discovered, it may be assumed that your complete construction was brightly painted in antiquity.
The Gigantomachy frieze
The Gigantomachy frieze depicts the cosmic battle of the Olympian gods in opposition to the Giants, the youngsters of the primordial goddess Gaia [Earth]. The gods are depicted within the frieze in accordance with their divine nature and legendary attributes. The frieze sides are described under, all the time continuing from left to proper.
As talked about above, guests first noticed the japanese aspect as they entered the altar space. Right here was the place virtually the entire essential Olympian gods have been assembled. On the left the presentation begins with the three-faceted goddess Hecate. She fights in her three incarnations with a torch, a sword and a lance in opposition to the Big Clytius. Subsequent to her is Artemis, the goddess of the hunt; consistent with her perform she fights with a bow and arrow in opposition to a Big who is maybe Otos. Her searching canine kills one other Big with a chunk to the neck. Artemis’ mom Leto fights at her aspect utilizing a torch in opposition to an animal-like Big; at her different aspect her son and Artemis’ twin, Apollo, fights. Like his sister, he’s armed with bow and arrow and has simply shot the Big Udaios, who lies at his toes.
The following aid panel has barely survived. It’s supposed that it confirmed Demeter. She is adopted by Hera, coming into the battle in a quadriga. Her 4 winged horses are recognized because the personifications of the 4 winds, Notos, Boreas, Zephyrus and Eurus. Between Hera and his father Zeus, Heracles is combating, recognized solely by a frieze fragment exhibiting a paw of his lion pelt. Zeus is bodily particularly current and agile. He fights by hurling lightning bolts, sending rain and massed clouds not solely in opposition to two younger Giants but additionally in opposition to their chief, Porphyrion. The following pair of fighters additionally exhibits an particularly essential battle scene. Athena, the town goddess of Pergamon, breaks the Big Alkyoneus’ contact to the earth, from which the mom of the Giants, Gaia, emerges. In response to legend, Alkyoneus was immortal solely so long as he touched the bottom, the place the ability of his mom may circulate by him. The japanese frieze concludes with Ares, the god of warfare, who goes into battle with a chariot and pair of horses. His horses rear up in entrance of a winged Big.
The depiction of the combating begins right here with the nice mom goddess of Asia Minor, Rhea/Cybele. With bow and arrow she rides into battle on a lion. On the left might be seen the eagle of Zeus holding a bundle of lightning bolts in his claws. Subsequent to Rhea, three of the immortals battle with a mighty, bull-necked Big. The primary, a goddess, has not been recognized; she is adopted by Hephaistos, who raises a two-headed hammer aloft. He’s adopted by one other unidentified, kneeling god who thrusts a spear into the physique.
Subsequent come the gods of the heaven. Eos, goddess of the daybreak, rides sidesaddle into battle. She pulls again her horse and is armed with a torch which she thrusts ahead. She is adopted by Helios, who rises up from the ocean along with his quadriga and enters the battle armed with a torch. His goal is a Big standing in his manner. He has rolled over one other Big. Theia follows, amidst her kids. She is the mom of the day and night time stars. Subsequent to her mom and along with her again to the viewer, the moon goddess Selene rides on her mule over a Big.
Within the final third of the south frieze an unidentified younger god, probably Aither, is combating. He’s holding in a stranglehold a Big with snake legs, human physique, and the paws and head of a lion. The following god is clearly aged. It’s supposed that he’s Uranus. On his left is his daughter Themis, goddess of justice. On the finish (or starting, relying how the frieze is seen) is the Titan Phoibe with a torch and her daughter Asteria with a sword. Each are accompanied by a canine.
West frieze (left aspect, on the north risalit)
The ocean gods are gathered collectively on the north risalit of the altar. On the western wall (risalit entrance) Triton and his mom Amphitrite battle a number of Giants. Triton’s higher torso is human; the entrance half of his decrease torso is a horse, the again half a dolphin. On the within wall (stairway) are to be discovered the couple Nereus and Doris in addition to Oceanus, and a fraction alleged to be Tethys, all of whom are engaged in combating Giants.
West frieze (proper aspect, on the south risalit)
A number of gods of nature and mythological beings are gathered on the south risalit. On the risalit entrance, Dionysus, accompanied by two younger satyrs joins the battle. At his aspect is his mom Semele, main a lion into battle. Fragments of three nymphs are proven on the stairway aspect. Right here, too, is the one artist’s signature discovered, THEORRETOS, on the cornice.
Aphrodite begins off the line-up of the gods on this aspect, and since one has to think about the frieze as steady, she is to be discovered subsequent to her lover Ares, who concludes the east frieze. The goddess of affection pulls a lance out of a lifeless Big. Subsequent to her, her mom, the Titan Dione, is combating, in addition to her small son, Eros. The following two figures are unsure. They’re most definitely the twins Castor and Pollux. Castor is being grabbed from behind by a Big who bites him within the arm, whereupon his brother hastens to his help.
The following three pairs of fighters are related to Ares, the god of warfare. It’s unsure who they depict. First, a god is about to hurl a tree trunk; within the center a winged goddess thrusts her sword into an opponent, and third, a god fights a Big in armor. The following god was lengthy thought of to be Nyx; within the meantime it’s assumed that it is likely one of the Erinyes, goddesses of revenge. She is holding a vessel wrapped in snakes, able to hurl it. Subsequent, two different personifications are combating. The three Moirai (goddesses of destiny) kill the Giants Agrios and Thoas (or Thoon) with bronze golf equipment.
The following group of fighters exhibits a “lion goddess” mentioned to be Ceto. This group doesn’t instantly observe the Moirai; there’s a hole which in all probability held one other pair of fighters. They might have been Ceto’s kids, the Graeae. Ceto was the mom of a number of monsters, together with a whale (Greek: Ketos) who rises at her toes. The north frieze closes with the god of the ocean Poseidon, who rises up out of the ocean with a workforce of seahorses. The following scene within the sequence is the north risalit with the ocean gods.
The Telephus frieze
The frieze narrates in chronological order the lifetime of Telephus, one of many heroes of Greek mythology; the legend can be identified from written data, for instance within the tragedies of Aischylos, Sophocles and Euripides from the fifth century BC.
Since there was solely a restricted quantity of house out there within the higher, inner courtyard the place the precise fireplace altar was positioned, the Telephus frieze was sculpted on slabs that was shallower than within the case of the Gigantomachy. Its dimensions have been additionally extra modest and its association was on a smaller scale. The peak was 1.58 meters. The frieze was initially painted, however no important traces of colour stay. There have been a number of technical improvements for the time: the figures are staggered in depth; architectural parts are used to point actions taking positioned indoors, and the landscapes are lush and scenic. These new methods of depicting spatial preparations set the tone for Late Hellenistic and Roman occasions.
After restoration within the mid-1990s it was found that the previously assumed chronological sequence was in some circumstances incorrect. The set up was accordingly rearranged, however the authentic numbering of the 51 aid panels within the Pergamon Museum was retained. For instance, the resorting led to transferring what had previously been considered the primary panel to a location following panel 31. Not all panels survived, so there are just a few gaps within the presentation of the story. (Of the unique 74 panels, solely about 47 entire or partial panels survived. Panels 37 and 43 will not be on show as a part of the frieze for lack of house.) The next record displays the sequence after reassembly in 1995.
Panels 2,3 – 2: On the court docket of King Aleus; 3: Heracles catches sight of Aleus’ daughter Auge within the temple
Panels 4,5,6 – 4: The toddler Telephus is deserted within the wilderness; 5 and 6: carpenters assemble a ship by which Auge is to be forged adrift.
Panel 10 – King Teuthras finds Auge stranded on the shore
Panel 11 – Auge establishes an Athena cult
Panel 12 – Heracles identifies his son Telephus
Panels 7, 8 – Nymphs bathe the toddler Telephus
Panel 9 – Telephus’ childhood
Panels 13, 32, 33 and 14 – Telephus voyages by ship to Mysia in Asia Minor
Panels 16 and 17 – Telephus receives weapons from Auge
Panel 18 – Telephus goes to warfare in opposition to Idas
Panel 20 – Teuthras offers Auge to Telephus in marriage
Panel 21: Mom and son acknowledge one another on the marriage night time
Panels 22-24 – Nireus kills the Amazon Hiera, Telephus’ spouse
Panel 51 – The combating is interrupted for Hiera’s solemn funeral
Panel 25 – Two Scythian warriors fall in battle
Panel 28 – The battle on the Kaikos springs
Panels 30, 31 – Achilles wounds Telephus with the assistance of Dionysus
Panel 1 – Telephus consults an oracle concerning the therapeutic of his wound
Panels 34 and 35 – Telephus lands in Argos
Panels 36 and 38 – The Argives welcome Telephus
Panels 39 and 40 – Telephus asks Agamemnon to heal him
Panel 42 – Telephus threatens to kill Orestes, whom he took hostage to drive Agamemnon to heal him
Panel 43 – Telephus is healed
Panels 44-46 – The founding of cults in Pergamon
Panels 49 and 50 – An altar is erected
Panel 47, 48 – Ladies hasten to the hero Telephus, who lies on a kline
The gathering of statues
On the roof of the altar there have been numerous small statues of gods, groups of horses, centaurs, and lion griffins. The finds haven’t but been unambiguously described by archaeologists as to their perform and placement. On the north wall of the altar sanctuary a 64 meter lengthy pedestal was additionally discovered, richly adorned with statues. How extensively the altar space was furnished with bronze and marble statues remains to be unknown. However it’s sure that the elaborations will need to have been terribly wealthy and have represented a serious expenditure for the donors. The higher flooring above the Gigantomachy housing the Telephus frieze additionally had an encircling portico. There have been probably extra statues between the columns. This concept is supported by 30-odd sculptures of ladies among the many finds; they might have personified the cities of the Pergamene kingdom. It’s assumed that there have been no statues or different decorations on the precise fireplace altar, however a cover was probably put in there in Roman occasions.
Relationship to different artistic endeavors
At many locations within the Gigantomachy frieze, different Greek artistic endeavors might be acknowledged as having served as fashions. For instance, Apollo along with his idealized stance and attractiveness recollects a classical statue by the sculptor Leochares, produced about 150 years earlier than the frieze and well-known already in antiquity; a Roman copy has survived and is now within the Vatican Museum (The Belvedere Apollo). The essential group which incorporates Zeus and Athena transferring in reverse instructions recollects the scene exhibiting the battle between Athena and Poseidon on the western pediment of the Parthenon. Such allusions will not be unintended since Pergamon thought of itself to be one thing like a reborn Athens.
The frieze on its half additionally influenced later works of classical antiquity. Essentially the most well-known instance is the Laokoon Group talked about above, which was created about twenty years after the Pergamon aid, as Bernard Andreae may present. The artists who produced the statue group have been within the direct custom of the creator of the aid, or could certainly even have participated in crafting the frieze.
Lengthy mentioned however to this point unresolved is the query of what number of artists participated in producing the Gigantomachy. Simply as disputed is the extent to which the character of particular person artists might be recognized on this murals. There’s settlement that no less than the fundamental design of the frieze was the work of a single artist. In view of its consistency all the way down to the extent of particulars, the plan will need to have been labored out to its smallest parts; nothing had been left to likelihood. Already within the association of the combating teams it may be famous that every group is exclusive and, for instance, that the coiffure and the footwear of the goddesses all the time differ. Every of the pairs of fighters is individually organized. Thus, the figures in themselves reveal their distinctive character fairly than this being the results of the artists’ private types.
Though students have definitely ascertained variations that may be attributed to particular person artists, given the coherence of the entire frieze it’s exceptional that these variations are virtually irrelevant when the work is seen in its entirety. In response to this interpretation, artists from throughout Greece deferred to the plans of a single artist with total authority. That is substantiated, for instance, by the inscriptions of artists from Athens and Rhodes. The sculptors have been permitted to signal their sections of the frieze on the decrease molding, however only some such inscriptions have been discovered. Thus no conclusions might be drawn concerning the variety of taking part artists. Just one inscription on the south risalit survived in a way which permitted attribution. Since there isn’t a decrease molding at that location, the title, Theorretos (ΘΕΌΡΡΗΤΟΣ), was chiseled into the marble close to the portrayed god. When analyzing the varied inscriptions it may very well be decided on the premise of the typeface that there was an older and a youthful sculptor era at work, which makes the coherence of your complete frieze all of the extra exceptional. Contemplating the two.7 meter distance between the present signature and the related έπόησεν inscription (έπόησεν – “made it”), it’s suspected that there was probably one other sculptor’s signature on this house. If that’s the case, an extrapolation suggests no less than 40 taking part sculptors. The entrance aspect of this risalit was signed by two sculptors, however their names didn’t survive.
The golden-ratio software
A analysis by Patrice Foutakis tried to deliver proof on whether or not the traditional Greeks employed of their structure the golden ratio, equal to the irrational no 1.61803….. For this objective, the measurements of 15 temples, 18 monumental tombs, Eight sarcophagi and 58 grave stelae have been examined, going from the fifth century BC till the second century AD. The results of this analysis factors out that the golden ratio was completely absent from Greek structure of the fifth century BC, and virtually absent for the next six centuries. 4 uncommon examples of golden-section proportions have been recognized by this analysis in a tower, a tomb, a grave stele and within the Nice Altar of Pergamon. On the 2 frontal components of the frieze going through the observer standing in entrance of the monument, the peak to size ratio is 2.29 m. to five.17 m., that’s 1:2.25, the ratio of the Parthenon. Town of Pergamon was on wonderful phrases with Athens, its kings honored Attic artwork and supplied presents to the Parthenon, and each cities had the identical goddess, Athena, as a protector. The temple of Athena Polias Nikephoros in Pergamon, just a few meters away from the Nice Altar, additionally had a replica of the chryselephantine statue of Athena made by Phidias for the Parthenon. The 2 columned constructions flanking the frontal staircase of the Nice Altar have the form of two Ionic temples. The proportions of every of those temples are: width of the stylobate 4.722 m. to size of the stylobate 7.66 m., ratio 1:1.62. Peak with the entablature 2.93 m. to width of the stylobate 4.722 m., ratio 1:1.61. When the customer got here as much as the highest of the staircase and went by the portikon columns, he entered an inside court docket measuring, throughout the colonnade surrounding the court docket, 13.50 m. huge by 21.60 m. lengthy, ratio 1:1.60. In different phrases, in keeping with P.Foutakis, the artists of this Altar needed the spectator standing on the axis in entrance of the staircase to see two Ionic temples following the golden ratio, and, coming by these temples, to enter a courtyard proportioned to the golden ratio. The well-known political and cultural antagonism between Pergamon and Alexandria, the town the place Euclid was lively and outlined his geometrical proposition of the acute and imply ratio, may have contributed to the speedy unfold of this proposition to Pergamon, a metropolis already open to new achievements in science, sculpture, structure and politics.
The German Empire, which backed the excavation not least for causes of status, shortly started to monopolize the altar and different archaeological relics. The “Jubilee Exhibition of the Berlin Academy of Arts” in Might and June 1886 devoted a 13,000 sq. meter website to archaeological acquisitions from current excavations in Olympia and Pergamon. However for the reason that Greek authorities had not given permission to export artwork treasures, no finds from Greece may very well be proven there. As a substitute, a “Temple of Pergamon” was constructed. With a true-to-scale mannequin of the western aspect of the altar base containing chosen copies of the frieze — together with the Zeus and Athena group from the japanese frieze — an entrance space for a constructing was erected which resembled the Zeus temple in Olympia. A part of the exhibit was a mannequin of the town of Pergamon within the 2nd century AD reflecting the state of information at the moment.
Presumably probably the most putting instance of the reception of this murals is the Berlin museum which has on view a reconstruction of the altar. The design of the Pergamon Museum was impressed by the large type of the altar. For viewing the altar, certainly for learning this murals in itself, the reconstruction within the Pergamon Museum got here to be essential. The partial reconstruction of the edifice doesn’t nevertheless mirror what was the primary aspect in antiquity, the japanese wall, however fairly the alternative, western aspect with the stairway. Opinions about this reconstruction, together with the set up of the remainder of the frieze on the partitions surrounding the central exhibition room, weren’t totally favorable. Critics spoke of a frieze “turned inside out like a sleeve” and of “theatrics”.
In Nazi Germany any such structure later served as a mannequin worthy of emulation. Wilhelm Kreis selected for his Troopers’ Corridor on the Military Excessive Command headquarters in Berlin (1937/38) and for a by no means realized warriors’ monument on the foot of Mount Olympus in Greece a constructing form which was similar to the Pergamon Altar. However for the Troopers’ Corridor the frieze was restricted to the entrance face of the risalit. The friezes by the sculptor Arno Breker have been, nevertheless, by no means executed. Referencing this architectural type was not least in tune with the ideological ideas of the Nazis; an altar prompted concepts of being able to sacrifice and heroic demise. For the Nazis, the Pergamon Altar and Kreis’ two testimonies of Nazi structure have been all “cultic buildings”. The Nazis additionally tried to applicable the message behind the altar frieze, particularly the victory of fine over evil.
Peter Weiss begins his novel, The Aesthetics of Resistance, with an outline of the Gigantomachy frieze. By the use of retrospection Weiss’ contemplation can be prolonged to incorporate the altar’s origin, historical past, discovery, and reconstruction within the museum.
A few of the media and inhabitants criticized using the Pergamon Altar as a backdrop for the appliance submitted by the town of Berlin to host the Olympic summer time video games in 2000. The Senate of Berlin had invited the members of the IOC government committee to a banquet going down in entrance of the altar. That referred to as to thoughts Berlin’s software to host the video games in 1936. Additionally at the moment the Nazi Minister of the Inside Wilhelm Frick had invited the members of the IOC to a banquet specified by entrance of the altar.
In 2013, the Pergamon 2nd Life challenge, a fictional, artistically impressed photographic reconstruction of the Gigantomachy frieze, celebrated its public world premiere within the Pushkin State Museum of Advantageous Arts in Moscow.
In August 2020, whereas the Pergamon Museum was nonetheless closed due to the COVID-19 pandemic pandemic, Attila Hildmann described the altar as being the “centre of world satanists and Corona criminals”. In October of the identical 12 months it was found a number of items within the museum have been broken whereas it was closed. 
This text is predicated on a translation of the equal article “Pergamonaltar” within the German Wikipedia.
- Berlin, Staatliche Museen zu. “Staatliche Museen zu Berlin: Museums & establishments – Pergamonmuseum – Plan your go to – Openings hours”. Staatliche Museen zu Berlin. Retrieved 2019-05-19.
- Bernard Andreae: Datierung und Bedeutung des Telephosfrieses im Zusammenhang mit den übrigen Stiftungen der Ataliden von Pergamon, in: Wolf-Dieter Heilmeyer (ed.): Der Pergamonaltar. Die neue Präsentation nach Restaurierung des Telephosfrieses, Wasmuth, Tübingen 1997, p. 67.
- Bernard Andreae: Datierung und Bedeutung des Telephosfrieses im Zusammenhang mit den übrigen Stiftungen der Ataliden von Pergamon, in: Wolf-Dieter Heilmeyer (ed.): Der Pergamonaltar. Die neue Präsentation nach Restaurierung des Telephosfrieses, Wasmuth, Tübingen 1997, p. 68.
- Skulptur des Hellenismus, Hirmer, München 2001, p. 132–147, ISBN 3-7774-9200-0.
- Staatliche Museen zu Berlin. Preußischer Kulturbesitz. Antikensammlung (ed.): Die Antikensammlung im Pergamonmuseum und in Charlottenburg. Additionally Antikensammlung Berlin, von Zabern, Mainz 1992, ISBN 3-8053-1187-7. p. 25.
- Wolfgang Radt: Pergamon. Geschichte und Bauten einer antiken Metropole, Primus, Darmstadt 1999, p. 169.
- On using the altar and doable methods of sacrificing see Max Kunze: Der Pergamonaltar. Seine Geschichte, Entdeckung und Rekonstruktion. von Zabern, Mainz 1995, ISBN 3-8053-1468-X, p. 19.
- 8,14 (ed. E. Woelfflin 1873): Pergamo ara marmorea magna, alta pedes quadraginta cum maximis sculpturis; continet autem gigantomachiam.
- Pausanias 5,13,8.
- Staatliche Museen zu Berlin. Preußischer Kulturbesitz. Antikensammlung (ed.): Die Antikensammlung im Pergamonmuseum und in Charlottenburg. Auch Antikensammlung Berlin, von Zabern, Mainz 1992, ISBN 3-8053-1187-7, p. 23.
- Pliny the Elder, naturalis historia 36, 37: opus omnibus et picturae et statuariae artis praeferendum.
- Bernard Andreae: Laokoon oder die Gründung Roms, von Zabern, Mainz 1988 (Kulturgeschichte der Antiken Welt, vol. 39.
- Quoted as in Max Kunze, Volker Kästner: Antikensammlung II. Der Altar von Pergamon. Hellenistische und römische Architektur. Henschelverlag, 2. Auflage, Berlin 1990, ISBN 3-362-00436-9. p. 33.
- On Pergamon in Byzantine occasions see Wolfgang Radt and Albrecht Berger in Der Neue Pauly, vol. 9 (2000), cols. 551 and 561.
- One of many two fragments, a again view of a Big, was present in 1962 on the wall of a constructing in Worksop, (Nottinghamshire) England. The second panel, exhibiting a lifeless Big, had been constructed right into a Gothic break in Fawley Courtroom (Buckinghamshire), see: Michael Vickers: The Thunderbolt of Zeus: But Extra Fragments of the Pergamon Altar within the Arundel Assortment, in American Journal of Archaeology, vol. 89, no. 3 (July, 1985), pp. 516–519.
- Quoted as in Max Kunze, Volker Kästner: Antikensammlung II. Der Altar von Pergamon. Hellenistische und römische Architektur. Henschelverlag, 2nd version, Berlin 1990, ISBN 3-362-00436-9, p. 27.
- The Prussian Minister of Tradition in a letter to the Prussian king, Wilhelm I, quoted in Max Kunze and Volker Kästner: Antikensammlung II. Der Altar von Pergamon. Hellenistische und römische Architektur. Henschelverlag, 2nd version, Berlin 1990, ISBN 3-362-00436-9, p. 30 (translated).
- Initially, the Ottoman authorities needed to share the finds (2/Three to Germany 1/Three to Turkey), however in negotiations which happened 1878/79, which have been even influenced by Bismarck, an settlement was concluded which allotted all finds to the German Empire for a cost of 20,000 goldmarks. It helped that the Ottoman Empire was at the moment weak on the home entrance and grateful for Bismarck’s mediating position on the Congress of Berlin. See Kunze, Kästner: Antikensammlung II, p. 30; Schaller: Pergamonaltar, col. 211.
- Alexander Conze, quoted from Max Kunze, Volker Kästner: Antikensammlung II. Der Altar von Pergamon. Hellenistische und römische Architektur. Henschelverlag, 2nd version, Berlin 1990, ISBN 3-362-00436-9., p. 30 (translated).
- Wolf-Dieter Heilmeyer (ed.): Aufstellungsgeschichte im 20. Jahrhundert. Die Aufstellungen von 1901, 1930 und 1955, Wasmuth, Tübingen 1997, ISBN 3-8030-1045-4. See there: Heilmeyer: Der Pergamonaltar. Die neue Präsentation nach Restaurierung des Telephosfrieses, p. 17.
- Detailed description in Wolf-Dieter Heilmeyer: Der Pergamonaltar. Die neue Präsentation nach Restaurierung des Telephosfrieses, Wasmuth, Tübingen 1997, ISBN 3-8030-1045-4.
- Berliner Zeitung On-line, 25 January 2003 and 10 June 2004 (in German).
- Die Welt: Pergamon-Altar soll in neuem Glanz erstrahlen. 21 March 2003
- die tageszeitung, 12 Dec. 2002, http://www.taz.de/pt/2002/12/12/a0186.1/textual content.ges,1.
- Wolfgang Radt: Pergamon. Geschichte und Bauten einer antiken Metropole, Primus, Darmstadt 1999, ISBN 3-89678-116-2, p. 170.
- On the design see Max Kunze: Der Pergamonaltar. Seine Geschichte, Entdeckung und Rekonstruktion. von Zabern, Mainz 1995, ISBN 3-8053-1468-X, p. 19.
- These measurements are in keeping with Wolfgang Radt: Pergamon. Geschichte und Bauten einer antiken Metropole, Primus, Darmstadt 1999 ISBN 3-89678-116-2, p. 171. Max Kunze, Volker Kästner: Antikensammlung II. Der Altar von Pergamon. Hellenistische und römische Architektur. Henschelverlag, 2. Auflage, Berlin 1990, ISBN 3-362-00436-9., p. 47 give the size as 36.44 meter huge and 34.20 meters lengthy.
- Thomas Cramer: Multivariate Herkunftsanalyse von Marmor auf petrographischer und geochemischer Foundation – Das Beispiel kleinasiatischer archaischer, hellenistischer und römischer Marmorobjekte der Berliner Antikensammlung und ihre Zuordnung zu mediterranen und anatolischen Marmorlagerstätten. Dissertation FG Lagerstättenforschung, Berlin, 340 pages, 2004, URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:kobv:83-opus-7426 The marble of the Pergamon Altar got here from the island of Marmara.
- In response to Wolfgang Radt: Pergamon. Geschichte und Bauten einer antiken Metropole, Primus, Darmstadt 1999 ISBN 3-89678-116-2, p. 173; in Max Kunze, Volker Kästner: Antikensammlung II. Der Altar von Pergamon. Hellenistische und römische Architektur, Henschelverlag, 2. Auflage, Berlin 1990, ISBN 3-362-00436-9, p. 47, the determine is 120 meters.
- On the design and dimensions see Wolfgang Radt: Pergamon. Geschichte und Bauten einer antiken Metropole, Primus, Darmstadt 1999 ISBN 3-89678-116-2, p. 171-174, and Max Kunze, Volker Kästner: Antikensammlung II. Der Altar von Pergamon. Hellenistische und römische Architektur, Henschelverlag, 2. Auflage, Berlin 1990, ISBN 3-362-00436-9, p. 47.
- “Archäologie: Der Kampf der Götter gegen den Rost”. Zeit On-line. www.zeit.de. December 2003.CS1 maint: others (hyperlink)
- This Big had beforehand been recognized as Ephialtes, see Queyrel, pp. 55–56.
- Max Kunze: Der grosse Marmoraltar von Pergamon, Berlin 1988, p. 24.
- Max Kunze: Der Pergamonaltar. Seine Geschichte, Entdeckung und Rekonstruktion. von Zabern, Mainz 1995, pp. 45-47; detailed description in: Wolf-Dieter Heilmeyer (ed.): Der Pergamonaltar. Die neue Präsentation nach Restaurierung des Telephosfrieses. Wasmuth, Tübingen 1997.
- Huberta Heres, Volker Kästner, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin Preußischer Kulturbesitz, Führungsblatt-Nr. Ant 2E 1997.
- On the gathering of statues see Max Kunze: Der Pergamonaltar. Seine Geschichte, Entdeckung und Rekonstruktion. von Zabern, Mainz 1995, ISBN 3-8053-1468-X., p. 21.
- Staatliche Museen zu Berlin. Preußischer Kulturbesitz. Antikensammlung (ed.): Die Antikensammlung im Pergamonmuseum und in Charlottenburg. Auch Antikensammlung Berlin, von Zabern, Mainz 1992, ISBN 3-8053-1187-7., p. 35f.
- Bernard Andreae: Laokoon und die Gründung Roms, von Zabern, Mainz 1988.
- Staatliche Museen zu Berlin. Preußischer Kulturbesitz. Antikensammlung (ed.): Die Antikensammlung im Pergamonmuseum und in Charlottenburg. Additionally Antikensammlung Berlin, von Zabern, Mainz 1992, ISBN 3-8053-1187-7, p. 36.
- D. Thimme in: American Journal of Archaeology 50 (1946), p. 348.
- Max Kunze: Theorretos, In: Künstlerlexikon der Antike, Nikol, Hamburg 2007, S. 897 ISBN 978-3-937872-53-7.
- Patrice Foutakis, “Did the Greeks Construct In response to the Golden Ratio?”, Cambridge Archaeological Journal, vol. 24, n° 1, February 2014, p. 78-80.
- “The Pergamon Altar”. Smarthistory at Khan Academy. Retrieved April 5, 2013.
- Hans-Joachim Schalles: Der Pergamon-Altar zwischen Bewertung und Verwertbarkeit, Fischer, Frankfurt am Predominant 1991 ISBN 3-596-23935-4, col. 212-214.
- Hans-Joachim Schalles: Der Pergamon-Altar zwischen Bewertung und Verwertbarkeit, Fischer, Frankfurt am Predominant 1991 ISBN 3-596-23935-4, col. 211-212.
- Hans-Joachim Schalles: Der Pergamon-Altar zwischen Bewertung und Verwertbarkeit, Fischer, Frankfurt am Predominant 1991 ISBN 3-596-23935-4, col. 214.
- Hans-Joachim Schalles: Der Pergamon-Altar zwischen Bewertung und Verwertbarkeit, Fischer, Frankfurt am Predominant 1991 ISBN 3-596-23935-4, col. 214-215.
- Hans-Joachim Schalles: Der Pergamon-Altar zwischen Bewertung und Verwertbarkeit, Fischer, Frankfurt am Predominant 1991 ISBN 3-596-23935-4, col. 215.
For additional info
- Each friezes might be seen of their entirety and in wonderful high quality in an interactive Flash Viewer at http://www.secondpage.de/pergamonaltar/gigantomachie.html
- Many segments of each friezes might be seen at http://worldvisitguide.com
- Pollitt, J.J., Artwork within the Hellenstic Age (Cambridge 1986)
- Queyrel, François, L’Autel de Pergame. Photographs et pouvoir en Grèce d’Asie. Antiqua vol. 9. Paris: Éditions A. et J. Picard, 2005. See Bryn Mawr Classical Evaluate 2005.08.42.
- Ridgway, B.S. 2000. Hellenistic Sculpture II. The Kinds of ca. 200-100 BC, (Madison, Wisconsin)
- Stewart, A. 2000. “Pergamon Ara Marmorea Magna. On the Date, Reconstruction, and Features of the Nice Altar of Pergamon” in N. De Grummond and B.S. Ridgway, editors, From Pergamon to Sperlonga: Sculpture and Context (Berkeley).
- Hoffmann, Herbert, “Antecedents of the Nice Altar at Pergamon” The Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 11.3 (October 1952), pp. 1–5.
- Thomas Cramer, Klaus Germann, Wolf-Dieter Heilmeyer: Marble objects from Asia Minor within the Berlin Assortment of Classical Antiquities: stone traits and provenance − In: Yannis Maniatis (ed.): ASMOSIA VII. The Examine of Marble and Different Stones in Antiquity – Proceedings of the seventh Worldwide Convention of the Affiliation for the Examine of Marble and Different Stones in Antiquity. Bulletin de Correspondance Hellénique, Vol. Supplèment 51, Athen 2009, ISSN 0007-4217, pp. 371–383.
- Bilsel, Can. 2012. Antiquity On Show: Regimes of the Genuine In Berlin’s Pergamon Museum. Oxford: Oxford College Press.
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- Dreyfus, Renée, and Ellen Schraudolph. 1996. Pergamon: The Telephos Frieze From the Nice Altar. San Francisco: Advantageous Arts Museums of San Francisco.
- Kahl, Brigitte. 2010. Galatians Re-Imagined: Studying with the Eyes of the Vanquished. Minneapolis: Fortress Press.
- Pollitt, J. J. 2002. Artwork within the Hellenistic age. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.
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- Smith, R. R. 1991. Hellenistic sculpture: A handbook. World of Artwork. London and New York: Thames & Hudson.