PEAR TREE (PYRUS COMMUNIS, PYRUS PYRIFOLIA) TAXONOMY
Pear bushes are positioned within the Rose household (Rosaceae), subfamily Pomoideae together with apple and quince. The genus Pyrus consists of about 22 species, present in Asia, Europe, and northern Africa. Two main species are commercially cultivated:
European pear: Pyrus communis L. This pear tree species doesn’t happen in nature, and presumably derives from P. caucasia and P. nivalis (snow pear). That is the most important pear of commerce.
Asian pear: P. pyrifolia (Burm. f.) Nak. [syn. P. serotina L.]. Additionally referred to as “Japanese” or “Oriental” pear, or “Nashi”. Grown principally within the Orient, this fruit has been rising in recognition within the USA during the last 20 years.
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Asian pears seem extra like apple than European pear, and have arduous, crisp flesh like apples when ripe, not like the melting flesh European pears. Additionally, Asian pears will ripen on bushes like apples, however European pears are topic to core breakdown if allowed to ripen totally on-tree.
There are comparatively few cultivars of European or Asian pear grown worldwide. Solely about 20-25 European and 10-20 Asian cultivars characterize just about all of the pears of commerce. Virtually all European cultivars had been probability seedlings or alternatives originating in western Europe, principally France. The entire Asian cultivars originated in Japan and China. ‘Bartlett’ is the commonest pear cultivar on the earth, and represents about 75% of US pear manufacturing.
ORIGIN AND HISTORY OF THE PEAR TREE (PYRUS COMMUNIS, PYRUS PYRIFOLIA), HISTORY OF CULTIVATION
Like its relative the apple, the European pear will not be discovered within the wild. Its possible progenitors are native to Japanese Europe and Asia Minor close to the Mediterranean, however it’s not identified when they could have hybridized to yield P. communis. The European pear has been chosen and improved since prehistoric instances, and was cultivated in Europe in 1000 BC. Pears in all probability got here to the brand new world with the primary settlers on the east coast, and unfold westward with pioneers. When moved to the Pacific northwest within the 1800s, European pears had been in a position to escape fireplace blight, a critical bacterial illness that restricted pear cultivation within the east. Right this moment, over 90% of the pear crop is grown within the Pacific northwest, such because the Hood River Valley of oregon (proven), and California.
Asian pears had been domesticated in China about the identical time European pears had been in Europe, 3000 years in the past. P. pyrifolia is native to central and southern China, and doubtless the primary to be domesticated since fruit of untamed bushes is edible. Fruit of untamed P. ussuriensis is astringent, small, and course-textured, in order that it was in all probability hybridized with P. pyrifolia previous to domestication. Chinese language writings relationship from 200-1000 BC describe pear propagation and tradition. Asian pears moved from China to Japan, Korea, and Taiwan, the place they’re cultivated commercially at this time.
WORLD AND UNITED STATES PEAR (PYRUS COMMUNIS, PYRUS PYRIFOLIA) PRODUCTION
World (2004 FAO) – 17,909,496 MT or 39.Four billion kilos. Pears are produced commercially in 81 international locations on 4.Three million acres.
High 10 international locations
(% of world manufacturing)
|1. China (56)||6. Argentina (3)|
|2. Italy (5)||7. Rep. of Korea (2)|
|3. USA (5)||8. Japan (2)|
|4. Spain (4)||9. Turkey (2)|
|5. Germany (3)||10. S. Africa (2)|
United States (2004 USDA) – 812,054 MT or 1.Eight billion kilos. Pears are produced in 9 states on 65,000 acres. Yields common 29,000 lbs/acre, about Three instances the world common. The business worth was $296 million in 2004; growers acquired 16 ¢/lb in 2004. The main states are WA, CA, and OR, in that order.
For the freshest statistical knowledge on United States and World manufacturing numbers please check with the next two web sites:
World: The Meals and Agriculture Group of the United Nations Statistics Division (FAOSTAT). FAOSTAT
United States: The USA Division of Agriculture Nationwide Agricultural Statistics Service (USDA Ag Stats). USDA Ag Stats
PEAR TREE (PYRUS COMMUNIS, PYRUS PYRIFOLIA) BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION
A medium sized, upright rising tree, to 30 ft tall, usually 8-18 ft in cultivation. Pear tree measurement is closely depending on rootstock and coaching system. Leaves are elliptic/ovate with acute ideas, with finely serrate or complete margins, 2-4″ in size.
Flowers are about 1″ in diameter with white petals, and just like apple aside from having longer pedicels. The inflorescence is corymbose, containing 5-7 flowers (additionally completely different from apple).
Most cultivars require cross pollination for industrial fruit set. Some cultivars are partially self-fruitful – ‘Bartlett’, ‘Orient’, ‘Baldwin’, ‘Kieffer’, ‘Spalding’. Honey bees are the principle pollinator.
A pyriform (European) or spherical (Asian) pome. As in apple, the fleshy edible portion is derived from hypanthium tissue. There are 5 central seed cavities, often bearing 2 seeds every as in apple. The flesh comprises grit cells (termed brachysclereids), that are thick-walled, lignified cells that give the attribute European pear flesh texture. Pears are thinned to 1-2 fruit per spur, spaced 6″ aside.
PEAR TREE (PYRUS COMMUNIS, PYRUS PYRIFOLIA) GENERAL CULTURE
Soils and Local weather
Pear bushes tolerate heavy, poorly drained soils higher than most tree fruits. Nonetheless, productiveness is finest on deep, well-drained loams with pH 6-7. Pear bushes have very related climatic necessities to apples, however are far more inclined to fireside blight and due to this fact can not tolerate humid, moist springs. Pears require 900-1000 chill hours to interrupt dormancy, though some low chill cultivars exist, and plenty of Asian pears have decrease chill necessities and may be grown as far south as northern Florida. Pears have related or barely decrease chilly hardiness than apples, tolerating -10 to -20 F. Pears bloom 1-Three weeks earlier than apple, and are due to this fact susceptible to frost injury in most areas. Pears mature in as little as 90 days, or so long as 200 days. ‘Bartlett’ and its sports activities are known as “summer time pears” since they ripen in July – August in California (115-140 days). “Winter pears” are these harvested in autumn and marketed all through the winter months, equivalent to ‘Anjou’, ‘Bosc’, ‘Comice’, ‘Hardy’, ‘Winter Nelis’, and ‘Packham’s Triumph’.
Normal sized pears are chip or t-budded onto suitable rootstocks like most tree fruits. Nonetheless, the place quince (Cydonia oblonga) is used as a dwarfing inventory, most pear scions require an interstem for compatibility (of main cultivars, solely ‘Anjou’, ‘Comice’ and ‘Hardy’ are suitable with quince, and all Asian cultivars are incompatible).
Frequent rootstocks for pears [Modified from Westwood 1993 and Lombard and Westwood 1987].
|Rootstock||Pear Decline||Fireplace blight||Chilly hardiness||Tree measurement (% of Outdated Residence clonal)|
|Outdated Residence clonal||resis||resis||good||100|
|OH x F||resis||resis||good||60-100|
|P. communisseedlings||mod resis||suscept||good||90|
|P. calleryanaseedling||mod resis||reisis||poor||90|
Planting Design, Coaching, Pruning
Pear orchards are designed similar to apple orchards. Normal bushes are spaced at 25 x 25 ft (70 bushes/acre), however hedgerow types are extra frequent in excessive density plantings, with tons of of bushes per acre. Pollinizers are planted in alternate rows, or each 10th or 15th tree inside hedgerows.
The most typical system is central chief for free-standing bushes and a few type of palmette for trellised orchards. Preliminary tree coaching is especially vital with pear since scaffolds are likely to develop practically vertically, inflicting poor crotch angles and delayed fruiting. Aside from this tendency to develop upright, and due to this fact higher want for limb spreaders, pears are skilled and pruned in the identical manner as apples.
Fireplace blight (Erwinia amylovera). It is a extreme bacterial illness for just about all pear cultivars, notably in heat, moist springs. The micro organism are carried by bees from tree to tree at bloom, and might kill all or many of the flowers on a tree if extreme. Very inclined cultivars present twig and spur dieback or full tree loss of life. Flowers, twigs, and leaves usually flip black and wilt; shoot ideas droop over, giving a particular “Shepherd’s Criminal” look.
PEAR (PYRUS COMMUNIS, PYRUS PYRIFOLIA) HARVEST, POSTHARVEST HANDLING
European pears are harvested when “agency mature”; flesh firmness is essentially the most dependable indicator of pear maturity. Firmness within the vary of 10-15 lbs as measured by a strain tester is fascinating for many cultivars.
Pears for are picked by hand a number of instances over a 10-20 day interval.
Postharvest Dealing with
Normal packing line procedures are used for pear – hydrocooling, washing, culling, waxing, sorting, and packing. High quality grade is predicated on measurement and look of pores and skin; higher costs are obtained for bigger fruit and people with minimal floor blemishes.
Pears are saved slightly below freezing as much as a number of months, then ripened for just a few days at 70-75 F previous to consumption or canning. Not like apples, pears usually are not topic to chilling harm. ‘Bartlett’ can solely be saved for just a few months, whereas ‘Anjou’ and ‘Winter Nelis’ may be saved for 5-7 months.
THE PEAR (PYRUS COMMUNIS, PYRUS PYRIFOLIA)’S CONTRIBUTION TO DIET
Within the USA, 55-60% of pear manufacturing is marketed as recent fruit, and the majority of the processed fruit is canned. Per capita consumption of pears within the USA was 5.6 lbs in 2004.
Dietary worth, per 100 gram edible portion
|Crude Fiber (%)||1.4|
|% of US RDA*|
* P.c of beneficial each day allowance set by FDA, assuming a 154 lb male grownup, 2700 energy per day.