Bottles and a glass of palm wine

Palm toddy Wikipedia

Alcoholic beverage produced from tree sap

Palm wine
Bottles and a glass of palm wine
Kind Alcoholic beverage
Nation of origin Worldwide

Palm wine, identified by a number of native names, is an alcoholic beverage created from the sap of varied species of palm tree such because the palmyra, date palms, and coconut palms.[1][2] It’s identified by varied names in several areas and is frequent in varied elements of South Asia, Africa, the Caribbean, South America, South East Asia and Micronesia.

Palm wine manufacturing by smallholders and particular person farmers might promote conservation as palm bushes grow to be a supply of normal family earnings which will economically be value greater than the worth of timber offered.[3]


The sap is extracted and picked up by a tapper. Usually the sap is collected from the reduce flower of the palm tree. A container is mounted to the flower stump to gather the sap. The white liquid that originally collects tends to be very candy and non-alcoholic earlier than it’s fermented. Another methodology is the felling of your complete tree. The place that is practised, a hearth is usually lit on the reduce finish to facilitate the gathering of sap.

Palm sap begins fermenting instantly after assortment, resulting from pure yeasts within the air (usually spurred by residual yeast left within the amassing container). Inside two hours, fermentation yields an fragrant wine of as much as 4% alcohol content material, mildly intoxicating and candy. The wine could also be allowed to ferment longer, as much as a day, to yield a stronger, extra bitter and acidic style, which some individuals choose. Longer fermentation produces vinegar as an alternative of stronger wine.[4]


Palm wine could also be distilled to create a stronger drink, which matches by completely different names relying on the area (e.g., arrack, village gin, charayam, and nation whiskey).

All through Nigeria, that is generally referred to as ogogoro. In some elements of Cameroon, it is called Afofo. In elements of southern Ghana, distilled palm wine is named akpeteshi or burukutu. In Togo and Benin, it’s referred to as sodabe, whereas in Tunisia it’s referred to as lagmi. In coastal elements of Kenya, it is called “chang’aa”. Chang’aa could be utilized to wounds to cease heavy bleeding[citation needed] (mechanism of motion not identified). In Ivory Coast, it’s referred to as “koutoukou”.

Within the Philippines, the most typical distilled palm liquor is lambanog which is produced from aged tubâ. It has very excessive alcohol by quantity, at 40 to 45% abv (80 to 90 proof).[5]

Consumption by area[]


In Africa, the sap used to create palm wine is most frequently taken from wild datepalms such because the silver date palm (Phoenix sylvestris), the palmyra, and the jaggery palm (Caryota urens), or from oil palm such because the African Oil Palm (Elaeis guineense) or from Raffia palms, kithul palms, or nipa palms. In a part of central and western Democratic Republic of the Congo, palm wine is named malafu. Palm wine tapping is talked about within the novel Issues Fall Aside by the Nigerian author Chinua Achebe and is central to the plot of the novel The Palm Wine Drinkard by Nigerian writer Amos Tutuola.
Palm wine performs an vital position in lots of ceremonies in elements of Nigeria similar to among the many Igbo peoples, and elsewhere in Central and Western Africa. Company at weddings, delivery celebrations, and funeral wakes are served beneficiant portions. Palm wine is usually infused with medicinal herbs to treatment all kinds of bodily complaints. As a token of respect to deceased ancestors, many ingesting classes start with a small quantity of palm wine spilled on the bottom (Kulosa malafu in Kikongo ya Leta). Palm wine is loved by women and men, though girls often drink it in much less public venues.

In elements of southeastern Nigeria, specifically Igboland, palm wine is domestically known as “mmanya ocha” (actually, “white drink”), with “ngwo” and “nkwu” variants. It performs a vital position in conventional Igbo settings. In Urualla, as an example, and different “ideator” cities, it’s the drink of alternative for conventional weddings. A younger man who’s going for the primary introduction at his in-laws’ home is required to deliver palm wine with him. There are various gallons of palm wine required, relying on the customs of the completely different areas in Igboland. This tradition could be noticed similarly within the neighboring north-western areas of Cameroon. (North West Area).[citation needed]

There are 4 forms of palm wine within the central and southern Democratic Republic of the Congo. From the oil palm comes ngasi, dibondo comes from the raffia palm, cocoti from the coconut palm, and mahusu from a brief palm which grows within the savannah areas of western Bandundu and Kasai provinces.

South Asia[]

Toddy-tapper climbing a toddy palm in Madras, ca. 1785

In South Asian nations similar to Bangladesh, India, and Sri Lanka, coconut palms and Palmyra palms such because the Arecaceae and Borassus are most popular. It’s primarily produced from the lala palm (Hyphaene coriacea) by chopping the stem and amassing the sap. In some areas of India, palm wine is evaporated to provide the unrefined sugar referred to as jaggery.

A toddy tapper within the state of Telangana promoting toddy (2014)

Toddy drawer in India, 1870

In elements of India, the unfermented sap is named neera (pathaneer in Tamil Nadu) and is refrigerated, saved and distributed by semi-government businesses. Somewhat lime (calcium hydroxide) is added to the sap to stop it from fermenting. Neera, much like fruit-juice merchandise, is comparatively wealthy in potassium.

In India, palm wine or toddy is served as both neera or pathaneer (a candy, non-alcoholic beverage derived from contemporary sap) or kallu (a bitter beverage produced from fermented sap, however not as sturdy as wine).[6] Palm sap comprises pure yeasts, which carry out the fermentation of glucose to alcohol, in addition to acetobacter, which subsequently converts the alcohol to acetic acid (vinegar). Optimum consumption time is sooner or later after tapping when the vinegar content material is minimal; past this time, it turns into more and more bitter. Some palm wine drinkers choose their beverage extra bitter than standard, however fermenting for too lengthy will end in vinegar quite than wine. Refrigeration extends beverage life, as do a wide range of spices, which additionally contribute taste.

In India, palm wine is often accessible at toddy retailers (referred to as Kallu Shaap in [Malayalam], Kallu Kadai in [Tamil], Kalitha Gadang in Tulu, Kallu Dukanam in Telugu, Kallu Angadi in Kannada or “Toddy Store” in English). In Tamil Nadu, this beverage is at the moment banned, although the legality fluctuates with politics. Within the absence of authorized toddy, moonshine distillers of arrack usually promote methanol-contaminated alcohol, which might have deadly penalties. To discourage this follow, authorities have pushed for cheap “Indian Made Overseas Liquor” (IMFL).

In states of Telangana, Andhra Pradesh (India), toddy is a well-liked drink in rural elements that’s ceaselessly consumed on the finish of the day after work.

There are two principal forms of kallu in states of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh, specifically Thadi Kallu (from Toddy Palmyra bushes) and Eetha Kallu (from silver date palms). Eetha Kallu may be very candy and fewer intoxicating, whereas Thati Kallu is stronger (candy within the morning, changing into bitter to bitter-sour within the night) and is extremely intoxicating. Individuals get pleasure from kallu proper on the bushes the place it’s introduced down. They drink out of leaves by holding them to their mouths whereas the Goud pours the kallu from the binki (kallu pot). There are several types of toddy (kallu) in accordance with the season: 1. poddathadu, 2. parpudthadu, 3. pandudthadu,[citation needed].

Within the Indian state of Kerala, toddy is utilized in leavening (as an alternative to yeast) a neighborhood type of hopper referred to as the “Vellayappam”. Toddy is blended with rice dough and left in a single day to help in fermentation and enlargement of the dough inflicting the dough to rise in a single day, making the bread gentle when ready.

In Kerala, toddy is offered beneath a license issued by the excise division and it’s an trade having greater than 50,000 staff with a welfare board beneath the labor division. It is usually used within the preparation of a gentle number of Sanna, which is legendary within the elements of Karnataka and Goa in India.

Indonesia and Malaysia[]

Lithograph of a palm wine vendor and a local KNIL soldier consuming tuak (1854)

Tuak is imbibed in Sumatra, Sulawesi, Kalimantan and Bali of Indonesia and elements of Malaysia similar to Sabah and Sarawak in East Malaysia. The beverage is a well-liked drink among the many Kadazan-Dusun, Ibans and the Dayaks throughout the Gawai and Kaamatan festivals, weddings, internet hosting of visitors and different particular events. The Batak individuals of North Sumatra additionally eat palm wine,[7] with the palm sap is blended with raru bark to make Tuak. The brew is served at stalls together with snacks.[1] The identical phrase is used for different drinks in Indonesia, for instance, these made utilizing fermented rice.


Mexican tuba produced from coconut sap is frequent in western Mexico, particularly within the states of Colima, Jalisco, Michoacán, and Guerrero. Coconuts will not be native to the Americas. They have been launched to Mexico from the Philippines by way of the Manila Galleons to Acapulco, together with tuba manufacturing.[8][9][10] Mexican tuba is made in the identical approach as Filipino tubâ. The normal sap collectors are referred to as tuberos (which additionally means “plumber” in each Mexico and the Philippines). It turned so fashionable that in 1619, Captain Sebastian de Piñeda wrote to King Philip III of Spain complaining of the Filipino “Indio” settlers in Nueva España who have been inflicting vital lack of earnings to Iberian alcohol exporters resulting from tuba.[11][12]

Mexican tuba can be generally offered as tuba fresca, a non-alcoholic model produced from contemporary coconut sap. It’s historically offered by avenue distributors in giant bottle gourds blended with coconut milk, ice, and sugar. It’s often topped with peanuts and diced fruit.[13][14]


Palm wines are extensively consumed within the Philippines and are a part of the normal palm vinegar trade. They’re gathered largely from coconuts, nipa palms, or kaong palms. Palm wines fermented for just a few days to some weeks are usually known as tubâ. There are two notable conventional derivations of tubâ with larger alcohol contents. The primary is the lambanog of Luzon island within the northern Philippines that distilled and is milky white to clear in color. The second, is the bahalina of the Visayas and Mindanao islands which is often deep brown-orange in color resulting from the usage of bark extracts from the mangrove Ceriops tagal.[5]

Different forms of palm wines indigenous to the islands embody subtypes of tubâ like tuhak or tubâ sa hidikup which is produced from kaong palm sap, and tunggang which is produced from fishtail palm sap.[5]

On the island of Leyte within the central Philippines, the crimson tubâ is aged with the tanbark for as much as six months to 2 years, till it will get darkish crimson and tapping its glass container provides off a deep hole sound. This kind of tubâ is named bahal (for tubâ aged this manner for as much as six months) and bahalina (for tubâ aged thus for as much as a 12 months or extra).

South America[]

Manufacturing of palm wine might have contributed to the endangered standing of the Chilean wine palm (Jubaea chilensis).[15]

Different areas[]

In Tuvalu, the method of creating toddy can clearly be seen with tapped palm bushes that line Funafuti Worldwide Airport.
In Kiribati, it’s referred to as Karewe and freshly tapped sap from coconut spathe is used as a refreshing drink and the fermented sap is used as an alcoholic beverage. Karewe is boiled to scale back right into a thick mild brown liquid, referred to as kamwaimwai, used as sweetener and unfold.

Consumption by animals[]

Some small pollinating mammals eat giant quantities of fermented palm nectar as a part of their weight loss program, particularly the southeast Asian pen-tailed treeshrew. The inflorescences of the bertam palm include populations of yeast which ferment the nectar within the flowers to as much as 3.8% alcohol (common: 0.6%). The treeshrews metabolise the alcohol very effectively and don’t seem to grow to be drunk from the fermented nectar.[16]

Megabats have been identified to drink from containers of harvested palm sap after which urinate into the containers, resulting in the transmission of the Nipah virus.


There are a number of regional names for Palm wine:

State / Territory / Area Identify used
Algeria لاقمي lāgmi
Bangladesh তাড়ি taṛi, তাড়ু taṛu, tuak[17]
Benin sodavi (distilled), sodabe, atan
Cambodia tuk tnout choo[18]
Cameroon mimbo,[19]matango, mbuh, tumbu liquor, white stuff
Central America vino de coyol
Individuals’s Republic of China 棕榈酒 zōng lǘ jiǔ[20]
Democratic Republic of the Congo malafu ya ngasi (Kikongo), masanga ya mbila (Lingala), vin de palme (French)
East Timor tuaka, tua mutin, brandy is named tua sabu
Gabon toutou
Gambia singer
Ghana doka, nsafufuo, palm wine, yabra, dεha, tér daññ
Guam tuba

கள்ளு kaḷḷu in Tamil
കള്ള് kaḷḷŭ in Malayalam
ಕಳ್ಳು kaḷḷu or sendi in Kannada
kali in Tulu
తాటి కల్లు tāṭi kallu in Telugu
Tadi in Assam, Odisha, and Maharashtra
তাড়ি taṛi in Bengali
നീര nīra in Kerala, Maharashtra, and elements of Coastal Karnataka
sur in Konkani

Indonesia arak[17] or tuak. In Batak area, North Sumatra: lapo tuak. In South Sulawesi (particularly in Tana Toraja): ballo. In North Sulawesi: saguer
Ivory Coast bandji, koutoukou (when it’s additional distilled)
Kenya mnazi (which implies coconut palm in Mijikenda)
Kiribati karewe
Libya لاقبي lāgbi [ˈlaːɡbi]
Malaysia nira (Malay for contemporary juice obtained from the blossom of the coconut, palm or sugar-palm, which could be made into sugar or the stated palm wine, which is also called tuak[17]), toddy (English), bahar (Kadazan/Dusun), goribon (Rungus), tuba (Borneo)
Maldives dhoaraa, rukuraa, meeraa
Mali bandji, sibiji, chimichama
Marianas tuba
Mexico tuba (garnished with peanuts, originated from the Philippines)
Myanmar ထန်းရည် htan yay
Namibia omulunga, palm-wine
Nepal tāri तारि
Nigeria palm-wine, palmy, ukọt nsuñ, mmin efik, emu, oguro, tombo liquor, mmanya ngwo, nkwu enu, nkwu ocha
Papua New Guinea segero, tuak
Philippines tubâ, soom,[17]lambanóg (distilled), bahalina (Waray Visayan)
Seychelles kalou
Sierra Leone poyo, mampama
South Africa ubusulu, injemane
Sri Lanka රා (Sinhala), கள்ளு kaḷḷu (Tamil), panam culloo[17]
Tanzania pómbe (which implies alcohol) or tembo[21]
Thailand kache, namtanmao
Tunisia لاقمي lāgmi
Tuvalu kaleve (unfermented), kao (fermented), or in English, toddy (unfermented), bitter toddy (fermented)
Vietnam rượu dừa;[17]

aTelugu, Tamil and Malayalam.


In fashionable tradition[]

The tapping and consumption of palm wine are recurrent motifs within the Chinua Achebe novel Issues Fall Aside,[22] and within the Amos Tutuola novel The Palm-Wine Drinkard.[23]

See additionally[]



  1. ^ a b Having fun with ‘tuak’ in Batak nation by Wan Ulfa Nur Zuhra, NORTH SUMATRA, Characteristic, 21 January 2013 Jakarta Publish
  2. ^ Rundel, Philip W. The Chilean Wine Palm Archived Four January 2006 on the Wayback Machine within the Mildred E. Mathias Botanical Backyard Publication, Fall 2002, Quantity 5(4). Retrieved 31 August 2008
  3. ^ Confirel:Sugar Palm Tree – Conservation of pure heritage. Retrieved 15 April 2012
  4. ^ “Fermented and greens. A world perspective. Chapter 4”. Retrieved 5 February 2018.
  5. ^ a b c Sanchez, Priscilla C. (2008). Philippine Fermented Meals: Ideas and Know-how. UP Press. pp. 151–153. ISBN 9789715425544.
  6. ^ “WebHost4Life”. Retrieved 5 February 2018.
  7. ^ Putri, Edira. “A Information to Indonesia’s Conventional Alcoholic Drinks”. Tradition Journey. Retrieved 25 July 2020.
  8. ^ Astudillo-Melgar, Fernando; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrián; Utrilla, José; Huerta-Beristain, Gerardo (22 March 2019). “Bacterial Range and Inhabitants Dynamics In the course of the Fermentation of Palm Wine From Guerrero Mexico”. Frontiers in Microbiology. 10: 531. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2019.00531. PMC 6440455. PMID 30967846.
  9. ^ Veneracion, Jaime (2008). “The Philippine-Mexico Connection”. In Poddar, Prem; Patke, Rajeev S.; Jensen, Lars (eds.). Historic Companion to Postcolonial Literatures – Continental Europe and its Empires. Edinburgh College Press. p. 574. ISBN 9780748630271.
  10. ^ Mercene, Floro L. (2007). Manila Males within the New World: Filipino Migration to Mexico and the Americas from the Sixteenth Century. UP Press. p. 125. ISBN 9789715425292.
  11. ^ Gibbs, H.D.; Holmes, W.C. (1912). “The Alcohol Trade of the Philippine Islands Half II: Distilled Liquors; their Consumption and Manufacture”. The Philippine Journal of Science: Part A. 7: 19–46.
  12. ^ “Tradition of Colima”. Explorando Mexico. Retrieved 5 Might 2019.
  13. ^ Esparza, Invoice (28 Might 2015). “Past Aguas Frescas: Two Refreshing Mexican Coolers to Attempt This Summer time”. Los Angeles Journal. Retrieved 5 Might 2019.
  14. ^ “Speaking Tuba”. Vallarta Immediately. Retrieved 5 Might 2019.
  15. ^ C. Michael Hogan. 2008. Chilean Wine Palm: Jubaea chilensis,, ed. N. Stromberg Archived 17 October 2012 on the Wayback Machine
  16. ^ Frank Wiens, Annette Zitzmann, Marc-André Lachance, Michel Yegles, Fritz Pragst, Friedrich M. Wurst, Dietrich von Holst, Noticed Leng Guan, and Rainer Spanagel. Power consumption of fermented floral nectar by wild treeshrews Proceedings of the Nationwide Academy of Sciences. Revealed on-line earlier than print 28 July 2008. Retriev 25 August 2008
  17. ^ Gnarfgnarf:Palm wine, rice wine, grape wine, beers and different drinks and drinks of Cambodia, 9 April 2012. Retrieved 15 April 2012
  18. ^ Anchimbe – Creating New Names for Frequent Issues in Cameroon English (I-TESL-J)
  19. ^ “English-Chinese language Translation of “palm wine“. Websaru Dictionary. Retrieved 20 January 2012.
  20. ^ Tough Guides (2015). The Tough Information to Tanzania. Tough Guides UK. ISBN 978-0-241-23749-6.
  21. ^ Achebe, Chinua. Issues Fall Aside. UK: William Heinemann Ltd., 1958.
  22. ^ Tutuola, Amos. The Palm-Wine Drinkard. Grove Press, 1954.

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