Palm Fruit Photos

Palm Fruit Photos

Pejibaye Palm, Coconut, Date Palm, Senegal Date Palm,
African Oil Palm, Noticed Palmetto, Jelly Palm, Betel Nut,
Amazonian Starnut Palm, and Chilean Wine Palm

Pejibaye Palm (Bactris gasipaes)

The pejibaye palm (Bactris gasipaes) of Costa Rica. Left: Mature palm in Tortuguero Nationwide Park bearing clusters of fruit; Proper: Recent palm fruit on the market in San Jose, Costa Rica. The pejibaye palm is a local Costa Rican palm. It’s also the known as the peach palm due to the scrumptious, pink, peach-like fruits. Like different species of Bactris, the trunk is roofed with sharp, stiff spines (barely discernible in photograph).

Coconut Palm (Cocos nucifera)

The fruit of the coconut (Cocos nucifera) is technically a big, dry drupe (D) composed of a skinny outer layer (exocarp), a thick, fibrous center layer known as a mesocarp (F), and a tough inside layer known as an endocarp (E) that surrounds a big seed. The endocarp (A) accommodates three germination pores at one finish, certainly one of which the sprouting coconut palm grows by means of. The “meat” of the seed is endosperm tissue (B) and a small, cylindrical embryo is embedded on this nutritive tissue simply reverse the purposeful germination pore. The seed is surrounded by an outer brown layer known as the seed coat or testa. That is the brown materials that adheres to the white “meat” or endosperm when it’s faraway from the endocarp shell. “Coconut water” (C) is multinucleate liquid endosperm that has not developed into strong tissue composed of cells. Copra comes from the meat of dried coconuts, whereas coir fibers are derived from the fibrous mesocarp.

Sprouting fruit of a coconut Cocos nucifera. The laborious inside layer (endocarp) accommodates the precise seed composed of a minute embryo and meals storage tissue (endosperm). The bottom of the embryo (cotyledon) swells into an absorbing organ that fills your entire cavity of the seed because it digests the endosperm. The endocarp has three germination pores, one purposeful pore and two plugged pores. [In “blind coconuts” all three pores are plugged.] The three pores signify three carpels, typical of the palm household (Arecaceae). Simply contained in the purposeful germination pore is a minute embryo embedded within the endosperm tissue. Throughout germination, a spongy mass develps from the bottom of the embryo and fills the seed cavity. This mass of tissue is named the “coconut apple” and is basically the purposeful cotyledon of the seed. [The white color has been altered in order to clearly differentiate it from the endosperm.] It dissolves and absorbs the nutrient-rich endosperm tissue to provide the creating shoot with sugars and minerals. Eventualy, the creating palm turns into self sustaining, as its leaves produce sugars by means of photosynthesis and its roots soak up minerals from the soil. The coconut “apple” is wealthy in sugars and is a candy delicacy in tropical nations. The endosperm is the coconut “meat” which is dried and offered as “copra.” The coconut “water” is multinucleate liquid endosperm inside inexperienced coconuts that has not developed into strong tissue composed of cells. It’s incorrectly known as “coconut milk” in some references. Earlier than the liquid endosperm kinds a strong “meat” it’s jellylike and could also be eaten with a spoon. This stage of the endosperm growth is named “spoon meat.” The “coconut milk” utilized in many Asian recipes is made by soaking grated coconut meat in water and squeezing out the oil-rich liquid. “Coir” fibers are derived from the fibrous mesocarp. The saturated fats known as “coconut oil” is derived from the meaty endosperm.

Shut-up view by means of the within of a coconut seed exhibiting a small, cylindrical embryo (A) embedded within the fleshy meat or endosperm (B). The bottom of the embryo (pointing into the coconut) swells into an absorbing organ (cotyledon) that fills your entire cavity of the seed because it digests the endosperm. The wall of the endocarp (C) is a tough, woody layer that makes up the inside a part of the fruit wall. The thick, fibrous husk (mesocarp) that surrounds the endocarp has been eliminated.

Shut-up view of the three germination pores on the endocarp of a coconut. Though just one pore is purposeful, every pore represents one of many three carpels of this monocotyledonous plant. An unusual paper clip can simply penetrate the purposeful germination pore. This permits the creating shoot to develop out of the laborious, woody endocarp. The opposite two pores are impenetrable woody depressions. “Blind” coconuts apparently don’t have germination pores. They’re not often produced and are the alleged supply of coconut pearls.

Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera)

The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is native to abandon areas of Northern Africa, the place moisture is accessible from springs or underground water. That is actually a palm of desert oases. It has been cultivated for hundreds of years and its fruit was an essential meals in biblical occasions, offering desert vacationers with a nutritious meal. Just like the fig (Ficus carica), dates might be dried and carried on lengthy journeys throughout huge areas of parched land. The date palm is a dioecious species, with female and male flowers produced on separate timber. Dates are naturally wind pollinated, however people have assisted on this pollen switch since nice antiquity. As early as 2300 B.C., individuals had discovered to hold a male inflorescence in a feminine tree to boost pollination. Fashionable machines now blow pollen on feminine flowers when the stigmas are receptive, though many conventional date growers nonetheless use hand pollination.

A date palm basket, hand-woven by village girls in Pakistan. Hand-dyed strips of date palm leaves are tightly wrapped round major coils (bundles) of reed fibers.

Aerial view of a date palm orchard (Phoenix dactylifera) within the arid Colorado Desert of Coachella Valley, California. Irrigation ditches between rows of timber are flooded with water each week or two through the hottest months.

In the arid Coachella Valley of southern California, many types of dates are grown in orchards that had been established within the early 1900s. Though date palms are naturally pollinated by the wind, this isn’t an efficient methodology for max fruit yield in cultivated orchards, particularly for the reason that groves are composed of predominately feminine timber. In Coachella Valley, the dates are hand pollinated with pollen collected from the inflorescences of male timber. One male tree produces sufficient pollen for a harem of about 50 feminine timber. In spring, small cotton powder puffs containing pollen are utilized to the moist, receptive stigmas of feminine inflorescences. Some growers use rubber atomizer bulbs to use pollen, and in some orchards, sprigs of pollen-laden male inflorescences are tied to the feminine inflorescences. Because the bunches of dates start to ripen, extra clusters are pruned away to permit for the optimum productiveness of every tree (50 to 300 kilos of dates, relying on the tree).

Left: Small, shriveled fruits of the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) that had been pruned from the bunches to permit for optimum growth of the crop. Proper: Mature, pollinated dates that had been allowed to ripen on the tree. The date fruit (technically known as a drupe) accommodates a tough, seed-bearing pit or endocarp.

Pollinated dates are harvested all through the autumn months, from September to December. As a result of all dates on a tree could not mature on the identical time, they’re hand-picked a number of occasions through the fall from bunches on the timber. This ensures that the dates are picked at their peak stage of sugar content material and taste. [In some parts of the world growers cut entire bunches (like bananas) and allow them to ripen in warm rooms away from the trees, although hand-picked dates are considered the ne plus ultra of dates.] Since pollination and selecting requires many repeat visits by staff to the crowns of the palms, giant timber have everlasting ladders connected the principle trunks. Through the fall months, paper covers shield the bunches of dates from doable rain harm. [Early fall and winter rains bring out a profusion of desert wildflowers, but cause devastating mold damage to the date crops. There are other textbook explanations for these conspicuous paper covers, but they are mainly used to prevent water damage to the vulnerable dates during the critical fall months when the dates ripen.] Due to genetic recombination and the unpredictability of seeds, alternative date palms are propagated (cloned) by offshoots (sucker sprouts) on the base of the trunks.

Date palms (Phoenix dactylifera) photographed in December 1999 at Shields Date Gardens in Indio, California. The paper covers (resembling lamp shades) shield the dates from doable rain harm through the fall months. Rain through the vital fall ripening months could cause sooty black mould to develop on the dates.

Date cultivars are categorized as delicate, semi-soft and dry or bread dates. Chewy bread dates maintain longer and can be utilized for “survival meals” on lengthy journeys. In Coachella Valley, the most well-liked delicate selection is ‘Medjool,’ initially launched into america in 1927 from eleven offshoots from Bou Denib Oasis in French Morocco. Within the semi-dry class, the most well-liked selection grown in Coachella Valley is ‘Deglet Noor,’ a scrumptious selection from the Sahara oases of Algeria. One other semi-dry cultivar known as ‘Zahidi’ originated in northern Iraq.

Left: Unripe, seedless, unpollinated fruits of the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) from a feminine tree in Coastal San Diego county. Proper: Pollinated, dried, Medjool dates from Coachella Valley, California. Dates are technically known as drupes as a result of the outer fleshy tissue is a part of the pericarp. The inside, laborious endocarp layer (pit) encloses the seed. The date palm is a dioecious species, like willows, cottonwoods, marijuana and folks. For the reason that fruits happen on separate feminine timber, they should be pollinated by male timber with a purpose to mature into candy, scrumptious dates.

Ripe, pollinated fruits of the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera). They’re crispy, candy and barely pungent. Most tree-ripened dates are dried earlier than they’re despatched to markets.

In coastal San Diego County (southern California), feminine date palms (Phoenix dactylifera) produce parthenocarpic fruits with out pollination. The fruits comprise rudimentary, seedless endocarps, however nontheless are edible. The unpollinated fruits of P. dactylifera are smaller and comprise much less sugar and pulp in contrast with business pollinated dates.

An unpollinated feminine date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) bearing parthenocarpic fruit. The fruits are much less flavorful and smaller than pollinated dates they usually comprise a rudimentary, seedless endocarp. Date palms akin to this are planted within the parking areas of procuring facilities in San Diego County. The big Canary Island date palm (P. canariensis) can be generally planted alongside streets and as a specimen tree in southern California. See close-up view of the parthenocarpic fruit in subsequent photograph:

Parthenocarpic fruit from an unpollinated feminine date palm (Phoenix dactylifera). The fruits have a decrease sugar and water content material than pollinated dates they usually comprise a rudimentary, seedless endocarp.

A: Pollinated Medjool dates (Phoenix dactylifera) exhibiting a sectioned, seed-bearing drupe and fertile, seed-bearing endocarp. B: Unpollinated, parthenocarpic dates (P. dactylifera) exhibiting sectioned fruits and a rudimentary, seedless endocarp.

Senegal Date Palm (Phoenix reclinata)

Fruits of the senegal date palm (Phoenix reclinata), one other date palm native to tropical Africa. This specimen was grown within the Palomar School Arboretum. In contrast to P. dactylifera, this species is smaller and infrequently develops a number of trunks. The fruits are additionally smaller than the P. dactylifera, however just like the cultivated date palm, they’re edible and are used for date sugar. Decrease proper fruit is sectioned to point out that it’s a drupe containing a tough, stony, inside layer (endocarp). The senegal date palm is commonly used in southern California landscaping due to its picturesque clumps of curved, a number of trunks.

African Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis)

A mature African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) and cartload of palm fruits close to Quepos, Costa Rica. The fruits are harvested for his or her oil-rich mesocarp (pulp) and seeds. Like coconuts, the seeds are wealthy in saturated fatty acids akin to palmitic acid. Palmitic acid has all single bonds between the carbon atoms and is much like animal fats (stearic acid), besides it has 16 quite than 18 carbons. Palm oils are used primarily for soaps and candles, however they’re additionally present in margarines and sweet. Well being-conscious people who find themselves involved about atherosclerosis are likely to avoid meals wealthy in saturated fat.

Noticed Palmetto (Serenoa repens)

One of probably the most attention-grabbing palms utilized by people for meals and as a priceless natural treatment is the noticed palmetto (Serenoa repens). This palm is native to the southeastern United States, from Florida to North Carolina. In contrast to most palms, the stem is often prostrate with erect palmate leaves. It grows in coastal dune areas and inland pine woodlands, usually forming dense, impenetrable thickets within the understory of pines, akin to slash pine (Pinus elliottii) and longleaf pine (Pinus palustris). The frequent identify is derived from the leaf stalks (petioles) that are armed with rows of sharp tooth resembling a noticed blade.

Left: Forest of slash pines (Pinus elliottii) with dense understory of noticed palmetto (Serenoa repens). Proper: Leaf stalks (petioles) of noticed palmetto exhibiting rows of sharp, sawlike tooth.

The juicy black fruits (drupes) had been an essential meals for native Individuals of this area, such because the Seminoles. Early settlers additionally made a soothing tea from the dried fruits. Therapeutic advantages from noticed palmetto tea has been recognized for many years. It was prescribed for frequency of urination and extreme evening urination as a consequence of irritation of the bladder and prostate enlargement. Latest research point out that the usage of noticed palmetto could also be greater than folklore. The fruit mesocarp is wealthy in steroidal compounds known as sitosterols. In response to Herbs That Heal by M.A. Weiner and J.A. Weiner (1994), benign prostate enlargement (benign prostatic hyperplasia or BPH), is brought on by testosterone accumulation within the prostate. The testosterone is then transformed into dihydrotestosterone (DHT), which causes mobile proliferation and enlargement of the prostate. Noticed palmetto extract (beta sitosterol) from the dried fruits prevents the conversion of testosterone into DHT as a result of it inhibits the motion of the enzyme testosterone-5-alpha-reductase by aggressive inhibition. That is basically the identical motion of the prescription drug finasteride (Proscar). A number of double blind research have been carried out that point out an enchancment in males affected by enlarged prostates; nonetheless, there’s appreciable disagreement amongst urologists whether or not this natural treatment is admittedly an efficient treatment for this situation. Till extra knowledge is accessible, noticed palmetto could also be a helpful herb to take as a comparatively cheap preventive remedy.

The ripe fruits (high) and natural extract capsules (backside) of noticed palmetto (Serenoa repens). At maturity the fruits (drupes) are shiny black. The extract created from dried fruits is taken by males as preventive remedy for prostate enlargement.

References About Noticed Palmetto:

  1. Blumenthal, M. 2000. “Noticed Palmetto.” Herbalgram Quantity 50: 32-37.
  2. Duke, J.A. 1997. The Inexperienced Pharmacy. Rodale Press, Emmaus, Pennsylvania.
  3. Weiner, M.A. and J. Weiner. 1994. Herbs That Heal. Quantum Books, Mill Valley, California.

Jelly Palm (Butia capitata)

Jelly palm (Butia capitata), a South American monoecious palm native to Brazil. The big cluster of yellowish-orange drupes is produced on a stalk close to the bottom of the curved leaves. The drupes have a fleshy, candy mesocarp with the flavour of apricots. They’re eaten contemporary or made into jellies, jams, desserts, pies and different scrumptious deserts.

Betel Nut Palm (Areca catechu)

One of probably the most attention-grabbing makes use of for palms includes the chewing of seeds from the betel nut palm (Areca catechu). This palm is native to Malaya, however extensively cultivated all through India, southeastern China, the East Indies, and the Philippines the place the seeds (known as betel nuts) are chewed. This curious follow dates again to antiquity and was first described by Herodotus in 340 BC. The standard methodology of chewing includes betel nuts, betel pepper leaves from Piper betel (Piperaceae) and lime powder (calcium hydroxide). Betel leaves come from the identical genus as black pepper (P. nigrum) and kava kava (P. methysticum). Slices of ripe betel nuts are positioned within the mouth. Then contemporary leaves of the betel pepper are smeared with lime (calcium hydroxide) and chewed with the nuts. Generally the the combination is chewed with cloves, cinnamon, tamarind, cardamom, nutmeg or different spices to boost the flavour. Betel nut chewing is often indulged in after dinner. The mass is labored within the mouth with out swallowing; the method stimulates a copious stream of saliva which is repeatedly expectorated. Though it has been in contrast with chewing tobacco, betel nuts don’t comprise the dangerous components of tobacco. In actual fact, betel nut chewing could have some medicinal worth, akin to counteracting overacidity and producing a gentle stimulation and feeling of nicely being; nonetheless, latest articles give a special conclusion. In response to Cindy Sui and Anna Lacey BBC Well being Verify 22 March 2015 (Asia’s Lethal Secret: The Scourge Of The Betel Nut), betel nuts, and betel pepper leaves are all carcinogens and contribute to the oral most cancers epidemic in these nations the place the quid is chewed.

Left: A betel nut palm with clusters of seed-bearing fruits produced on inflorescences under the leaves. Proper: A betel nut necklace.

Starnut Palm (Astrocaryum huicungo)

A necklace from the Rio Napo, a tributary of the Amazon River in Ecuador. The big seed-bearing fruits and endocarps are from the starnut palm (Astrocaryum huicungo). This palm is known as from the starlike design surrounding the three germination pores on the endocarps

Chilean Wine Palm (Jubaea chilensis)

Left: Jubaea chilensis, the well-known wine palm native to Chile. The watery sap from the trunk is fermented into palm wine, or boiled down right into a thick syrup known as palm honey or “miel de palma.” The edible endocarps are offered in specialty shops as miniature coconuts or “coquitos.” Proper: Spathe bracts that subtend the inflorescences of the wine palm.

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