Varieties of Plums
For most individuals shopping for plums within the market or at farm markets, there are two main varieties of plums, European plums and Japanese plums.
The commonest European plums (scientific identify Prunus domestica L.) are elongated, blue varieties, however different colours can be found as effectively. Within the USA, European plums are eaten recent, as recent slices in salads and desserts, and processed as puree for child meals, baking, dried fruit, and fermented as alcoholic drinks, relying on the varieties.
Japanese plums (scientific identify Prunus salicina Lindl. and hybrids) are primarily used as recent market plums. Japanese plums vary from spherical to coronary heart formed, and are a spread of colours. Japanese plums are typically not appropriate for drying as they don’t include ample sugar (should be no less than 15%) and pores and skin thickness to make a passable prune.
These two basic varieties, European and Japanese plum, plus a number of different plum varieties, may be organized by flower association into Previous World, and New World classes:
Previous World plums have clusters of 1-Three flowers
P. domestica (European plums) This group is native to western Asia, within the Caucasus mountains adjoining to the Caspian Sea. They had been dropped at North America by colonists. Fruit on this group are typically elongated, blue varieties are commonest within the market, however different colours can be found as effectively. Within the USA, P. domestica is eaten recent, as fruit slices and processed as puree for baking, dried fruit, alcoholic drinks, relying on the varieties.
P. salicina Lindl. (known as Chinese language or Japanese plums) and hybrids. Native to China, dropped at Japan, after which to the remainder of the world. Japanese plums are recent market plums, usually bigger than European plums. Japanese plums vary from spherical to coronary heart formed, and are a spread of colours. Japanese plums are typically not appropriate for drying. Synonyms: Prunus triflora or Prunus thibetica.
P. insititia (damson, bullace, mirabelle, and St. Julien) Damsons are oval, with medium to darkish blue pores and skin and yellow-green flesh and are generally used for jams and alcoholic drinks. Bullaces are spherical, yellow, inexperienced, blue or purple, smaller than damsons. Mirabelle plums are small, oval, yellow to maroon pores and skin with inexperienced to amber fine-textured flesh, relying on the range. The smooth and candy mirabelle are utilized in jams, pies, and fermented into wine or additional distilled into brandy. In some cultures, mirabelles are eaten whereas they’re bitter and exhausting. St. Julien is used primarily as a dwarfing rootstock for plums and peaches.
P. cerasifera (cherry plum) Prunus cerasifera is a species of plum recognized by the widespread names cherry plum and myrobalan plum. It’s native to Europe and Asia. Cultivated cherry plums can have fruits, foliage, and flowers in any of a number of colours. Some varieties have candy fruits that may be eaten recent, whereas others are bitter and higher for making jam. Myrobalan is a vital plum rootstock.
The next are much less commercially necessary previous world plums, some decorative varieties.
P. mume Associated to plum and apricots, and resembles the latter, grown in China, Japan, and Korea.
P. japonica (Korean cherry, flowering almond or Oriental bush cherry. Decorative shrub species
P. cocomilia (Italian plum, not the identical as Italian prune)
P. consociiflora (Chinese language wild peach)
P. simonii (apricot plum)
P. spinosa (blackthorn or sloe) used for hedges
New World plums have clusters of 3-5 flowers
P. americana (American plum) – small fruited hardy plums, just a few minor business varieties grown for recent market.
P. alleghaniensis (Allegheny plum)
P. angustifolia (Chickasaw plum)
P. maritima (seaside plum)
P. mexicana (Mexican plum)
P. nigra (Canada plum, Black plum)
P. × orthosepala (P. americana × P. angustifolia)
P. subcordata (Klamath, Oregon, or Sierra plum)
P. hortulana (Wild goose plum)
Crosses of Japanese plums with native American plums has resulted in many sorts exhibiting a spread of colours, sizes, flavors and winter hardiness.
One other broad class of hybrids are interspecific crosses of plums with apricots. These go by numerous names resembling plumcots, apriplums, apriums or pluots. Plumcot is a time period coined by Luther Burbank and pluot is a registered trademark of Zaigers Genetics, a Modesto, CA firm. Aprium, a registered trademark of Zaigers Genetics, refers to plum/apricot mixtures that resemble the apricot element greater than the plum.
Additional particulars on necessary previous world plum varieties
European Plum Cultivars
These are may be labeled loosely on fruit colour and/or measurement, and use (processed or recent).
Dried plums / prunes – Elongated to oval, darkish blue or purple with excessive sugar content material and considerably fibrous flesh appropriate for processing as dried fruit. Prune plums usually have a distinguished waxy blush, many are freestone cultivars, eaten recent, processed, or dried.
Yellow – Giant, yellow, oval plums primarily used for recent consumption and fewer generally for canning. Typically smooth textured, gentle flavored
Gage – Small, spherical, inexperienced, yellow to pink/purple plums used for canning and recent market.
Lombard – Giant, oval, purple or pink plums, used for recent market in western Europe, as soon as broadly grown selection within the USA within the early 1990s.
Japanese Plum Cultivars
Could be labeled in keeping with form (spherical, pointed, coronary heart formed), pores and skin and flesh colour.
Yellow skinned varieties together with Ohishi Washi , Obilinaya, and Shiro
Purple skinned varieties embody Early Magic, Ozark Premier, Burbank, Fortune and lots of others.
Blue/purple skinned varieties embody Methley, Black Ice, and Angeleno.