Mango Trees - Mangifera indica

Mango Trees – Mangifera indica

MANGO TREE TAXONOMY

The Mango tree, Mangifera indica L., produces essentially the most economically necessary fruit crop within the Anacardiaceae (Cashew or poison ivy household). Different necessary members of this household embrace cashew, pistachio, and the mombins (Spondias spp.). The household comprises 73 genera and about 600-700 species, distinguished by their resinous bark and caustic oils in leaves, bark, and fruits.

Cultivars

There are two courses of cultivars: Indochinese and West Indian. The Indochinese group is characterised by flattened, kidney-shaped, considerably elongated fruit with mild inexperienced or yellow pores and skin, and little or no pink blush colour (on left in picture). West Indian cultivars are extra rounded and plump, and usually have a vivid pink blush to the pores and skin (on proper in picture). Lots of the so-called “Florida cultivars” are West Indian sorts chosen or bred in Florida, similar to ‘Haden’, ‘Tommy Atkins’, ‘Kent’, and ‘Keitt’.

ORIGIN OF THE MANGO TREE (MANGIFERA INDICA), HISTORY OF CULTIVATION

The cultivated mango might be a pure hybrid between M. indica and M. sylvatica that occurred in southeastern Asia to India. Choice of wild sorts has occurred for 4000-6000 yr, and vegetative propagation for at the very least 400 yr in India. Mangos had been dropped at England and Europe after the English occupied India in 1800’s. They had been dropped at Brazil and the West Indies within the 1700’s with exploration of the realm, and to Florida within the late 1800’s. Portuguese and Spanish merchants took mangos from India to East Africa, the Philippines, and western Mexico. From western Mexico, mangos had been taken to Hawaii within the early 1800s. Florida manufacturing grew by way of the early 1900’s in southern Florida, however urbanization, freezes and hurricanes decreased manufacturing from 7000 acres to 2500 acres. In 1992, hurricane Andrew decreased the Florida acreage to 1000-1500, the place it stays in the present day. Regardless of the small scale of the Florida trade, it has been extraordinarily helpful to mango cultivation worldwide as a result of analysis and cultivar improvement carried out by way of the 1900s.

WORLD AND UNITED STATES MANGO PRODUCTION

World (2004 FAO) – 27,043,155 MT or 60 billion kilos. Mangos are produced in 90 nations worldwide on 9.Four million acres. Worldwide, yields common about 6400 lbs/acre.

Prime 10 nations
(% of world manufacturing)
1. India (40%) 6. Pakistan (4%)
2. China (13%) 7. Philippines (4%)
3. Thailand (6%)
8. Nigeria (3%)
4. Mexico (6%)
9. Brazil (3%)
5. Indonesia (5%) 10. Egypt (1%)
United States (2002 USDA) – 2500 MT or 5.5 million lbs. All manufacturing is in Florida and Hawaii on a complete of about 1600 acres. Costs acquired differ enormously: Florida – 26 ¢/lb, Hawaii – 92 ¢/lb. Yields are poor relative to different areas of the world, solely 1400 lbs/acre in Hawaii and just below 4000 lbs/acre in Florida.

For the hottest statistical knowledge on United States and World manufacturing numbers please seek advice from the next two web sites:

World: The Meals and Agriculture Group of the United Nations Statistics Division (FAOSTAT). FAOSTAT

United States: America Division of Agriculture Nationwide Agricultural Statistics Service (USDA Ag Stats). USDA Ag Stats

MANGO TREE BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION

Plant
The Mango is a big, long-lived tree with a broad, rounded cover, usually 20-100 ft tall. Cultivated orchards are stored at 20-30 ft. Leaves are lanceolate to linear, (4-16″ lengthy × 1-2″ vast), darkish inexperienced, with outstanding mild coloured veins and full margins. Rising leaves on new development flushes are bronze-red initially, and seem wilted. One or two development flushes happen per yr, with flushes positioned sporadically throughout the cover of a given tree. Leaves could persist a number of years.

A big mango tree on a farm in southern Guatemala.

 

A mango tree alongside the roadside; word the purple coloration of the brand new flushes, that are scattered throughout the cover.

Flowers
Tiny (1/8-1/4″), red-yellow flowers are borne in massive, terminal panicles of as much as 4000 people. About 25-98% of the flowers are male, relying on cultivar, and the remaining hermaphroditic. Panicles are initiated in terminal buds 1-Three months previous to flowering, triggered by low temperatures or seasonally dry circumstances.

Mango flowers are produced terminally in panicles. Particular person flowers are tiny, yellow, and largely staminate.

Pollination
Mangos are thought of self-fertile and don’t require pollinizers, however analysis signifies that some cultivars are self-unfruitful or at the very least profit from cross-pollination. Fruit set is usually just some p.c, with a mean of just one mango borne per panicle. Pollination is achieved by wild bugs, and to a lesser extent, honey bees.

Fruit
Mangos are massive drupes. The big, flattened, kidney-shaped central stone comprises a number of massive, starchy embryos, and might represent as much as 20% of fruit weight. The pores and skin has yellow or inexperienced background colour, with pink/orange blush in lots of cultivars, and is thicker than common for drupaceous fruit. The pores and skin comprises irritating oils, significantly in unripe fruit. The flesh is yellow/orange in colour, generally astringent and fibrous. Fruit ripens in 80-180 days after bloom.

MANGO TREE GENERAL CULTURE

Soils and Local weather
Soils – adequately drained and mildly acidic (pH 6-7). In Florida, timber are grown on limestone gravel (pH 7-8).
Local weather – seasonally moist/dry local weather zones of the lowland tropics, or frost-free subtropical areas; ceases development at temperatures under 55-60oF (not actually dormant). Leaves and fruit are injured by gentle frost (28-32oF).

Propagation
Indochinese cultivars are sometimes polyembryonic, and can produce true to kind mango timber from seed. In less-developed nations, seedling timber are grown, which come into bearing later than grafted timber. West Indian mangos are typically monoembryonic, and are largely grafted on seedling rootstocks. Methods differ from inarching and strategy grafting in India, to or veneer-grafting and chip budding in Florida and the American tropics.

Rootstocks
Vigorous mango seedlings of assorted cultivars are used as rootstocks. Polyembryonic cultivars are sometimes most popular because the rootstocks are genetically an identical when grown from seed.

Planting Design, Coaching, Pruning
Planting Design – sq. or rectangular designs and spaced 30-50 ft aside, yielding 18-35 timber/acre. In Florida, the place roots are restricted by rocky soils, mango timber are planted on the intersections of trenches in limestone @ 20-30 ft aside (as much as 100 timber/acre). Bushes in alternate rows could be faraway from increased density plantings as soon as crowding happens.

Pruning and Coaching – little or no essential; in adolescence, mango timber could also be pruned to have one fundamental trunk away from branching as much as about Three ft. After that, they assume a fascinating rounded cover form naturally. Later, timber could also be hedged and topped to manage measurement.

 

MANGO HARVEST, POSTHARVEST HANDLING

Maturity
Colour change from inexperienced to yellow, and the event of “shoulders” on the stem finish of the fruit are the very best indicators of maturity. Additionally, the fruit flesh turns from white to yellow beginning on the endocarp and progressing outward to the pores and skin throughout maturation.

Harvest Technique
Mangos are hand-harvested, just by snapping-off fruits from peduncles in less-developed plantings, or by clipping peduncles Four inches above the fruit when supposed for export. This enables the milky, poisonous latex to ooze from the stem with out touching the fruit floor.

Postharvest Dealing with
Stems are trimmed to 1/4″ previous to packing in 14 lb packing containers containing 8-20 fruits, relying on measurement. Fruit are culled by hand, eradicating diseased and off-grade fruit. In nations the place fruit flies are endemic, fruit are dipped in scorching water for fruit fly quarantine necessities, and anthracnose management. Fruit are saved for 15 days at 70 F and RH of 85-90% for curing postharvest.

Storage
Mangos are topic to chilling damage, and should not be saved at <55°F. Storage life is barely 2-Three weeks beneath optimum circumstances.

THE MANGO’S CONTRIBUTION TO DIET

Mangos are one of many best recent fruits on the planet, however could be dried, pickled, or cooked as properly. Mangos are increased in vitamin C than citrus fruits. Inexperienced mangos are the tropical equal of inexperienced apples – tart, crisp, and considerably dry, usually eaten with salt. They’re cooked or utilized in salads within the tropics. About 25% of mangos are processed into juices, chutneys, sauces, or dried. The big seed could be processed right into a flour, and the fats it comprises could be extracted and substituted for cocoa butter. Per capita consumption of mango is 2.1 lbs/yr.

Dietary worth, per 100 gram edible portion

Mango
Water (%) 80
Energy 63
Protein (%) 0.4
Fats (%) 0.4
Carbohydrates (%) 16
Crude Fiber (%) 1.0
% of US RDA*
Vitamin A 20
Thiamin, B1 3.6
Riboflavin, B2 2.5
Niacin 2.2
Vitamin C 200
Calcium 1.1
Phosphorus 1.5
Iron 4.0
Sodium
Potassium

* % of beneficial day by day allowance set by FDA, assuming a 154 lb male grownup, 2700 energy per day.

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