Malus sylvestris – Useful Temperate Plants

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(L.) Mill.

Rosaceae

The taxonomy of the genus Malus may be very confused – it has been revised on a number of events, with some authors putting species inside the genus Pyrus. Current morphologic work has prompt that Malus be retained as a separate genus based mostly on totally adnate carpels and deeply inferior ovaries, with molecular proof offering assist. Nevertheless, cultivation, hybridization, and introgression have led to a whole bunch of species being named inside Malus and there’s no clear settlement as to the variety of accepted distinct species, or certainly the suitable title for a lot of of them. The genus requires a complete worldwide revision[

270

Title
Flora of N. America
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/fna/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line version of the flora with an excellent description of the plant including a brief mention of plant uses.

].

Malus acerba M,rat

Malus communis sylvestris (L.) Gams

Malus malus (L.) Britton

Malus praecox (Pall.) Borkh.

Pyrus acerba (M,rat) DC.

Pyrus malus praecox (Pall.) Nyman

Pyrus malus sylvestris L.

Pyrus praecox Pall.

Frequent Title: Crab Apple

Common Info

Malus sylvestris is a deciduous shrub or a tree that may develop 10 metres or extra tall. The branches are roughly spiny[

74

Title
Flora of the USSR.
Publication
 
Author
Komarov. V. L.
Website
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org
Publisher
Israel Program for Scientific Translation
Year
1968
ISBN
Description
An immense (25 or more large volumes) and not yet completed translation of the Russian flora. Full of information on plant uses and habitats but heavy going for casual readers. It can be downloaded from the Internet.

].
The tree is harvested from the wild for native use as a meals, drugs and supply of supplies. It’s typically grown as a decorative in gardens
Though Malus sylvestris is comparatively extensively distributed in Europe, hybridization with the cultivated apple (Malus domestica) is regarded as having a big influence on the inhabitants. It’s not identified to what extent the genetic range of the species has been affected.The plant is classed as ‘Information Poor’ within the IUCN Crimson Record of Threatened Species(2013)[

338

Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.

].

Recognized Hazards

Though no particular data has been seen, the seed and different components of the plant (however not the fruit) are more likely to include cyanogenic glycosides. When injested, these compounds break down within the digestive tract to launch cyanide. Utilized in small portions in each conventional and traditional drugs, this exceedingly toxic compound has been proven to stimulate respiration, enhance digestion, and promote a way of well-being[

238

Title
Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses.
Publication
 
Author
Bown. D.
Publisher
Dorling Kindersley, London.
Year
1995
ISBN
0-7513-020-31
Description
A very well presented and informative book on herbs from around the globe. Plenty in it for both the casual reader and the serious student. Just one main quibble is the silly way of having two separate entries for each plant.

]. It’s also claimed by some to be of profit within the therapy of most cancers – although this declare has been largely refuted.
In bigger concentrations, nevertheless, cyanide may cause gasping, weak spot, pleasure, pupil dilation, spasms, convulsions, coma and respiratory failure resulting in demise[

293

Title
Poisonous Plants of North Carolina
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/hort/consumer/poison/poison.htm
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent concise but comprehensive guide to toxic plants that grow in N. Carolina. It lists even those plants that are of very low toxicity, including several well-known food plants such as carrots and potatoes.

].
The degrees of toxin may be detected by the extent of bitterness:- candy almonds, for instance, include solely very low ranges of it and are fit for human consumption in amount, while bitter almonds (that are used as a flavouring in meals similar to marzipan) include a lot increased ranges and will solely be eaten in very small portions. Nice warning must be employed if the style is reasonably to very bitter[

K

Title
Plants for a Future
Author
Ken Fern
Description
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.

].

Botanical References

11

Title
Bushes and Shrubs Hardy in Nice Britain. Vol 1 – Four and Complement.
Publication
 
Creator
Bean. W.
Writer
Murray
Yr
1981
ISBN
Description
A basic with a wealth of knowledge on the vegetation, however poor on footage.

,

17

Title
Flora of the British Isles.
Publication
 
Creator
Clapham, Tutin and Warburg.
Writer
Cambridge College Press
Yr
1962
ISBN
Description
A really complete flora, the usual reference e book however it has no footage.

,

200

Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Creator
Huxley. A.
Writer
MacMillan Press
Yr
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Wonderful and really complete, although it comprises quite a few foolish errors. Readable but additionally very detailed.

Vary

Europe, together with Britain, from Scandanavia south and east to Spain, Greece and S.W. Asia

Habitat

Woods, scrub and hedges, particularly in oak woods, on impartial to calcareous soils[

9

Title
Edible and Medicinal Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Launert. E.
Publisher
Hamlyn
Year
1981
ISBN
0-600-37216-2
Description
Covers plants in Europe. a drawing of each plant, quite a bit of interesting information.

,

17

Title
Flora of the British Isles.
Publication
 
Author
Clapham, Tutin and Warburg.
Publisher
Cambridge University Press
Year
1962
ISBN
Description
A very comprehensive flora, the standard reference book but it has no pictures.

,

200

Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

].

Properties

Cultivation Particulars

An simply grown plant, it succeeds in most fertile soils, together with heavy ones, preferring a moisture retentive well-drained loamy soil[

1

Title
RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956
Publication
 
Author
F. Chittendon.
Publisher
Oxford University Press
Year
1951
ISBN
Description
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaced in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).

,

98

Title
Seed Handbook for Decorative Bushes and Shrubs.
Publication
Forestry Fee Bulletin
Creator
Gordon. A. G. and Rowe. D. C. F.
Writer
HMSO; London
Yr
1982
ISBN
0-11-710152-4
Description
Very complete information to rising timber and shrubs from seed. Not for the informal reader.

,

200

Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Creator
Huxley. A.
Writer
MacMillan Press
Yr
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Wonderful and really complete, although it comprises quite a few foolish errors. Readable but additionally very detailed.

]. Prefers a sunny place however succeeds in partial shade although it fruits much less nicely in such a state of affairs[

186

Title
Planting Native Trees and Shrubs.
Publication
 
Author
Beckett. G. and K.
Publisher
Jarrold
Year
1979
ISBN
Description
An excellent guide to native British trees and shrubs with lots of details about the plants.

,

200

Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

].
Pretty tolerant of reducing, it succeeds in a combined hedgerow[

186

Title
Planting Native Trees and Shrubs.
Publication
 
Author
Beckett. G. and K.
Publisher
Jarrold
Year
1979
ISBN
Description
An excellent guide to native British trees and shrubs with lots of details about the plants.

].
A dad or mum of the cultivated apple[

11

Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 – 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.

], it’s typically used as a rootstock[

50

Title
Flora Europaea
Publication
 
Author
?
Publisher
Cambridge University Press
Year
1964
ISBN
Description
An immense work in 6 volumes (including the index). The standard reference flora for Europe, it is very terse though and with very little extra information. Not for the casual reader.

]. Fashionable genetic analysis doesn’t assist this species being something apart from a minor contributor to the event of the cultivated apple. It will seem that the apple arose nearly utterly from Malus sieversii – see Riccardo Velasco et al; The genome of the domesticated apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.); Nature Genetics 42, 833-839 (2010).
The fruit is an effective wildlife meals supply, particularly for birds[

200

Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

]. The plant has over 90 related insect species[

24

Title
Making a Wildlife Garden.
Publication
 
Author
Baines. C.
Publisher
 
Year
 
ISBN
 
Description
Fairly good with lots of ideas about creating wildlife areas in the garden.

].
Cross-compatibility amongst the totally different species of Malus is frequent. Hybridization can happen naturally in botanical gardens and within the wild, or artificially by breeding[

200

Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

,

270

Title
Flora of N. America
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/fna/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line version of the flora with an excellent description of the plant including a brief mention of plant uses.

].
Polyploid types and asexual seed manufacturing (apomixis) happen in some species[

270

Title
Flora of N. America
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/fna/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line version of the flora with an excellent description of the plant including a brief mention of plant uses.

].
Crops on this genus are notably vulnerable to honey fungus[

200

Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

].

Edible Makes use of

Fruit – uncooked or cooked[

9

Title
Edible and Medicinal Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Launert. E.
Publisher
Hamlyn
Year
1981
ISBN
0-600-37216-2
Description
Covers plants in Europe. a drawing of each plant, quite a bit of interesting information.

,

15

Title
Edible Ornamental Garden.
Publication
 
Author
Bryan. J. and Castle. C.
Publisher
Pitman Publishing
Year
1976
ISBN
0-273-00098-5
Description
A small book with interesting ideas for edible plants in the ornamental garden.

]. Used for jellies, preserves and juices[

183

Title
Cornucopia – A Source Book of Edible Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Facciola. S.
Publisher
Kampong Publications
Year
1990
ISBN
0-9628087-0-9
Description
Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.

]. The flavour improves significantly if the fruit will not be harvested till it has been frosted[

12

Title
Britain’s Wild Larder.
Publication
 
Author
Loewenfeld. C. and Back. P.
Publisher
David & Charles; Newton Abbot.
Year
 
ISBN
0-7153-7971-2
Description
A handy pocket guide.

]. The fruit is sort of variable in measurement (it’s about 2 – 4cm in diameter[

200

Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

]) and high quality. While often harsh and acid, some types are fairly candy and may be eaten out of hand[

K

Title
Plants for a Future
Author
Ken Fern
Description
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.

].
The fruit is wealthy in pectin and can be utilized in serving to different fruits to set when making jam and so on[

61

Title
A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man.
Publication
 
Author
Usher. G.
Publisher
Constable
Year
1974
ISBN
0094579202
Description
Forget the sexist title, this is one of the best books on the subject. Lists a very extensive range of useful plants from around the world with very brief details of the uses. Not for the casual reader.

,

142

Title
Plants Consumed by Man.
Publication
 
Author
Brouk. B.
Publisher
Academic Press
Year
1975
ISBN
0-12-136450-x
Description
Readable but not very comprehensive.

]. Pectin can be stated to guard the physique towards radiation[

201

Title
A – Z of Companion Planting.
Publication
 
Author
Allardice.P.
Publisher
Cassell Publishers Ltd.
Year
1993
ISBN
0-304-34324-2
Description
A well produced and very readable book.

].

An edible oil may be obtained from the seed[

4

Title
A Modern Herbal.
Publication
 
Author
Grieve.
Publisher
Penguin
Year
1984
ISBN
0-14-046-440-9
Description
Not so modern (1930’s?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.

]. It will solely actually be viable to make use of these seeds as an oil supply if the fruit was getting used for some function similar to making cider after which the seeds may very well be extracted from the remaining pulp[

K

Title
Plants for a Future
Author
Ken Fern
Description
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.

].

A really nice tea may be produced from the leaves[

7

Title
Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Chiej. R.
Publisher
MacDonald
Year
1984
ISBN
0-356-10541-5
Description
Covers plants growing in Europe. Also gives other interesting information on the plants. Good photographs.

].

Medicinal

The fruit is astringent and laxative[

4

Title
A Modern Herbal.
Publication
 
Author
Grieve.
Publisher
Penguin
Year
1984
ISBN
0-14-046-440-9
Description
Not so modern (1930’s?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.

,

9

Title
Edible and Medicinal Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Launert. E.
Publisher
Hamlyn
Year
1981
ISBN
0-600-37216-2
Description
Covers plants in Europe. a drawing of each plant, quite a bit of interesting information.

]. The crushed fruit pulp can be utilized as a poultice to heal inflammations or small flesh wounds[

7

Title
Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Chiej. R.
Publisher
MacDonald
Year
1984
ISBN
0-356-10541-5
Description
Covers plants growing in Europe. Also gives other interesting information on the plants. Good photographs.

]. The fruit is eaten to obviate constipation[

240

Title
Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement).
Publication
 
Author
Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C.
Publisher
Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi.
Year
1986
ISBN
Description
Very terse details of medicinal uses of plants with a wide range of references and details of research into the plants chemistry. Not for the casual reader.

].
The bark, and particularly the basis bark, is anthelmintic, refrigerant and soporific[

218

Title
Medicinal Plants of China
Publication
 
Author
Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S.
Publisher
Reference Publications, Inc.
Year
1985
ISBN
0-917256-20-4
Description
Details of over 1,200 medicinal plants of China and brief details of their uses. Often includes an analysis, or at least a list of constituents. Heavy going if you are not into the subject.

,

240

Title
Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement).
Publication
 
Author
Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C.
Publisher
Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi.
Year
1986
ISBN
Description
Very terse details of medicinal uses of plants with a wide range of references and details of research into the plants chemistry. Not for the casual reader.

]. An infusion is used within the therapy of intermittent, remittent and bilious fevers[

4

Title
A Modern Herbal.
Publication
 
Author
Grieve.
Publisher
Penguin
Year
1984
ISBN
0-14-046-440-9
Description
Not so modern (1930’s?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.

,

240

Title
Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement).
Publication
 
Author
Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C.
Publisher
Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi.
Year
1986
ISBN
Description
Very terse details of medicinal uses of plants with a wide range of references and details of research into the plants chemistry. Not for the casual reader.

].
The leaves include as much as 2.4% of an antibacterial substance known as ‘florin'[

240

Title
Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement).
Publication
 
Author
Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C.
Publisher
Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi.
Year
1986
ISBN
Description
Very terse details of medicinal uses of plants with a wide range of references and details of research into the plants chemistry. Not for the casual reader.

]. This inhibits the expansion of quite a few gram-positive and gram-negative micro organism in as low a focus as 30 ppm[

240

Title
Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement).
Publication
 
Author
Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C.
Publisher
Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi.
Year
1986
ISBN
Description
Very terse details of medicinal uses of plants with a wide range of references and details of research into the plants chemistry. Not for the casual reader.

].

Different Makes use of

The fruit is a supply of pectin[

61

Title
A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man.
Publication
 
Author
Usher. G.
Publisher
Constable
Year
1974
ISBN
0094579202
Description
Forget the sexist title, this is one of the best books on the subject. Lists a very extensive range of useful plants from around the world with very brief details of the uses. Not for the casual reader.

,

142

Title
Plants Consumed by Man.
Publication
 
Author
Brouk. B.
Publisher
Academic Press
Year
1975
ISBN
0-12-136450-x
Description
Readable but not very comprehensive.

]. Pectin is used as a thickener in jams and so on and as a tradition medium in laboratories.

A pink to yellow dye is obtained from the bark[

257

Title
Native American Ethnobotany
Publication
 
Author
Moerman. D.
Publisher
Timber Press. Oregon.
Year
1998
ISBN
0-88192-453-9
Description
Very comprehensive but terse guide to the native uses of plants. Excellent bibliography, fully referenced to each plant, giving a pathway to further information. Not for the casual reader.

].

Owing to its frost resistance, this species is of nice significance for the breeding choice of cultivated types precious
for northern areas[

74

Title
Flora of the USSR.
Publication
 
Author
Komarov. V. L.
Website
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org
Publisher
Israel Program for Scientific Translation
Year
1968
ISBN
Description
An immense (25 or more large volumes) and not yet completed translation of the Russian flora. Full of information on plant uses and habitats but heavy going for casual readers. It can be downloaded from the Internet.

].

Seedlings of Malus sylvestris are used efficiently in northern areas as a rootstock for the cultivated types of apple[

74

Title
Flora of the USSR.
Publication
 
Author
Komarov. V. L.
Website
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org
Publisher
Israel Program for Scientific Translation
Year
1968
ISBN
Description
An immense (25 or more large volumes) and not yet completed translation of the Russian flora. Full of information on plant uses and habitats but heavy going for casual readers. It can be downloaded from the Internet.

].

We should not have a particular description for the wooden of this species – the next is a basic description for the wooden of this genus:-
The heartwood is reddish-grey; the 12 – 30 rings of sapwood are a lightweight reddish. When steamed, the wooden turns into reddish brown to darkish red-brown. The wooden is tough, however tends to warp. It is vitally troublesome to splitd and is troublesome to work, however is definitely stained and polished. The timber converts cleanly however is reasonably arduous to noticed. A clear end is produced usually, however a discount of the reducing angle to 20° is a bonus to planing. The wooden is usually of too small a measurement for business exploitation however, the place bigger sizes are attained the wooden has been used for making a variety of things, together with furnishings, mallet heads, umbrella handles, cog wheels, pianos, instruments and so on, and in addition for turnery[

74

Title
Flora of the USSR.
Publication
 
Author
Komarov. V. L.
Website
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org
Publisher
Israel Program for Scientific Translation
Year
1968
ISBN
Description
An immense (25 or more large volumes) and not yet completed translation of the Russian flora. Full of information on plant uses and habitats but heavy going for casual readers. It can be downloaded from the Internet.

,

270

Title
Flora of N. America
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/fna/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line version of the flora with an excellent description of the plant including a brief mention of plant uses.

,

316

Title
Tropical Timbers of the World. Ag. Handbook No. 607.
Publication
 
Author
Chudnoff. Martin.
Publisher
USDA Forest Service. Wisconsin.
Year
1984
ISBN
 
Description
Terse details on the properties of the wood of almost 400 species of trees from the Tropics.

].
The wooden of Malus species usually makes a very good gasoline[

270

Title
Flora of N. America
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/fna/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line version of the flora with an excellent description of the plant including a brief mention of plant uses.

,

K

Title
Plants for a Future
Author
Ken Fern
Description
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.

]. A wonderful gasoline[

67

Title
Berberis and Mahonia.
Publication
 
Author
Ahrendt.
Publisher
Journal of the Linnean Society, 57
Year
1961
ISBN
Description
Not for the casual reader, it lists all the known species in these two genera together with botanic descriptions and other relevant details for the botanist.

].

Propagation

Seed – greatest sown as quickly as it’s ripe within the autumn in a chilly body. It often germinates in late winter. Saved seed requires stratification for three months at 1°c and must be sown in a chilly body as quickly as it’s obtained[

200

Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

]. It won’t germinate for 12 months or extra. Prick out the seedlings into particular person pots as quickly as they’re giant sufficient to deal with. If given a wealthy compost they often develop away rapidly and may be giant sufficient to plant out in late summer season, although think about giving them some safety from the chilly of their first winter. In any other case, hold them in pots in a chilly body and plant them out in late spring of the next yr.
Cuttings of mature wooden, late autumn in a body[

11

Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 – 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.

].

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