Species of plant
Populus nigra, the black poplar, is a species of cottonwood poplar, the sort species of part Aigeiros of the genus Populus, native to Europe, southwest and central Asia, and northwest Africa.
The black poplar is a medium- to large-sized deciduous tree, reaching 20–30 m, and barely 40 m tall. Usually, their trunks obtain as much as 1.5 m in diameter, however some uncommon particular person timber in France have grown sufficiently old to have a lot bigger trunks – greater than 3 meters DBH. Their leaves are diamond-shaped to triangular, 5–8 cm lengthy and 6–8 cm broad, and inexperienced on each surfaces.
The species is dioecious, female and male flowers are on totally different crops, with flowers in catkins and pollination achieved by the wind. The black poplar grows in low-lying areas of moist floor. Like most different pioneer species, the tree is characterised by speedy development and is in a position to rapidly colonize open areas.
Three subspecies are established and a few botanists distinguish a fourth:
- P. n. subsp. nigra. Central and jap Europe. Leaves and shoots glabrous (hairless); bark grey-brown, thick and furrowed.
- P. n. subsp. betulifolia (Pursh) W.Wettst. North-west Europe (France, Nice Britain, Eire). Leaf veins and shoots finely downy; bark grey-brown, thick and furrowed, typically with heavy burrs, trunk normally closely leaning.
- P. n. subsp. caudina (Ten.) Bugała. Merranean area, additionally southwest Asia if var. afghanica not distinguished.
- P. n. var. afghanica Aitch. & Hemsl. (syn. P. n. var. thevestina (Dode) Bean). Southwest Asia; handled as a cultivar of P. nigra by many botanists, and as a definite species P. afghanica by others; bark clean, almost white; leaves and shoots as subsp. caudina (see additionally cultivars, under).
The subspecies P. n. betulifolia is likely one of the rarest timber in Nice Britain and Eire, with solely about 7,000 timber identified, of which solely about 600 have been confirmed as feminine.
A number of cultivars have additionally been chosen, these being propagated readily by cuttings:
- ‘Italica’ is the true Lombardy poplar, chosen in Lombardy, northern Italy, within the 17th century. The expansion is fastigiate (having the branches roughly parallel to the primary stem), with a really slim crown. Coming from the Merranean area, it’s tailored to scorching, dry summers and grows poorly in humid circumstances, being short-lived as a result of fungal ailments. It’s a male clone. As a broadly chosen species chosen by golf architects[where?] within the 1960s, it quickly grew to become obvious that the poplar’s very invasive roots destroyed land drainage methods. Many years later, the identical programs had been eradicating poplar stands wholesale. Round 40 to 50 years, this short-lived selection begins shedding branches and could be very more likely to be blown over in excessive winds, every successive tree misplaced exposing neighbouring timber, making a domino impact.
- Plantierensis group clones are derived by crossing ‘Italica’ with P. nigra ssp. betulifolia on the Plantières Nursery close to Metz in France in 1884; they’re much like ‘Italica’ (and sometimes mistaken for it), however with a barely broader crown, and higher tailored to the cool, humid local weather of northwest Europe, the place the true Lombardy poplar doesn’t develop properly. Each female and male clones are grown. That is the tree mostly grown in Nice Britain and Eire as Lombardy poplar.
- ‘Manchester’ is a cultivar of P. nigra subsp. betulifolia broadly planted in northwest England. It’s a male clone, and at the moment critically threatened by poplar scab illness.
- ‘Gigantea’ is one other fastigiate clone, of unknown origin, with a reasonably broader, extra vigorous crown than ‘Italica’. It’s a feminine clone.
- ‘Afghanica’ (syn. ‘Thevestina’): most, if not all, specimens are of a single clone, and lots of botanists due to this fact deal with it as a cultivar reasonably than a botanical selection. It’s fastigiate, much like ‘Italica’, however with a placing whitish bark; it additionally differs from ‘Italica’ in being a feminine clone. That is the frequent fastigiate poplar in southwest Asia and southeast Europe (the Balkans), the place it was launched in the course of the Ottoman Empire interval.
Black poplar has a big distribution space all through Europe and can be present in northern Africa and central and west Asia. The distribution space extends from the Merranean within the south to round 64° latitude within the north and from the British Isles within the west to Kazakhstan and China within the east. The distribution space additionally consists of the Caucasus and huge components of the Center East.
- Flora Europaea: Populus nigra
- Rushforth, Okay. (1999). Bushes of Britain and Europe. Collins. ISBN 0-00-220013-9.
- “Black Poplar”. The Woodland Belief. Archived from the unique on July 14, 2014. Retrieved July 12, 2014.
- Broeck, An Vanden (2003), European black poplar – Populus nigra: Technical tips for genetic conservation and use (PDF), European Forest Genetic Sources Programme, p. 6
- “Populus nigra var. thevestina“. Germplasm Sources Info Community (GRIN). Agricultural Analysis Service (ARS), United States Division of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved December 12, 2017.
- Flora of Pakistan: Populus afghanica
- Milne-Redhead, E. (1990). The B.S.B.I. Black Poplar survey, 1973-88. Watsonia 18: 1-5. Out there on-line Archived 2009-01-09 on the Wayback Machine (pdf file).
- Arkive: Populus nigra Archived 2006-02-11 on the Wayback Machine
- Cooper, Fiona (2006). The Black Poplar: Ecology, Historical past and Conservation. Windgather Press ISBN 1-905119-05-4
- Bean, W. J. (1980). Bushes and Shrubs Hardy within the British Isles Vol. 3. John Murray ISBN 0-7195-2427-X
- Stace, C. A. (1971). The Manchester Poplar. Watsonia 8: 391-393.
- Arboricultural Info Trade: Manchester Poplar Illness Archived 2007-09-30 on the Wayback Machine