Bignonia africana Lam.
Crescentia pinnata Jacq.
Kigelia abyssinica A.Wealthy.
Kigelia acutifolia Engl.
Kigelia elliptica Sprague
Kigelia ikbaliae De Wild.
Kigelia impressa Sprague
Kigelia pinnata (Jacq.) DC.
Kigelia somalensis Mattei
Kigelia spragueana Wernham
Kigelia talbotii Hutch. & Dalziel
Tecoma africana (Lam.) G.Don
Frequent Identify: Sausage Tree
Sausage tree is a particularly variable, semideciduous tree with a big, dense, spreading crown; it typically grows as much as 23 metres tall however is normally smaller. The bole is typically crooked, it normally branches from low-down and may be 80cm in diameter.
An necessary medicinal plant in its native vary, the place it’s generally gathered from the wild for native use. The fruits are sometimes bought in native markets and, extra just lately, the plant has develop into an ingredient in business functions to deal with a variety of pores and skin complaints[
]. The tree is commonly cultivated or protected in and across the villages of tropical Africa for medicinal functions and to offer shade and a village assembly place[
]. Additionally it is extensively grown as a decorative within the tropics of all continents, producing lengthy lax pendulous panicles of engaging, maroon-coloured, yellow-veined flowers that may be almost 1 metre lengthy[,
]. It isn’t advisable, nonetheless, to park a car or to place up a tent beneath a sausage tree throughout the fruiting interval. The ‘sausages’ that drop every now and then weigh as much as 12 kg and might trigger appreciable injury[
The fruits usually are not edible, even when absolutely ripe, and are mentioned to be purgative and poisonous[
]. Unripe fruits are toxic[
Tropical Africa – Senegal to Sudan, south to S. Africa.
Rain-forest; guinean and soudanian savannah; normally in damp websites; usually riverain[
]. Primarily in moist savannah woodland, spreading into gallery woodland and alongside rivers in moist forests. Low elevations in open woodland and riverine fringes[
A plant of low to greater elevations within the tropics, the place it’s discovered at elevations as much as 3,000 metres[
]. It’s present in areas the place the imply annual rainfall is within the vary 900 – 2,000mm. It isn’t frost resistant, but when younger crops are protected for the primary 2 – Three years from chilly winds in colder areas, they are going to survive[
Prefers a medium loam soil[
]. Grows finest in a sunny place in a fertile, humus-rich, well-drained soil[
A really variable plant, numerous species have been described by botanists, however it’s now thought of that the genus is monospecific and variations are because of ecological influences, affecting additionally phytochemistry[
A comparatively slow-growing tree; relying on the local weather, it reaches good shade proportions in 4 – 5 years. The expansion price is at the least 1 metre/12 months, however it’s slower in colder areas[
Bushes begin flowering when they’re about 6 years outdated from seed.
Crops can flower intermittently all 12 months spherical[
]. The flowers are unpleasantly scented.
The tree has a quite invasive root system and shouldn’t be planted near buildings.
The tree can be utilized efficiently for bonsai, the thick stem being a horny function[
Edible Makes use of
The seeds are roasted and used as a famine meals[,
The fruit is a standard additive to ferment in making ready beer to extend the efficiency or so as to add to the flavour[
]. Typically the fruit is baked first and the fleshy half is added to the brew to extend energy, or typically it’s the rind[
]. These additions have been postulated as resulting in elevated fermentation ensuing within the formation of amyl-alcohol and clarify the extreme hang-over after inebriation[
]. Squirrels in Malawi are mentioned to be very keen on the fruit; whether or not it’s to eat the pulp and seeds is just not sure, however it appears that evidently sap which they get in gnawing open the tip of the husk makes them fairly tipsy[
The nectar from the flowers is used as a supply of sugar[
Sausage Tree is a extensively used natural therapy in Africa, getting used within the therapy of an awesome many complaints. The fruits are mostly used, although all components of the plant have comparable properties The range of complaints in opposition to which the plant is used contains digestive issues, fainting, anaemia, sickle-cell anaemia, epilepsy, respiratory illnesses, hepatic and cardiac issues, and dietary sicknesses resembling kwashiorkor, rickets, losing and weak point. A lot fashionable analysis helps the standard makes use of and the plant has develop into an ingredient of commercially produced functions for treating pores and skin issues[
Of the phytochemicals elucidated in extracts of the plant, the compound teams to which exercise is most often attributed are naphthoquinones and iridoids[
Extracts of the bark, wooden, roots and fruits possess antibacterial and antifungal properties. These extracts exhibit vital inhibitory results in vitro in opposition to widespread Gram-negative and Gram-positive micro organism, and the yeast Candida albicans[
Of the naphthoquinones remoted in fruit and root extracts, kigelinone has proven notable antimicrobial exercise[
Iridoids and dihydroisocoumarins in extracts of the bark, fruits and roots could improve the antimicrobial exercise of naphthoquinones[
Different energetic antimicrobial compounds current within the bark and are the phenylpropanoids caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid[
The plant is famend for anti-cancer properties, and laboratory screening has confirmed in-vitro anti-cancer exercise[
]. Fruit extracts exhibited vital results in opposition to induced tumours. Fruit and bark extracts have proven reasonable efficacy in opposition to melanotic cell strains. The naphthoquinones lapachol and isopinnatal, in some extracts of bark, wooden, fruits and roots, exhibit antineoplastic exercise in opposition to melanoma cell strains. Sterols and iridoids are ubiquitous within the plant and could also be an element within the exercise in opposition to melanoma. The reported cytotoxicity of the basis within the brine shrimp assay was attributed to the presence of γ-sitosterol.[
The fruits have demonstrated anti-inflammatory actions in vivo[
Cinnamic acid derivatives are considered liable for anticonvulsant properties for which the plant is used to stop epileptic matches[
The leaves and fruits include flavonoids. A excessive focus of flavonoids could also be liable for antidiarrhoeal properties, elevated by antimicrobial constituents[
]. In distinction to using the plant as a laxative, preliminary research have proven a preventive impact of leaf extracts in opposition to diarrhoea[
The plant is used significantly to treatment a variety of pores and skin issues[
]. Powders and infusions of the bark, leaves, stems, twigs or fruits are all used to wash and costume flesh wounds and open sores. Many dressings, topical therapies and infusions containing this species are additionally used for his or her analgesic and anti inflammatory properties. The bark, stems, twigs, leaves and fruits are infused and brought orally, or utilized regionally, to alleviate rheumatism, sprains, haematoma and bruising; snake chew antidotes are made with an infusion of the fruits, stems, leaves, twigs or bark, taken orally or rubbed onto the chew. Infectious ailments, together with leprosy, impetigo, and worm infestations within the blood, are all handled with this plant; dermal complaints and infections, resembling whitlows, cysts, pimples and boils, are handled with conventional medicines containing the fruits, and fewer often, the bark; sore eyes are handled with drops constructed from flower sap blended with water[
The fruits are pendulous, as much as 45 cm lengthy by 15 cm diameter, and resemble a ‘German’ sausage[
]. They’re essentially the most generally used a part of the tree, being extensively considered as a fetish with magical properties to boost their medicinal virtues[
]. The fruits usually are not edible, even when absolutely ripe, and are mentioned to be aphrodisiac, intoxicant, purgative and poisonous[
Particularly, the fruit is used to extend breast measurement and performance. It’s given in decoction, and in addition massaged into the breasts, of younger women earlier than puberty to advertise an ample improvement, a apply mentioned to be confirmed by recorded measurements[
]. Infusions and decoctions are utilized as a wash or rub to advertise weight achieve in infants. The fruit is used to extend milk stream, and as a poultice for treating situations resembling mastitis and breast most cancers[
]. The fruit and roots, together with the ‘male’ tassel of the plantain inflorescence, are boiled collectively to make a ladies’s nostrum[
The fruit can also be used within the therapy of many different complaints. For instance, it’s used for treating scrotal elephantiasis; oedema of the legs; bronchial asthma; mixed with peppers, it’s used to deal with constipation and piles[
Externally, the fruit is utilized in poultices for treating wounds, syphilis, ulcers, boils and rheumatism[
]. The fruit-ash when powdered is alleged to have disinfective and healing properties after the model of boric acid[
Lower into items, the fruits are boiled with the roots of Anthocleista sp., and the liquid is taken by draught or enema for treating piles and lumbago[
The bark and fruit are mixed and used to heal sores and to revive style[
]. An oily ointment is constructed from the powder to rub on rheumatic components and on malignant tumours[
The bark is reported to include a bitter precept and tannic acid[
]. It has a considerably bitter style. It’s pounded and brought internally for relieving bronchial asthma and for treating dysentery and VD[
It’s used, within the type of a decoction or enema, to deal with dysentery and abdomen and kidney complaints, however solely together with different crops[
]. Comparable preparations are utilized in vapour-baths to deal with snake-bite – this softens the wound, facilitating the motion of treatment utilized afterwards[
The heated bark is utilized to ladies’s breasts to hasten their return to regular after a suckling little one has been weaned[
The crushed bark is utilized to power wounds and sores – the appliance course of is painful[
The bark is mixed with the bark of Mitragyna inermis; the roots of Xanthoxylum xanthoxyloides; and the seeds of Sterculia setigera for treating epilepsy[
]. It enters into varied prescriptions for the therapy of leprosy[
The bitter-tasting root is used as a treatment for boils, sore throat, constipation and tapeworm[
]. Mixed with different roots, it’s soaked in water which is then drunk for treating syphilis[
The leaves are typically used to deal with rheumatism, malaria, infertility, epilepsy, headache, dysentery, abdomen and kidney complaints[
]. They can be utilized to arrange a basic tonic for improved well being and progress[
]. An infusion of the leaves with different leaves is used for treating an undefined venereal illness[
Agroforestry Makes use of:
The in depth root system makes the plant appropriate for erosion management and riverbank stabilization[
The tree doesn’t compete with close by crops[
Different Makes use of
The fruit comprises tannin[
Tannins may be extracted from the roots and stem bark[
A black dye may be obtained from the fruit[
A yellow dye may be obtained from the roots.
In areas the place stones for a fire-hearth are scarce, the fruits are used to face pots on in a fireplace as they’re nearly fire-proof[
The husk is hollowed-out, fitted with a noose and bait and used as a mouse-trap[
]. Dolls are additionally constructed from the husks[
]. Some folks make ladles and cups from the minimize husk[
The heartwood is pale brown to reddish-yellow; the sapwood is white-yellow[
]. The wooden is gentle, mushy, however robust[,
]. It isn’t valued commercially, however is extensively utilized by native folks the place it’s used for gadgets resembling fence-posts (the place it’s believed that it doesn’t rot); dugout canoes (so valued is it for this function that the tree has needed to be protected in Malawi); a variety of small gadgets resembling tool-handles, mortars, drums, containers, and stools; the branch-wood is used for bows; and small branches are hollowed out to make enema tubes to be used on kids[
The wooden is used for gasoline[
Seed – no pre-treatment is required, however the germination price is poor[
]. One other report says that germination improves after the seed has been saved for 12 months. Soaking the seed in scorching or boiling water for one minute previous to sowing will improve germination.
Seeds are positioned in seedling trays full of pure river sand; they’re pressed into the sand till the tip is degree with the sand, lined evenly with a skinny layer of sand or pure compost and saved moist[
]. Seed normally germinates after 10 – 25 days[
]. Seeds germinate higher at temperatures of 23°c or greater[
The sausage tree is just not a prolific seeder. Seeds are launched when the fruit rots on the bottom, and crops regenerate naturally. Seed storage behaviour is orthodox; viability is maintained for greater than Three years in airtight storage at ambient temperature with 11-15% mc; dry seeds retailer effectively in a cool place[