Juglans regia Walnut, English walnut, Persian Walnut, PFAF Plant Database

Juglans regia Walnut, English walnut, Persian Walnut,

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Juglans regia Walnut, English walnut, Persian Walnut, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Consumer:Rasbak

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Abstract

Primary Bloom Time: Early spring, Late spring, Mid spring. Kind: Rounded.

Bodily Traits

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Juglans regia is a deciduous Tree rising to 20 m (65ft) by 20 m (65ft) at a medium price.
It’s hardy to zone (UK) 5 and isn’t frost tender. It’s in flower in June, and the seeds ripen in October. The species is monoecious (particular person flowers are both male or feminine, however each sexes will be discovered on the identical plant) and is pollinated by Wind. The plant is self-fertile.
Appropriate for: gentle (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Appropriate pH: acid, impartial and primary (alkaline) soils. It can’t develop within the shade. It prefers moist soil.

UK Hardiness Map
US Hardiness Map

Synonyms

Habitats

Woodland Backyard Cover;

Edible Makes use of

Edible Elements: Oil  Oil  Sap  Seed
Edible Makes use of: Oil  Oil  Sweetener  Tea

Seed – eaten uncooked or utilized in confections, muffins, ice cream and many others[2, 5, 12, 34, 183]. A scrumptious flavour. The seed may also be floor right into a meal and used as a flavouring in candy and savoury dishes[183]. The unripe fruits are pickled in vinegar[183]. An edible oil is obtained from the seed[4, 7, 57, 183], it shouldn’t be saved for any size of time because it tends to go rancid shortly[7, 132]. The oil has a pleasing flavour and is utilized in salads or for cooking[183]. The sap is tapped in spring and used to make a sugar[117]. The finely floor shells are used within the stuffing of ‘agnolotti’ pasta[183]. They’ve additionally been used as adulterant of spices[269]. The dried inexperienced husks include 2.5 – 5% ascorbic acid (vitamin C) – this may be extracted and used as a vitamin complement[269]. The leaves are used as a tea[183].

References

Medicinal Makes use of

Crops For A Future cannot take any duty for any hostile results from using crops. All the time search recommendation from an expert earlier than utilizing a plant medicinally.
Alterative  Anodyne  Antiinflammatory  Astringent  Bach  Blood air purifier  Most cancers  Depurative  
Detergent  Diuretic  Laxative  Lithontripic  Miscellany  Pectoral  Pores and skin  
Stimulant  Vermifuge

The walnut tree has an extended historical past of medicinal use, being utilized in folks drugs to deal with a variety of complaints[269]. The leaves are alterative, anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory, astringent and depurative[9, 218]. They’re used internally the therapy of constipation, power coughs, bronchial asthma, diarrhoea, dyspepsia and many others[9]. The leaves are additionally used to deal with pores and skin illnesses and purify the blood[9, 218]. They’re thought of to be particular within the therapy of strumous sores[240]. Male inflorescences are made right into a broth and used within the therapy of coughs and vertigo[218]. The rind is anodyne and astringent[147]. It’s used within the therapy of diarrhoea and anaemia[238]. The seeds are antilithic, diuretic and stimulant[218]. They’re used internally within the therapy of low again ache, frequent urination, weak spot of each legs, power cough, bronchial asthma, constipation resulting from dryness or anaemia and stones within the urinary tract[176]. Externally, they’re made right into a paste and utilized as a poultice to areas of dermatitis and eczema[176]. The oil from the seed is anthelmintic[218]. Additionally it is used within the therapy of menstrual issues and dry pores and skin situations[238]. The cotyledons are used within the therapy of most cancers[218]. Walnut has an extended historical past of folks use within the therapy of most cancers, some extracts from the plant have proven anticancer exercise[218]. The bark and root bark are anthelmintic, astringent and detergent[218, 240]. The plant is utilized in Bach flower treatments – the key phrases for prescribing it are ‘Oversensitive to concepts and influences’ and ‘The link-breaker'[209].

References

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Different Makes use of

Dye  Herbicide  Miscellany  Oil  Oil  Paint  Polish  Repellent  Tannin  Enamel  Wooden

A yellow dye is obtained from the inexperienced husks[4, 7, 100, 117]. It’s inexperienced[148]. The inexperienced nuts (is that this the identical because the inexperienced husks?) and the leaves are additionally used[148]. The rind of unripe fruits is an efficient supply of tannin[158]. A brown dye is obtained from the leaves and mature husks[4, 7, 48, 117, 168]. It doesn’t require a mordant and turns black if ready in an iron pot[168]. The dye is usually used as a colouring and tonic for darkish hair[238]. The leaves and the husks will be dried for later use[169]. A golden-brown dye is obtained from the catkins in early summer season. It doesn’t require a mordant[168]. A drying oil is obtained from the seed. It’s utilized in cleaning soap making, paints, and many others. It isn’t very steady and shortly goes rancid[7, 21, 34, 46]. The nuts can be utilized as a wooden polish. Merely crack open the shell and rub the kernel into the wooden to launch the oils. Wipe off with a clear material[4, 6, K]. The dried fruit rind is used to color doorways, window frames and many others[145] (it in all probability protects the wooden resulting from its tannin content material). The shells could also be used as anti-skid brokers for tyres, blasting grit, and within the preparation of activated carbon[269]. The leaves include juglone, this has been proven to have pesticidal and herbicidal properties[218]. The crushed leaves are an insect repellent[46, 61]. Juglone can also be secreted from the roots of the tree, it has an inhibitory impact on the expansion of many different crops[201]. Bark of the tree and the fruit rind are dried and used as a tooth cleaner. They may also be used recent[145, 158]. Wooden – heavy, arduous, sturdy, shut grained, seasons and polishes effectively. A really worthwhile timber tree, it’s used for furnishings making, veneer and many others[1, 4, 7, 46, 61, 158]. A dynamic accumulator gathering minerals or vitamins from the soil and storing them in a extra bioavailable kind – used as fertilizer or to enhance mulch.

Particular Makes use of

Carbon Farming  Dynamic accumulator  Meals Forest  Scented Crops

References

Cultivation particulars

World Crop  Administration: Normal  Different Techniques: Irreg. Intercrop  Different Techniques: Strip intercrop  Staple Crop: Protein-oil

Panorama Makes use of:Aggressive floor roots doable, Specimen. Requires a deep well-drained loam[11] and a sunny place sheltered from robust winds. Prefers a barely alkaline heavy loam however succeeds in most soils[1, 63]. The walnut tree is reported to tolerate an annual precipitation of 31 to 147cm, an annual temperature within the vary of seven.zero to 21.1°C and a pH within the vary of 4.5 to eight.2[269]. The dormant plant may be very chilly tolerant, tolerating temperatures right down to about -27°C with out critical harm, however the younger spring progress is quite tender and will be broken by late frosts[269]. Some late-leafing cultivars have been developed, these usually keep away from harm from spring frosts and may produce a greater high quality timber tree. The walnut tree is regularly cultivated for its edible seed in temperate zones of the world, there are numerous named varieties[63, 183]. Newer cultivars start producing nuts in 5 – 6 years; by 7 – eight years, they produce about 2.5 tons of nuts per hectare[269]. Orchards on comparatively poor, unirrigated mountain soil report 1.5 – 2.25 tonnes per hectare, orchards in effectively cultivated valleys, 6.5 – 7.5 tonnes per hectare[269]. Based on the Wealth of India, a totally grown particular person can yield about 185 kg, however 37 kg is extra doubtless[269]. Bushes develop effectively in most areas of Britain however they usually fail to completely ripen their fruits or their wooden in our cooler and damper local weather[63, 200], they like a extra continental local weather. There are some very positive timber in Cornwall[59]. Walnuts can produce giant wholesome timber in lots of components of Britain, however seedling timber usually don’t fruit reliably. Some European varieties have been developed that achieve colder areas[200]. Seedling timber are stated to take from 6 to 15 years to come back into fruit from seed[200], however these cultivars normally begin cropping inside 5 years. Crops produce a deep taproot and they’re illiberal of root disturbance. Seedlings needs to be planted out into their everlasting positions as quickly as doable and given some safety for his or her first winter or two since they’re considerably tender when younger. Flower initiation relies upon upon appropriate situations within the earlier summer season. The flowers and younger growths will be destroyed by even quick intervals right down to -2°c[63], however fortuitously crops are normally late coming into leaf. Some cultivars are self-fertile, although it’s typically finest to develop at the least two totally different cultivars to help in cross-pollination. Any pruning ought to solely be carried out in late summer season to early autumn or when the plant is totally dormant in any other case wounds will bleed profusely and this may severely weaken the tree. Crops produce chemical substances which might inhibit the expansion of different crops. These chemical substances are dissolved out of the leaves when it rains and are washed right down to the bottom beneath, decreasing the expansion of crops underneath the tree[18, 20, 159]. The roots additionally produce substances which might be poisonous to many plant species, particularly apples (Malus species), members of the Ericaceae, Potentilla spp and the white pines (sure Pinus spp.)[200]. Bushes have a dense cover which tends to cut back plant progress beneath them[20]. All in all, not one of the best of companion timber, it is usually prompt that the timber don’t like rising collectively in clumps[37]. Bushes are stated to inhibit the expansion of potatoes and tomatoes[18]. Hybridizes with J. nigra[149]. This species is notably prone to honey fungus[200]. The bruised leaves have a pleasing candy although resinous odor[245]. Particular Options:
Not North American native, Inconspicuous flowers or blooms. The plant is warmth tolerant in zones 7 by means of 1. (Plant Hardiness Zones present how effectively crops stand up to chilly winter temperatures.
Plant Warmth Zones present when crops would begin affected by the warmth.
The Plant Warmth Zone map relies on the variety of “warmth days” skilled in a given space the place the temperature climbs to over 86 levels F (30°C).
At this temperature, many crops start to undergo physiological harm. Warmth Zones vary from 1 (no warmth days) to 12 (210 or extra warmth days).
For instance Warmth Zone. 11-1 signifies that the plant is warmth tolerant in zones 11 by means of 1.) For polyculture design in addition to the above-ground structure (kind – tree, shrub and many others. and dimension proven above) info on the behavior and root sample can also be helpful and given right here if out there. The plant progress behavior is a regular with a non-suckering single trunk [1-2].

Carbon Farming

  • World Crop 
    These crops are already grown or traded around the globe. The annual worth of every is greater than $1 billion US Examples embrace coconuts, almonds, and bananas.
  • Administration: Normal 
    Crops develop to their normal top. Harvest fruit, seeds, or different merchandise. Non-Harmful administration techniques.
  • Different Techniques: Irreg. Intercrop 
    Irregular intercropping techniques are timber scattered all through cropland.
  • Different Techniques: Strip intercrop 
    Tree crops grown in rows with alternating annual crops.
  • Staple Crop: Protein-oil 
    (16+ p.c protein, 16+ p.c oil). Annuals embrace soybeans, peanuts, sunflower seeds. Perennials embrace seeds, beans, nuts, and fruits comparable to almond, Brazil nut, pistachio, walnut, hazel, and safou.

References

Temperature Converter

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Propagation

The seed is finest sown as quickly as it’s ripe in particular person deep pots in a chilly body[80]. That you must shield it from mice, birds, squirrels and many others. The seed normally germinates in late winter or the spring. Plant out the seedlings into their everlasting positions in early summer season and provides some safety from the chilly for his or her first winter or two. The seed may also be saved in cool moist situations (such s the salad compartment of a fridge) over the winter and sown in early spring however it might then require a interval of chilly stratification earlier than it is going to germinate[78, 80, 113]. Named varieties are propagated by budding.

Different Names

If out there different names are talked about right here

Discovered In

Nations the place the plant has been discovered are listed right here if the knowledge is offered

Weed Potential

Proper plant incorrect place. We’re at present updating this part.
Please observe {that a} plant could also be invasive in a single space however might not in your space so it’s price checking.

Conservation Standing

IUCN Pink Listing of Threatened Crops Standing :

Development: S = sluggish M = medium F = quick. Soil: L = gentle (sandy) M = medium H = heavy (clay). pH: A = acid N = impartial B = primary (alkaline). Shade: F = full shade S = semi-shade N = no shade. Moisture: D = dry M = Moist We = moist Wa = water.

 

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