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Juglans nigra

Juglans nigra


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Jap black walnut

Supply: James A. Duke. 1983. Handbook of Vitality Crops. unpublished.

  1. Makes use of
  2. Folks Drugs
  3. Chemistry
  4. Toxicity
  5. Description
  6. Germplasm
  7. Distribution
  8. Ecology
  9. Cultivation
  10. Harvesting
  11. Yields and Economics
  12. Vitality
  13. Biotic Elements
  14. Chemical Evaluation of Biomass Fuels
  15. References

Black walnut is one in every of most precious pure forest timber in the USA.
The nuts furnish a meals product, used primarily for flavoring baked items,
pastries, and confectioneries. Wooden has good texture, power, and is
coarse-grained, very sturdy, of a wealthy darkish brown shade with mild sapwood;
utilized in cabinet-making, gun-stocks, inside finishes of homes, furnishings,
airplanes, shipbuilding. Wooden can be simple to work, proof against harmful
fungi and bug pests. Woody shells on fruits used to make jewellery. Inexperienced
fruit husks boiled to offer a yellow dye. Bushes used for shade and

The bark and leaves are thought-about alterative, astringent, detergent, laxative,
and purgative. They’re used for eczema, herpes, indolent ulcers, scrofula.
The unripe fruit is sudorific and vermifugal, and used for ague and quinsy, and
is rubbed onto cracked palms and ringworm. Oil from the ripe seeds is used
externally for gangrene, leprosy, and wounds. Burnt kernels, taken in purple
wine, are stated to forestall falling hair, making it truthful. Inexperienced husks are
purported to ease the ache of toothache. Indians used the basis bark as
vermifuge. Macerated in heat water, the husks and/or leaves, are stated to
destroy bugs and worms, with out destroying the grass. Bugs are stated to
keep away from the walnut, therefore it’s usually used as a poor man’s insect repellent.
Rubbed on cattle and horses faces, walnut leaves are stated to repel flies. The
roots and/or leaves exude substances that are identified to inhibit germination
and/or development of many plant species. All components of the plant comprise juglone
which inhibits different plant species. Juglone has antihemorrhagic exercise.

The genus Juglans is reported to comprise the next “toxins”: folic acid,
furfural, inositol, juglone, nicotine, and tryptophane. Juglone has an oral
LD50 of 2500 mg in mice. Chloroform is reported to represent 86% of the
important oil of the leaves [Hort. Abs. 04416(051)]. Per 100 g, black walnut
incorporates 3.1% water, 628 energy, 20.5 g protein, 59.Three g fats, 14.Eight g complete
carbohydrate (1.7 g fiber), 2.Three g ash, a hint of Ca, 570 mg P, 6 mg Fe, Three mg
Na, 460 mg Okay, 300 IU Vitamin A, 0.22 mg thiamine, 0.11 mg riboflavin and 0.7 mg

The pollen could induce hay fever.

Tree as much as 33 m tall, sometimes to 50 m, and infrequently 100 years outdated; trunk
straight, usually unbranched for 20 m, 1.3–2 m in diameter; branches forming a
round-topped crown, largely upright and inflexible; branchlets coated at first with
pale or rusty matted hairs, and raised conspicuous orange lenticels; bark 5–7.5
cm thick, darkish brown tinged purple, deeply furrowed with broad rounded ridges;
twigs mild brown with channeled pith; terminal bud as broad as lengthy; no bushy
fringe above leaf-scar; leaves compound, deciduous, 30–60 cm lengthy, petioles
pubescent, with 13–23 leaflets; leaflets 7.5–Eight cm lengthy, 2.5–Three cm huge,
long-pointed, sharply serrate, barely rounded at base, yellow-green, skinny,
glabrous above, soft-pubescent beneath, turning vivid yellow in fall earlier than
falling; staminate aments thick, 7.5–12.5 cm lengthy, compact, not-stalked,
single; calyx 6-lobed, lobes concave, almost orbicular, pubescent on outer
floor, its bract almost triangular with rusty brown tomentum; stamens 20–30,
in lots of collection, connectives purple, truncate, almost sessile; pistillate aments
in 2–5-flowered spikes, bracts with pale glandular hairs, inexperienced, puberulous,
calyx-lobes ovate, acute, puberulent on outer floor, glabrous or pilose
inside; fruit solitary or in pairs, globose, rectangular or pointed at apex; husk
yellow-green or inexperienced, clean or roughened with clusters of quick pale
articulate hairs, 3–5 cm in diameter, indehiscent; nut oval, rectangular or spherical,
tough or sculptured, 3–3.5 cm in diameter, darkish brown tinged purple, 4-celled at
base, barely 2-celled at apex; kernel candy, quickly changing into rancid. 2n
= 32. Fl. April–Might; fr. at frost in fall.

At current, almost 100 cvs of black walnuts have been chosen and named. Many
may be propagated to order, or scions could also be obtained for grafting upon
established shares. Cultivars differ in hardiness, response to size of
rising season, summer time warmth, resistance to ailments and susceptibility to
insect harm. ‘Thomas’ is essentially the most cultivated selection in New York; ‘Snyder’
and ‘Cornell’ have good cracking high quality for northern areas; ‘Wiard’, for
Michigan; ‘Huber’ and ‘Cochrane’, for Minnesota; ‘Sparrow’, ‘Stambaugh’ and
‘Elmer Myers’ are all good in components of South; ‘Ohio’ and ‘Myers’, good in north
central areas. Pure hybrid, X Juglans intermedia Carr (J.
x J. regia) has been recorded in United States and Europe. In
California, ‘Royal’ (J. nigra x J. hindsii) has been artificially
produced (Reed, 1976). Reported from the North American Heart of Range,
walnut is reported to be comparatively tolerant to illness, drought, fireplace, frost,
fungi, excessive pH, warmth, bugs, limestone, slopes, smog, and weeds. (2n
= 32) (Duke, 1978)

Grows naturally in 32 states and in southern Ontario, Canada, most considerable in
Allegheny Mountains to North Carolina and Tennessee. Often cultivated
as decorative in japanese United States, western and central Europe. Planted in
Europe for timber.

Wind pollinated. Suited to wealthy bottomlands and fertile hillsides from decrease
Hudson Valley southward, walnut will develop just a few hundred miles exterior its
pure vary, however could not bear nuts. Seedling timber mature fruit quite
usually all through space with a rising season of about 150 days and an
common summer time temperature of 16.5°C. Greatest suited to deep, wealthy, barely
acid or impartial soil, with good drainage, however is not going to succeed on infertile
upland soil or on soils with poor drainage. Dependable indicators for appropriate
land are good stand of white oak and tulip fashionable, or the place corn grows nicely.
As a result of timber have a deep taproot, they’re drought resistant. Starting from
Cool Temperate Moist to Moist by Subtropical Moist Forest Life Zones, black
walnut is reported from areas with annual precipitation from Three to 13 dm (imply
of 19 instances = 9), annual temperature from 7 to 19°C (imply of 19 instances = 11),
and pH from 4.9–8.2 (imply of 15 instances 6.3). (Duke, 1978, 1979)

Improved varieties don’t come true from seed; therefore, propagated by grafting
scions (twigs) from timber of desired varieties onto fundamental stems of two–3-year outdated
native seedlings. Scions develop crowns that bear nuts of their very own selection.
As there’s little data accessible to point one of the best cvs for various
localities, native nurseries needs to be consulted. Bushes are self-fertile, however
the sequence of female and male blooming, known as dichogamy, can and infrequently does
decrease possibilities of a tree shedding pollen by itself pistils. In numerous
timber pollen could also be shed earlier than receptivity interval of feminine flowers, or at
similar time, or after pistil receptivity. For biggest potential nut manufacturing,
plant timber of two or extra cvs, as completely different cvs have overlapping
pollen-receptivity intervals and might pollinate one another. Younger crops are finest
transplanted in early spring, when new roots will develop quickly to exchange these
misplaced in transplanting. In South, younger timber could also be planted in fall or winter.
For nut manufacturing, timber spaced 20 m aside. For timber as much as 2.Three m tall, dig
gap 0.6 m deep and 1 m huge. Place tree at similar depth in gap because it stood in
nursery and unfold out roots nicely. Fill gap with topsoil and agency down soil.
Kind a basin round fringe of gap and soak soil instantly. Black walnuts
require massive portions of nitrogen and phosphorus. Apply combined fertilizer
(5-10-5 or 10-10-10) every year beneath tree branches when buds start to swell in
early spring. Charges of 450 g/yr of 5-10-5 fertilizer, or 230 g/yr for
10-10-10, per tree. Don’t use throughout first 12 months, due to hazard of
injuring roots. In strongly acid soils, apply lime to vary pH to six or 6.5.
Don’t over-lime, as this makes zinc in soil unavailable to tree. Soils east
of Mississippi River are sometimes poor in magnesium. Crushed dolomite
limestone is used to right this situation and cut back acidity of soil. Prune
any suckers that come from under graft on trunk. In orchards, timber over 15
years outdated could also be interseeded with grasses and legumes and animals turned in to
pasture, as they won’t harm older timber. All black walnuts are inclined to bear
heavy nut crops each second 12 months. No cultural practices have been developed
to offset such a alternating. Some timber bear yearly, whereas others
bear each third 12 months. Others primarily react to weather conditions with no
sample. In United States rising seasons are divided into Three zones: North of
Mason-Dixon Line, 140–180 days; south to North Carolina, northern Georgia,
Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas and Oklahoma, 180–200 days; south of that,
220–260 days. Varieties are chosen for every space. When timber bearing fruits
of remarkable high quality are discovered, they’re propagated and cultivated for nut
manufacturing in that space.

Nuts are havested from native timber in addition to from improved picks and
cultivars. Fruit ripens in a single season, normally by late September or early
October. Most manufacturing is from wild timber rising on non-crop land, and
these signify the primary commerical supply of kernels for right now’s market. Nuts
needs to be harvested as quickly as they fall, with the intention to get light-colored kernels
with gentle taste. Leaving them on floor causes some discoloration of kernel.
Hulls of native timber are thick and heavy, whereas these of ‘Thomas’ and ‘Ohio’
have thinner hull, these of ‘Myers’ being thinnest of all. Hull could also be mashed
and eliminated by hand, or by mechanical gadgets. After eradicating the hulls, nuts
needs to be washed completely and unfold out to dry in direct daylight. Drying
takes 2–Three weeks; nuts can then be saved in cool, dry place till wanted. Nuts
are cracked and kernels eliminated to be used.

Though Duke (1978) reported yields of seven.5 MT seeds, that is in all probability extremely
optimistic. Elsewhere it’s stated that 95% of the wild black walnut seeds are
empty or aborted. Maybe yields could possibly be as excessive as 2.5 MT/ha beneath intensive
administration, which is attainable within the business walnut, Juglans regia.
Choices are made based mostly on weight of nuts. Bushes could bear at charges of seven,500
seed/ha. Nuts from wild timber weigh about 17 g (27 nuts per lb); for chosen
varieties, weights differ from 15–30 g; these 20 g or over are: ‘Michigan’ (20);
‘Grundy’, ‘Monterey’, ‘Schreiber’ and ‘Thomas’ (21); ‘Victoria’ (22); ‘Hare’
(23); ‘Pinecrest’ (25); and ‘Vandersloot’ (30). ‘Thomas’, ‘Ohio’ and ‘Myers’
start bearing nuts in second or third 12 months after planting, whereas native timber
normally don’t start to bear till about 10 years after planting. In 5–6
years, these three varieties bear about one-forth bushel of nuts; at 15–20
years of age, the primary two bear 2 bu of nuts, ‘Myers’ about 1 bu, and native
timber about one-fourth bu. Lumber timber yield about 1150 board toes at 76
years outdated. Nut shelling business centered in and round Arkansas, Kansas,
Kentucky, Missouri, Oklahoma, Tennessee, West Virginia and Virginia. As a result of
of shortage of timber and lengthy rising interval required to get wooden, walnut
lumber is just not in nice demand because it was once. Extra regularly grown in
Europe for lumber. Walnuts grown in United States for nuts and decoration.
Effectively-formed timber will yield lumber price hundreds of {dollars}.

Oil contents of the seeds run about 60%, suggesting that if the walnut yields
of seven.5 MT/ha had been attained, there may be as a lot as 4.5 MT/oil there. Hulls
and exocarp may be used to gas the processing, as the worth of the timber
improves with age (one tree commanded $35,000 at an Ohio public sale). Prunings
and culls, in addition to fallen and useless limbs may quantity to five MT/ha/12 months.

Walnut anthracnose is most critical illness to native timber. ‘Ohio’ is
proof against this illness; ‘Myers’ is much less resistant. Illness overwinters in
fallen leaves and reinfects new leaflets in mid Might till mid June, usually
defoliating whole timber. Many nuts are empty or comprise blackened, shriveled
kernels. Bunch illness, the trigger and technique of unfold are unknown, stunts
development of tree and lowers nut manufacturing. Most critical insect pests are walnut
lace bug, curculios, walnut husk maggot, walnut caterpillar and fall webworm.
Critical harm can also be brought on by leaf-eating caterpillars, scales, aphids
and twig girdlers. County agricultural brokers needs to be consulted for measures
to regulate these in a selected space. Nematodes embrace Meloidogyne
sp., Pratylenchus coffeae, P. pratensis, and P. vulnus
(Golden, p.c. 1984).

Analysing 62 sorts of biomass for heating worth, Jenkins and Ebeling (1985)
reported an expansion of 19.83 to 18.65MJ/kg, in comparison with 13.76 for weathered rice
straw to 23.28 MJ/kg for prune pits. On a % DM foundation, the orchard prunings
contained 80.69% volatiles, 0.78% ash, 18.53% fastened carbon, 49.80% C, 5.82% H,
43.25% O, 0.22% N, 0.01% S, 0.05% Cl, and undetermined residue.

  • Duke, J.A. 1978. The hunt for tolerant germplasm. p. 1–61. In: ASA Particular
    Symposium 32, Crop tolerance to suboptimal land situations. Am. Soc. Agron.
    Madison, WI.
  • Duke, J.A. 1979. Ecosystematic information on financial crops. Quart. J. Crude Drug
    Res. 17(3–4):91–110.
  • Jenkins, B.M. and Ebeling, J.M. 1985. Thermochemical properties of biomass
    fuels. Calif. Agric. 39(5/6):14–16.
  • Reed, C.F. 1976. Info summaries on 1000 financial crops. Typescripts
    submitted to the USDA.

Full listing of references for Duke, Handbook of Vitality Crops

Final replace Wednesday, January 7, 1998 by aw

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