Juglans cinerea Butternut – White Walnut, Butternut PFAF Plant Database

Juglans cinerea Butternut - White Walnut, Butternut

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Juglans cinerea Butternut - White Walnut, Butternut http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Person:Llez

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Abstract

Bloom Coloration: Yellow. Foremost Bloom Time: Early spring, Late spring, Mid spring. Kind: Rounded.

Bodily Traits

 icon of manicon of lolypop
Juglans cinerea is a deciduous Tree rising to 25 m (82ft) by 20 m (65ft) at a medium charge.
It’s hardy to zone (UK) Four and isn’t frost tender. It’s in flower from Might to June, and the seeds ripen from October to November. The species is monoecious (particular person flowers are both male or feminine, however each sexes will be discovered on the identical plant) and is pollinated by Wind. The plant is self-fertile.
Appropriate for: gentle (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Appropriate pH: acid, impartial and primary (alkaline) soils. It can not develop within the shade. It prefers moist soil.

UK Hardiness Map
US Hardiness Map

Synonyms

Wallia cinerea. Nux cinerea

Habitats

Woodland Backyard Cover;

Edible Makes use of

Edible Elements: Oil  Sap  Seed
Edible Makes use of: Oil  Sweetener

Seed – eaten uncooked or floor right into a powder and used with cereal flours in making muffins, biscuits, muffins, bread and many others[183]. Oily and candy tasting with a wealthy agreeable flavour[11, 62, 63. 101, 183]. The oil within the seed will not be very secure and the seed quickly turns into rancid as soon as it’s opened[82]. The kernel is often solely about 20% by weight of the entire seed[160] and is difficult to extract[226]. The unripe fruit will be pickled[183]. The seed is 3 – 6cm in diameter and is produced in clusters of three – 5 fruits[82, 229]. An edible oil is obtained from the seed[101, 117, 183], it tends to go rancid rapidly. The candy sap is tapped in spring and can be utilized as a refreshing drink[101]. It may also be boiled right down to a syrup or sugar, or added to maple syrup[82, 101, 117, 159, 183].

References

Medicinal Makes use of

Crops For A Future cannot take any duty for any opposed results from the usage of vegetation. At all times search recommendation from an expert earlier than utilizing a plant medicinally.
Astringent  Cholagogue  Febrifuge  Laxative  Odontalgic  Stomachic

Butternut was utilized by varied native North American Indian tribes as a laxative and tonic treatment to deal with quite a lot of circumstances together with rheumatic and arthritic joints, complications, dysentery, constipation and wounds[254]. In trendy herbalism it’s thought of to be a worthwhile treatment for continual constipation, gently encouraging common bowel actions. It’s particularly helpful when mixed with a carminative herb similar to Angelica archangelica[254]. The quills or interior bark are one of many few potent laxatives which are secure to make use of in being pregnant [301. Butternut also lowers cholesterol levels and promotes the clearance of waste products by the liver[254]. An infusion of the inner-bark is used as a cholagogue, febrifuge, delicate laxative and stomachic[4, 46, 61, 82, 159, 165, 213, 222]. It’s efficient in small doses with out inflicting cramps[222]. The bark is greatest collected within the autumn[213]. Greatest collected in late spring in response to one other report[4]. An infusion of the dried outer bark is used within the remedy of toothache and dysentery[226]. The oil from the nuts is used within the remedy of tapeworms and fungal infections[4, 222].

References

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Different Makes use of

Dye  Herbicide  Oil  Wooden

A yellow to orange dye is obtained from the seed husks[46, 61, 82] and from the bark[57]. It’s darkish brown[95, 101]. It doesn’t require a mordant[169]. The seed husks will be dried and saved for later use[169]. A light-weight brown dye is obtained from the younger twigs, leaves, buds and unripe fruit[117, 169, 213]. It doesn’t require a mordant[169]. The leaves may also be dried and saved for later use[169]. A black dye is obtained from the younger roots[257]. Crops produce chemical substances which may inhibit the expansion of different vegetation. These chemical substances are dissolved out of the leaves when it rains and are washed right down to the bottom beneath, lowering the expansion of vegetation below the tree[18, 20, 159]. The roots of this species produce substances which are poisonous to many plant species, particularly apples (Malus species), members of the Ericaceae, Potentilla spp and the white pines (sure Pinus spp.)[200, 201]. Wooden – coarse-grained, gentle, smooth, not robust, very engaging[46, 61, 82, 117]. It weighs 25lb per cubic foot[235]. It isn’t as worthwhile a crop because the black walnut (J. nigra), however is used indoors for furnishings, doorways and many others[229]. A dynamic accumulator gathering minerals or vitamins from the soil and storing them in a extra bioavailable kind – used as fertilizer or to enhance mulch.

Particular Makes use of

Carbon Farming  Dynamic accumulator  Meals Forest

References

Cultivation particulars

Administration: Commonplace  Regional Crop  Staple Crop: Protein-oil

Panorama Makes use of:Specimen. Requires a deep well-drained loam and a place sheltered from robust winds[1, 11]. Prefers a barely alkaline soil[200]. Prefers a sandy soil with a pH round 6 to 7[160]. Dislikes compacted soils or clay sub-soils, in any other case timber develop effectively on most soils[160]. That is essentially the most cold-resistant of the walnuts[117], tolerating temperatures right down to about -35°c in N. America when absolutely dormant[160]. It’s much less hardy in Britain, sadly, as a result of the wooden doesn’t ripen so effectively right here because of our cooler summers. The younger development in spring will be broken by late frosts[200]. Typically cultivated in N. America for its edible seed, there are some named varieties[63, 117, 183]. Bushes can come into bearing in 6 – 10 years from seed and fruiting is often biennial[160]. The timber are fairly short-lived, seldom exceeding 80 – 90 years[229]. They require about 105 frost-free days as a way to ripen a crop in N. America[160]. Sadly, they haven’t proved profitable as a nut tree in Britain, often failing to supply a crop[11]. That is in all probability because of our cooler summers[11]. It’s generally planted as a timber tree in Denmark and Rumania[50]. Crops produce a deep taproot and are illiberal of root disturbance. Seedlings ought to be planted out into their everlasting positions as quickly as attainable and given some safety for his or her first few winters since they’re considerably tender when younger[1, 11]. Bushes forged a dense shade which reduces the quantity of species capable of develop beneath them[201]. We’ve no particular info for this species, however the roots of a number of members of this genus produce substances which are poisonous to many plant species, particularly apples (Malus species), members of the Ericaceae, Potentilla spp and the white pines (sure Pinus spp.)[200]. The leaves of many species additionally secrete substances which have an inhibitory have an effect on on vegetation rising beneath them. All in all this isn’t an excellent companion plant[K]. Crops ought to solely be pruned when they’re absolutely dormant in winter or when they’re in full leaf, in any other case any cuts will bleed profusely[200]. Hybridizes with J. ailantifolia, there are some named types of this hybrid which are grown for his or her edible seed[160]. Particular Options:North American native, Inconspicuous flowers or blooms. The plant is warmth tolerant in zones 9 by way of 1. (Plant Hardiness Zones present how effectively vegetation stand up to chilly winter temperatures.
Plant Warmth Zones present when vegetation would begin affected by the warmth.
The Plant Warmth Zone map relies on the variety of “warmth days” skilled in a given space the place the temperature climbs to over 86 levels F (30°C).
At this temperature, many vegetation start to endure physiological harm. Warmth Zones vary from 1 (no warmth days) to 12 (210 or extra warmth days).
For instance Warmth Zone. 11-1 signifies that the plant is warmth tolerant in zones 11 by way of 1.) For polyculture design in addition to the above-ground structure (kind – tree, shrub and many others. and measurement proven above) info on the behavior and root sample can also be helpful and given right here if out there. The plant development behavior is a typical with a non-suckering single trunk [1-2]. The basis sample is a faucet root just like a carrot going straight down [1-2].

Carbon Farming

  • Administration: Commonplace 
    Crops develop to their commonplace peak. Harvest fruit, seeds, or different merchandise. Non-Damaging administration techniques.
  • Regional Crop 
    These crops have been domesticated and cultivated regionally however haven’t been adopted elsewhere and are usually not traded globally, Examples on this broad class embody perennial cottons and lots of nuts and staple fruits.
  • Staple Crop: Protein-oil 
    (16+ p.c protein, 16+ p.c oil). Annuals embody soybeans, peanuts, sunflower seeds. Perennials embody seeds, beans, nuts, and fruits similar to almond, Brazil nut, pistachio, walnut, hazel, and safou.

References

Temperature Converter

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Propagation

The seed is greatest sown as quickly as it’s ripe in particular person deep pots in a chilly body[80]. It is advisable defend it from mice, birds, squirrels and many others. The seed often germinates in late winter or the spring. Plant out the seedlings into their everlasting positions in early summer season and provides some safety from the chilly for his or her first winter or two. The seed may also be saved in cool moist circumstances (such s the salad compartment of a fridge) over the winter and sown in early spring however it could then require a interval of chilly stratification earlier than it’ll germinate[78, 80].

Different Names

If out there different names are talked about right here

Discovered In

Nations the place the plant has been discovered are listed right here if the data is obtainable

Weed Potential

Proper plant fallacious place. We’re at the moment updating this part.
Please observe {that a} plant could also be invasive in a single space however could not in your space so it’s price checking.

Conservation Standing

IUCN Crimson Record of Threatened Crops Standing :

Associated Crops
Latin Title Frequent Title Behavior Top Hardiness Progress Soil Shade Moisture Edible Medicinal Different
Juglans ailanthifolia Japanese Walnut Tree 20.0 4-8   LMH N M 3 1 5
Juglans ailanthifolia cordiformis Heartseed Walnut Tree 20.0 4-8 M LMH N M 4 1 4
Juglans californica California Walnut, Southern California walnut Tree 6.0 7-10 M LMH N M 2 1  
Juglans cathayensis Chinese language Walnut Tree 20.0 4-8   LMH N M 3 0  
Juglans hindsii Hind’s Black Walnut, Northern California walnut, Paradox hybrid walnut Tree 15.0 8-9 M LMH N M 3 0  
Juglans intermedia Hind’s Black Walnut, Northern California walnut, Paradox hybrid walnuH Tree 30.0 4-8   LMH N M 3 0  
Juglans main Arizona Walnut Tree 15.0 8-11 F LMH N M 2 0  
Juglans mandschurica Manchurian Walnut Tree 20.0 4-8   LMH N M 3 1  
Juglans microcarpa Texas Walnut, Little walnut, Stewart’s little walnut Tree 10.0 5-9   LMH N M 2 0  
Juglans neotropica Andean Walnut Tree 25.0 10-12 S LMH N M 3 2 4
Juglans nigra Black Walnut Tree 30.0 4-9 F LMH N M 3 3 4
Juglans olanchana Olancho walnut, Central American walnut Tree 45.0 10-12 M LMH SN MWe 2 0 3
Juglans regia Walnut, English walnut, Persian Walnut, Tree 20.0 7-9 M LMH N M 4 3 4
Juglans regia fallax Walnut Tree 30.0 4-8   LMH N M 3 0  
Juglans regia kamaonia Walnut Tree 30.0 4-8   LMH N M 3 3  
Juglans sinensis   Tree 20.0   LMH N M 3 1  
Juglans x bisbyi Buartnut Tree 20.0 4-8   LMH N M 3 0 2

Progress: S = gradual M = medium F = quick. Soil: L = gentle (sandy) M = medium H = heavy (clay). pH: A = acid N = impartial B = primary (alkaline). Shade: F = full shade S = semi-shade N = no shade. Moisture: D = dry M = Moist We = moist Wa = water.

 

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Topic : Juglans cinerea
 
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