Impatiens capensis - Wikipedia

Impatiens capensis – Wikipedia

Impatiens capensis, the orange jewelweed, frequent jewelweed, noticed jewelweed,[1] or orange balsam,[2] is an annual plant which is native to jap North America.[3] It’s common in bottomland soils, ditches, and alongside creeks, typically rising side-by-side with its much less frequent relative, yellow jewelweed (I. pallida).

Description[edit]

Jewelweed is an herbaceous plant that grows Three to five ft tall and blooms from late spring to early fall. The flowers are orange (typically blood orange or not often yellow) with a three-lobed corolla; one of many calyx lobes is coloured equally to the corolla and varieties a hooked conical spur in the back of the flower. Crops might also produce non-showy cleistogamous flowers, which don’t require cross-pollination.[4]

It typically branches extensively. The spherical stems are glabrous (easy) and succulent,[5] and semi-translucent, with swollen or darkened nodes on some vegetation. The leaves are alternate and easy and have tooth on the margins. The seed pods have 5 valves which coil again quickly to eject the seeds in a course of referred to as explosive dehiscence[6] or ballistochory. This response is the place the identify ‘touch-me-not’ comes from; in mature seed pods, dehiscence can simply be triggered with a light-weight contact.

Distribution[edit]

Impatiens capensis was transported within the 19th and 20th centuries to England, France, the Netherlands, Poland, Sweden, Finland, and doubtlessly different areas of northern and central Europe. These naturalized populations persist within the absence of any frequent cultivation by folks. This jewelweed species is kind of just like Impatiens noli-tangere, an Impatiens species native to Europe and Asia, in addition to the opposite North American Impatiens. No proof exists of pure hybrids, though the habitats occupied by the 2 species are very related.[citation needed]

Within the State of Washington, Impatiens capensis is taken into account a category C noxious weed as a consequence of its fast unfold and tendency to outcompete native jewelweeds.[7] It has additionally shaped a hybrid species with the native jewelweed Impatiens ecornuta.[8]

Medicinal use[edit]

Together with different species of jewelweed, the juice of the leaves and stems is a standard Native American treatment for pores and skin rashes, together with poison ivy.[9][10] The effectiveness of its use to forestall the event of a rash after short-term publicity to poison ivy has been supported by peer-reviewed research, and is probably going as a result of plant containing saponins.[11][12] These research additionally discovered that some people have a sensitivity to jewelweed which may trigger a extra extreme rash.

The stem juice has additionally been used to deal with athlete’s foot; its fungicidal qualities have been scientifically verified.[13]

Etymology[edit]

The leaves seem like silver or ‘jeweled’ when held underwater, which is probably the place the jewelweed identify comes from. One other potential supply of the identify is the colour and form of the intense robin’s egg-blue kernels of the inexperienced projectile seeds.[citation needed]

The species identify capensis, that means “of the cape”, is definitely a misnomer, as Nicolaas Meerburgh was below the mistaken impression that it was native to the Cape of Good Hope, in southern Africa.[14]

Pollination[edit]

A bumblebee feeding on jewelweed

Nectar spurs are tubular elongations of petals and sepals of sure flowers that often include nectar. Flowers of Impatiens capensis have these nectar spurs. Nectar spurs are thought to have performed a task in plant-pollinator coevolution. Curvature angles of nectar spurs of Impatiens capensis are variable. This angle varies from Zero levels to 270 levels.[15]

The angle of the nectar spur is essential within the pollination of the flower and in figuring out probably the most environment friendly pollinator. Hummingbirds are main pollinators. They take away extra pollen per go to from flowers with curved nectar spurs than with perpendicular nectar spurs.[15] However hummingbirds will not be the one pollinators of Impatiens capensis. Bees, particularly bumblebees play an necessary function in pollination as nicely. As a consequence of hummingbirds and bees, the pollination of Impatiens capensis could be very excessive.[16]

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Dickinson, T.; Metsger, D.; Bull, J.; Dickinson, R. (2004). ROM Area Information to Wildflowers of Ontario. Toronto: Royal Ontario Museum and McClelland and Stewart Ltd. p. 197.
  2. ^ “BSBI Listing 2007”. Botanical Society of Britain and Eire. Archived from the unique (xls) on 2015-01-25. Retrieved 2014-10-17.
  3. ^ Ceska, Dr. A. (21 April 2009). “Botanical Digital Information, No. 408”. Retrieved 15 June 2020.
  4. ^ Hilty, John (2016). “Orange Jewelweed (Impatiens capensis)”. Illinois Wildflowers.
  5. ^ “Orange Jewelweed (Impatiens capensis)”. www.illinoiswildflowers.data.
  6. ^ Hayashi, Marika; Feilich, Kara; Ellerby, David (Could 2009). “The mechanics of explosive seed dispersal in orange jewelweed (Impatiens capensis)”. Journal of Experimental Botany. 60 (7): 2045–2046. doi:10.1093/jxb/erp070. PMC 2682495. PMID 19321647.
  7. ^ “Noticed Jewelweed”. Washington State Noxious Weed Management Board. Washington State. Retrieved October 25, 2020.
  8. ^ Zika, Peter (Sep 2006). “Impatiens ×pacifica (Balsaminaceae), a New Hybrid Jewelweed from the Pacific Northwest Coast of North America”. Novon: A Journal for Botanical Nomenclature. 16 (3): 443–448. doi:10.3417/1055-3177(2006)16[443:IPBANH]2.0.CO;2.
  9. ^ Smith, Huron H. (1933). “Ethnobotany of the Forest Potawatomi Indians”. Bulletin of the Public Museum of the Metropolis of Milwaukee. 7: 42.
  10. ^ Fagan, Damian (2019). Wildflowers of Oregon: A Area Information to Over 400 Wildflowers, Timber, and Shrubs of the Coast, Cascades, and Excessive Desert. Guilford, CT: FalconGuides. p. 227. ISBN 1-4930-3633-5. OCLC 1073035766.
  11. ^ Motz, Vicki; Bowers, Christopher; Kneubehl, Alexander; Lendrum, Elizabeth; Younger, Linda; Kinder, David (2015). “Efficacy of the saponin element of Impatiens capensis Meerb. in stopping urushiol-induced contact dermatitis”. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 162: 163–7. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2014.12.024. PMID 25543019.
  12. ^ Motz; Bowers; Younger; Kinder (2012). “The effectiveness of jewelweed, Impatiens capensis, the associated cultivar I. balsamina and the element, lawsone in stopping submit poison ivy publicity contact dermatitis”. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 143 (1): 314–318. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2012.06.038. PMID 22766473.
  13. ^ Niering, William A.; Olmstead, Nancy C. (1985) [1979]. The Audubon Society Area Information to North American Wildflowers, Japanese Area. Knopf. p. 414. ISBN 0-394-50432-1.
  14. ^ Strausbaugh, P.D.; Core, E. L. (1964). Flora of West Virginia (2nd ed.). Seneca Books. p. 622. ISBN 978-0-89092-010-7.
  15. ^ a b Travers, Steven E; Temeles, Ethan J; Pan, Irvin (2003). “The connection between nectar spur curvature in jewelweed (Impatiens capensis) and pollen elimination by hummingbird pollinators”. Canadian Journal of Botany. 81 (2): 164–70. doi:10.1139/b03-014.
  16. ^ Elemans, Marjet (2004). “Gentle, vitamins and the expansion of herbaceous forest species”. Acta Oecologica. 26 (3): 197–202. Bibcode:2004AcO….26..197E. doi:10.1016/j.actao.2004.05.003.

Exterior hyperlinks[edit]

Jewelweed


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