Ilex vomitoria - Wikipedia

Ilex vomitoria – Wikipedia

Ilex vomitoria, generally generally known as yaupon () or yaupon holly, is a species of holly that’s native to southeastern North America.[2] The phrase yaupon was derived from the Catawban yą́pą, from yą- tree + leaf.[3] One other widespread identify, cassina, was borrowed from Timucua[4] (regardless of this, it normally refers to Ilex cassine). The Latin identify comes from an incorrect perception by Europeans that the plant precipitated vomiting in sure ceremonies.

The plant was historically utilized by Native Individuals to make an infusion containing caffeine. It is just certainly one of two identified vegetation endemic to North America that produce caffeine. The opposite is Ilex cassine, generally generally known as dahoon holly. Yaupon can be extensively used for landscaping in its native vary.

Description[edit]

Yaupon holly is an evergreen shrub or small tree reaching 5–9 m tall, with easy, gentle grey bark and slender, furry shoots. The leaf association is alternate, with leaves ovate to elliptical and a rounded apex with crenate or coarsely serrated margin, 1–4.5 cm lengthy and 1–2 cm broad, shiny darkish inexperienced above, barely paler beneath. The flowers are 5–5.5 mm diameter, with a white four-lobed corolla. The fruit is a small spherical, shiny, and pink (sometimes yellow) drupe 4–6 mm diameter containing 4 pits, that are dispersed by birds consuming the fruit. The species could also be distinguished from the same Ilex cassine by its smaller leaves with a rounded, not acute apex.[5][6][7][8][9]

Habitat and vary[edit]

I. vomitoria happens in the US from the Japanese Shore of Virginia south to Florida and west to Oklahoma[8] and Texas. A disjunct inhabitants happens within the Mexican state of Chiapas.[2] It usually happens in coastal areas in well-drained sandy soils, and may be discovered on the higher edges of brackish and salt marshes, sandy hammocks, coastal sand dunes, inner-dune depressions, sandhills, maritime forests, nontidal forested wetlands, well-drained forests and pine flatwoods.[5]

Ecology[edit]

The fruit are an vital meals for a lot of birds, together with Florida duck, American black duck, mourning dove, ruffed grouse, bobwhite quail, wild turkey, northern flicker, sapsuckers, cedar waxwing, jap bluebird, American robin, grey catbird, northern mockingbird, and white-throated sparrow. Mammals that eat the fruit embody nine-banded armadillo, American black bear, grey fox, raccoon and skunks. The foliage and twigs are browsed by white-tailed deer.[5]

Cultivation and makes use of[edit]

Human consumption[edit]

Native Individuals brewed the leaves and stems to brew a tisane, generally regarded as referred to as asi or black drink for male-only purification and unity rituals. The ceremony included vomiting, and Europeans deduced that yaupon precipitated it (therefore the Latin identify – Ilex vomitoria). The energetic elements, like these of the associated yerba mate and guayusa vegetation, are caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline;[10][11] the vomiting might have resulted from the nice portions through which they drank the beverage, coupled with fasting.[5][12] The favored author on edible wild vegetation, Euell Gibbons, who was not an knowledgeable in ethnobotany, believed the Europeans improperly assumed the black drink to be the Ilex vomitoria infusion, asserting that it was a completely totally different drink created from varied roots and herbs and did have emetic properties.[13]

Native Individuals might have additionally used the infusion as a laxative.[14] Just lately, the method of drying the leaves for consumption has been adopted by trendy Individuals, and yaupon is now commercially accessible.[15][16][17]

Decorative[edit]

Ilex vomitoria is a typical panorama plant within the Southeastern United States. The most typical cultivars are slow-growing shrubs in style for his or her dense, evergreen foliage and their adaptability to pruning into hedges of varied shapes. These embody:

  • ‘Folsom Weeping’ – weeping cultivar
  • ‘Gray’s Littleleaf’/’Gray’s Weeping’ – weeping cultivar
  • ‘Nana’/’Compacta’ – dwarf feminine clone normally remaining beneath 1 m in peak.
  • ‘Pleasure of Houston’ – feminine clone much like kind however that includes enhancements in kind, fruiting, and foliage.
  • ‘Schilling’s Dwarf’/’Stokes Dwarf’ – dwarf male clone that grows not more than 0.6 m tall and 1.2 m vast.[18]
  • ‘Will Fleming’ – male clone that includes a columnar development behavior.
  • ‘Pendula’ – “weeping” selection. Has the best caffeine content material.

See additionally[edit]

  • Ilex paraguariensis or yerba mate – a caffeinated holly native to subtropical South America.
  • Ilex guayusa or guayusa – a caffeinated holly native to the Ecuadorian Amazon Rainforest.
  • Kuding – a Chinese language tisane created from I. kudingcha

References[edit]

  1. ^ Stritch, L. (2018). “Ilex vomitoria”. IUCN Crimson Checklist of Threatened Species. 2018: e.T62390A47600649. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-1.RLTS.T62390A47600649.en. Retrieved Three Might 2020.
  2. ^ a b Ilex vomitoria“. Germplasm Assets Data Community (GRIN). Agricultural Analysis Service (ARS), United States Division of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 2011-09-19.
  3. ^ “yaupon”. Merriam-Webster On-line Dictionary. Merriam-Webster, Inc. Retrieved July 26, 2020.
  4. ^ Cutler, Charles L. (2000). O Courageous New Phrases!: Native American Loanwords in Present English. College of Oklahoma Press. pp. 10, 163, 215. ISBN 978-0-8061-3246-4.
  5. ^ a b c d “Yaupon Ilex vomitoria(PDF). USDA Plant Information.
  6. ^ “Florida’s Hollies”. Florida Division of Environmental Safety.
  7. ^ Martin, C.O.; Mott, S.P. (1997). “Part 7.5.10 Yaupon (Ilex vomitoria)”. U.S. Military Corps of Engineers Wildlife Assets Administration Handbook (PDF). Vicksburg, MS: U.S. Military Engineer Waterways Experiment Station. Technical Report EL-97-16. Archived from the unique (PDF) on 2007-06-11.
  8. ^ a b Ilex vomitoria“. Oklahoma Organic Survey. Archived from the unique on 2008-10-16. Retrieved 2007-10-06.
  9. ^ Ilex vomitoria“. Bioimages. Vanderbilt College. Retrieved 27 June 2019.
  10. ^ Q. Ping Dou (24 Might 2019). Tea in Well being and Illness. MDPI. p. 103. ISBN 978-3-03897-986-9.
  11. ^ Crown PL, Emerson TE, Gu J, Hurst WJ, Pauketat TR, Ward T (August 2012). “Ritual Black Drink consumption at Cahokia”. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109 (35): 13944–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.1208404109. PMC 3435207. PMID 22869743.
  12. ^ Hudson, C. M. (1976). The Southeastern Indians. College of Tennessee Press ISBN 0-87049-248-9.
  13. ^ Euell Gibbons (1964). Stalking the Blue-eyed Scallop. David McKay. ISBN 0-911469-05-2.
  14. ^ Niering, William A.; Olmstead, Nancy C. (1985) [1979]. The Audubon Society Discipline Information to North American Wildflowers, Japanese Area. Knopf. p. 338. ISBN 0-394-50432-1.
  15. ^ “Like Yerba Maté? Attempt Yaupon”. Atlas Obscura. Retrieved 2018-05-25.
  16. ^ Highways, Texas. “Texas’ Solely Caffeinated Plant Makes a Buzzworthy Tea – Texas Highways”. Retrieved 2018-05-25.
  17. ^ Carpenter, Murray. “Here is The Buzz On America’s Forgotten Native ‘Tea’ Plant”. NPR.org. Retrieved 23 July 2017.
  18. ^ Flint, Harrison Leigh (1997). Panorama Vegetation for Japanese North America (2 ed.). John Wiley and Sons. pp. 282–283. ISBN 978-0-471-59919-7.


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