Native American and Colonial “Florida,” 1497-1821
=== Introduction === ( actally true)
The written data of Florida start in 1513, with the Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de Leon. The mass of land that he explored on the American continent would come to be named La Florida, in honour of Pascua Florida (Feast of Flowers), which is the title given to Spain’s Easter time celebration. By this time the Spanish had established Spanish hegemony in New Spain and far of the Caribbean. The Spanish quickly thought of Florida a significant asset in defending the transport routes they used to ship bullion and different provides again to Europe, particularly since privateering was rampant right now. With the French in Louisiana, Spanish colonization of Florida held the specter of reducing off their provides routes to France. To the British, which had pursuits within the Caribbean and alongside the east coast, eventual colonization down the coast made battle all however assured. Thus, Florida would change into a spotlight for British, French, and Spanish colonization. This left most of the native tribes in Florida in a precarious place as they needed to take care of the three imperial powers attempting to determine dominance, every as more likely to prosecute them for any multitude of causes, however all leading to exploitation. By the tip of the 17th century many of the native tribes could be largely worn out or practically exterminated from illness and European aggression.
Pre-Seminole Indigenous Peoples of Florida (1497-1760)
The Calusa have been an indigenous individuals of Southern Florida positioned within the southern areas of Florida, and are notable for being extremely civilized in comparison with different tribes. Calusa societies have been extremely stratified, consisting of a complicated class hierarchy; from chief, elite, army class, ecclesiastic, to the widespread villager. This class based mostly social system had advantages for higher courses corresponding to comparable class in Europe on the time. For instance; leaders and elites had entry to meals in any other case restricted from decrease courses and have been exempt from bodily labour. The Calusa additionally had a totally developed advanced non secular perception system that clashed with beliefs of colonial powers and missionaries. These cultural variations, particularly between the Spanish and the Calusa, finally manifested themselves within the type of Calusa resistance to Spanish Christianization and Hispanicization makes an attempt. No matter aggressive actions, such because the Spanish missions in Calusa territory, this resistance was carried out in a largely peaceable method. Nonetheless this peace wouldn’t final and after intensifying detrimental relations and acts of violence on behalf of the Spanish the peace between the 2 populations ended. After 1569 there could be no additional important contact between the 2. The 18th century marked practically two centuries of colonial enlargement into Florida on behalf of the Spanish, French and later the British that introduced ailments and colonial battle to the area. The Calusa additionally confronted slave raids by Creek Indians led by the British colonies in 1711. This mix of things had results not solely contained to the Calusa and meant that by the early 1700s Florida was primarily depleted of an Indigenous presence and the Calusa had change into an extinct indigenous individuals.
The Timucua have been an indigenous individuals native to the Florida Peninsula that occupied the northern central areas from the japanese Atlantic coast to essentially the most easterly areas of the Florida Panhandle within the west.The Timucua inhabitants consisted of politically divided chiefdoms solely really unified by language and their subsistence methods through looking. Just like the Calusa, the Timucua territory additionally had a Spanish mission that was finally deserted in 1706. Nonetheless, not like The Calusa, The Timucua had main colonial relations with the French that have been for essentially the most half have been largely peaceable and profitable commerce networks. The French employed a technique of “allurement” meant to be extra interesting than the sexual violence, rape and slavery that had change into customary of the Spanish additional south within the Caribbean. In the end, the French hoped to transform The Timucua to Protestantism, just like the Catholicization the Spanish tried with the Calusa. The Timucua refused, however in the long run succumbed to the identical destiny as their southern neighbours. Colonial slavery raids, warfare, acculturation and relocation by colonial powers and later arriving Creeks pushed The Timucua out of Florida and finally to extinction.
The Apalachee have been an indigenous inhabitants residing within the Japanese areas of the Florida Panhandle bordering the western fringe of Timucua territory. One of many three main tribes of the Pre-Seminole period (Apalachee, Timucua, Calusa) the Apalachee have been essentially the most “settled” of the three, having nicely outlined boundaries, a fabric tradition surrounding ceramics, cultivation of maize, and social norms surrounding the safety of ladies and kids. Like their southeastern neighbours; the Timucua and Calusa, the Apalachee additionally housed a significant Spanish mission inside their territory at Pensacola, in addition to the Spanish mission San Luis established in 1663 within the easterly areas of the Apalachee Province of the Florida Panhandle. The Apalachee’s regionally particular allegiances and interactions with colonial powers had various cultural implications leading to three distinct Apalachee teams; French in Cell, British in northern Creek territories, and Spanish in Tallahassee. The Apalachee have been additionally essentially the most profitable of the three main indigenous tribes concerning sustained, profitable financial relationships with the colonial powers; sustaining in depth relations with the French, Spanish, and British. Nonetheless, just like the Calusa these peaceable financial relations wouldn’t final on account of more and more restrictive commerce rules and elevated Apalachee draft labour by the Spanish, in addition to indigenous concern of the British’s financial energy. Like the opposite indigenous individuals of Florida, raids from Creek Territories led to the relocation and eviction of the Apalachee to St. Augustine and Cell in 1704. Nonetheless, all through the colonial Pre-Seminole period, the Apalachee greater than every other indigenous tribe made the colonial financial system work of their favor.
Origins of the Seminole Folks (1760)
The Seminole Tribe of Florida as they’re recognized of their up to date context weren’t an indigenous individuals to the realm that’s now the state of Florida. Relatively the Indians that got here to be generally recognized to Europeans and establish themselves because the Seminoles have been a migrated or fragmented inhabitants of Creek Indians from Decrease and Higher Creek territory in Georgia and Alabama. After the decimation of the indigenous populations of Florida by means of illness introduced through colonization in addition to battle with European forces and European sponsored indian raids into huge expanses of territory remained largely uninhabited. This represented an amble alternative for southern enlargement into present day Florida by Decrease and Higher Creek Indians. These Creeks have been drawn into Florida not solely because of the ample abundance of land, but in addition by prospects of commerce with Spanish colonies in Latin America by the use of The Gulf of Mexico in addition to rising pressures from British and later American southern enlargement. As progressively rising numbers of Creeks expanded into Florida and have become separated from the Creek heartland alongside the Chattahoochee River in Georgia and this satellite tv for pc inhabitants subsequently started to develop their very own distinct tradition that diversified from that of conventional Creek Indians and thus these individuals grew to become referred to as Seminoles.
European Interactions in Florida (1497-1821)
The Spanish in Florida
There are two intervals of Spanish rule in Florida. The primary begins after Ponche de Leon first makes landfall in 1513 and continues till 1763 when the Spanish cede Florida to the British. The second is from 1783-1821, the place the Spanish would reacquire Florida from the British, solely to provide it up 40 years later to america. A lot of Spanish colonization and exploration, whereas sanctified and supported by the King, was a purely personal matter. A lot of the bills for this course of was paid out of pocket by the person. Such a person was known as an Adelantado, and in change for funding his missions he was given nice judicial and governmental powers over the lands that he took. This paved the best way for the mass exploitation of the land, and the natives, for the sake of revenue. The person who sought to convey this technique to Florida was Pedro Menéndez de Avilés. After eliminating the menace that French colonization held inside Florida on the battle for Fort Carolina, phrase of the bloodbath that occurred would unfold to most of the native tribes. To their eyes, their solely choices have been to undergo the Spanish or to die. The fame Pedro established from the bloodbath impressed many tribes to submit. This submission meant accepting catholic missions and brazenly changing to the religion. Lordship over the Indians was a mix of suppression and present giving; looking for to keep up alliances with the natives the place attainable, and crushing any rebellions once they arose. Spain’s energy in Florida wouldn’t start to be questioned after this till the 1700’s, and would even quickly lose management of Florida from 1763 – 1783.
The French in Florida
French settlement of Florida started in 1562, by a bunch of Huguenots (French Protestants). They’d set up the colony of Cell within the western most area of the Florida Panhandle in shut proximity to the Spanish settlement of Pensacola. Whereas the Huguenots could be expelled from Florida in just a few brief years, one of many gravest considerations to Spanish aspirations was that the French would handle to root themselves in Florida by establishing connections with the indigenous populations. They’d already begun this course of, however have been quickly defeated by the Spanish. The tribes that did ally with the French, by the point Pedro Menendez conquered Fort Carolina, would lastly undergo the Spanish. The significance of the French colonization efforts in Florida, nevertheless, comes from the photographs created by Jacques le Moyne de Morgues, that are the earliest recognized visible representations of Florida and its indigenous individuals. Whereas these photos present some information about Native tradition, particularly of the Timucua, they display better perception into the aspirations of the French and their efforts to colonize Florida, and usually the angle of the opposite European states.
The British in Florida
Florida was ceded to the British in 1763 after the Treaty of Paris on the finish of the Seven Years’ Struggle. Whereas British rule in Florida would solely final till 1783, a mere twenty years earlier than it was given again to Spain, they nonetheless tried to do a lot. Florida underneath their rule was divided into an east and a west. Just like the Spanish system, the British throughout their occupation gave fixed presents to the Indians in an try to preserve the peace. Whereas the price of this was excessive, it was seen to be a lot much less then the price of warfare. Of the natives that the British have been courting, a very powerful have been the Creek, later generally recognized in Florida as Seminoles. Within the 17th Century some Higher and Decrease Creek populations in reality allied with the British colonies to the north. These unfastened colonial indigenous alliances had a profound influence on the indigenous populations additional south in Florida. British colonialists “employed” most usually Decrease Creek Indians to raid indigenous settlements all through Florida in hopes of weakening rival colonial pursuits of the French and Spanish within the area by destroying their community of allegiances with the indigenous populations. Finally these raids coupled with overseas ailments introduced by European colonists resulted in a vastly diminished indigenous inhabitants in Florida as many both died or have been pushed out of the territory on account of these raids. These Creek Indians finally migrated south into Florida on account of intensified British colonial enlargement into Northern Georgia and huge uninhabited lands to the south in Florida because of the devastation of indigenous tribes. Right here these Creeks grew to become disconnected from the heartland of the Chattahoochee River in Georgia and developed a definite tradition that led to their branding because the Seminoles by European colonials.
The Struggle of 1812
In 1794, the Thermidorian Revolt expanded throughout France as a consequential results of chief Maximilien Robespierre’s reign of terror. Robespierre suffered his execution on the hand of Thermidorian rebels as they completely acted to finish the systematic state oppression they for thus lengthy endured. Napoleon Bonaparte grew to become the brand new successor of France, and he unexpectedly started to guide the nation into an 11 12 months interval of steady warfare. In 1806, Napoleon applied a brand new coverage known as the Continental System. The purpose of this technique was to behave as a blockade in defending French producers throughout all European markets. Correspondingly, the British reacted to this new implementation by reducing off all French commerce from Atlantic markets. Of their perspective, anybody who continued to conduct commerce with France would from then on, be thought of an enemy of Britain. The neutrality of America within the Napoleonic wars wouldn’t final for lengthy, as their ships have been quickly ransacked, and each their items and males, have been taken into British custody for his or her continuous efforts to commerce with France. Lastly on June 18th 1812, American president James Madison declared warfare on Britain. Concurrently, as warfare was waging abroad, American officers have been increasing their territories by tricking Indians into signing treaties that handed away tens of millions of acres of land to america. Conclusively, this act would result in the cooperation of each Britain and Spain with the American Indians as a united drive in stopping america enlargement.
Natives and the Struggle
On October 3, 1783, The American Revolutionary Struggle ended with the Treaty of Paris which ceded the lands of Florida over to Spanish management. In 1811, the Individuals completely demanded that the Creeks permit a north-south highway to go by means of their lands to attach white settlements on the Tennessee River with Fort Stoddert. This was the state of affairs that introduced forth the Shawnee chief Tecumseh, into motion by uniting Indian tribes by means of the widespread purpose of defending their lands towards American enlargement. Each Tecumseh and his brother, the Prophet, realized what few different Indians ever noticed: provided that all tribes made widespread trigger may they hope to comprise america because it exploded out of its borders. Tecumseh’s efforts aroused the Creek and Seminole Indians to hitch collectively in warfare towards america. Presently, Indian forces have been restricted to fewer technological advances and provides than their opponent, and so they thus started looking for extra highly effective allies to hitch their trigger.
1812 and 1813 have been vital instances within the Gulf Coast space and in Florida for each Spain and Britain. America had begun to infringe upon, and disrupt Spanish owned territory. To safe his nation’s possessions from additional aggression, the Spanish governor Sebastian Kindelon incited the Seminoles and the Negros towards the American interlopers in 1812. Concurrently, Britain had gained highly effective Indian allies by means of their mutual want of halting U.S enlargement, and have been prepared to offer arms, troops, and coaching to the Indian and negro forces. Each Spain and Britain started cooperative measures within the hopes of efficiently stopping america. Over the course of 1814 and into 1815, Colonel Edward Nicolls of the Royal Marine, and George Woodbine, a white dealer from the slave and Indian populations of the Southeastern borderlands, labored collectively in elevating minority forces towards america. Nicolls and Woodbine erected a fort on the Apalachicola River in West Florida and between August and November of 1814, they occupied the capital of Spanish West Florida, Pensacola. Britain utilized the efforts of blacks and Indians, in it’s warfare planning, for they aspired to take advantage of southern feats, thereby distracting the southern warfare effort and provoking native, able-bodied recruits to hitch the hassle.
After a sequence of small-scale battles that shifted in success between either side, the warfare had lastly reached its endpoint. American common Andrew Jackson provided an “ultimatum” to the Spanish governor, for him to expel the Indians and blacks from Spanish territory and to cease Britain’s use of Pensacola as their base. Jackson’s provide was declined, and shortly after on November sixth, he arrived at Pensacola along with his military in tow. Upon their arrival, American troops have been confronted with nearly no resistance from the Spanish residents of the city.
The British had taken refuge at Fort Barrancas, positioned on the mouth of the harbour. Because the state of affairs grew to become hopeless, they determined to board the British fleet anchored within the bay, blow up for Barrancas, and retreat to the fort on the Apalachicola river. Within the ensuing chaos, British forces, their Indian allies, practically the whole slave inhabitants of Pensacola, and over 2 hundred Spanish troops evacuated the city. America had conquered the Gulf of Mexico as their very own, and with it got here the destruction of Indian relations with Britain and Spain.
Britain and the Struggle
In 1783 the British Empire misplaced their territory in Florida to the Spanish. By way of this battle, the British and Spanish rivalry allowed for america to be relieved of both of the empires full aggression. Nonetheless, by 1812, america was a far bigger menace to Spanish Florida than Britain. The chaos in Europe attributable to the Napoleonic wars made it attainable for a number of intrusions into Spanish Florida by america. The Spanish, as a way to bolster their unfastened maintain on the Florida territory, supported the Seminole Indians so they’d function a barrier between them and america. As such the Spanish gifted weapons, munitions and provides to the Seminoles to keep up their energy in addition to a peace with america.
The warfare with Britain in 1812 led to uncommon ways by the British to awaken opposition inside Florida. As an illustration, in Pensacola one British Naval Officer noticed the army potential of bringing slaves to the facet of the British warfare effort. Pursuing the tensions he perceived contained in the slave society of the U.S. he fashioned a troop of troopers of over 200 former slaves preventing with the British. Although the success of the troop was restricted, the willingness to combat towards slavery alongside the British may be noticed as a precursor to the additional escalating tensions of slavery throughout the Civil Struggle.
Florida and the Struggle
The historical past of Florida throughout the Struggle of 1812 essentially includes conflicts with native tribes and the Spanish. The world of what’s in the present day Florida consisted of Spanish managed Florida West and East. The conflicts in these areas have been characterised by American makes an attempt to forcibly management them. This was not direct warfare with the Spanish, as an alternative it took the type of battle with Spanish backed Native tribes and a mix of British and Creek forces. As such, native tribes have been central allies to all conflicts in Florida. The Seminole, Creek and slaves have been seen as an essential alliances by each the Spanish and the British, although for various causes. The Spanish feared that the U.S. was going to annex Florida. Subsequently the Spanish strayed from their standard coverage of retaining the Seminole as a possible defensive drive to rising their quantity of army help to assemble closely defensible forts. The British throughout the warfare noticed the identical teams as a way to divert consideration away from Higher Canada: the point of interest of U.S. aggression within the Struggle of 1812. The Seminole and Creek desired to cease the white settlement they thought to be most dangerous to their individuals. They noticed the British and Spanish as allies towards america, so that they accepted their help.
Florida on this interval contained precursors of the quick, broad and violent enlargement of the territory of america throughout the American continent, which frequently occurred outdoors federal authorities jurisdiction. Between 1811 and 1814 bands of settlers, troopers and militias tried to invade East Florida within the hopes of expelling the Seminoles and Spanish there. The eventual ceding of Florida to america by Spain in 1819 was achieved within the mild of this aggression and a information inside america that Congress could declare warfare on Spain. The prevailing political rhetoric of the period was that the precarious territory of New Orleans and Florida would fall into British management, and the Struggle of 1812 was partially justified by this proposed hazard to the brand new nation. Certainly, all territory managed by the British in North America was seen as a possible menace, so on this method Florida shouldn’t be significantly distinctive: it was topic to the identical type of insurance policies as different territory like Canada and the North American west.
The Consequence of the Struggle
There have been contrasting assessments of the warfare made by the federal authorities. Some praised the divine windfall of the American individuals of their victory, others extra rationally weighed the noticeable victories and failures of the warfare. A very espoused victory was the abandonment of the British naval marketing campaign towards america which included damaging blockades- which have been particularly outstanding in Florida. The views on the aim of the warfare diversified drastically. Many argued that it was completely a warfare of conquest, achieved for mere energy and territory. That is mirrored within the private data of American troopers, who hardly ever recorded their causes for preventing as past a way of obligation or for the cash.
The result of the Struggle of 1812 for the Purple Stick Creek was an expulsion from their homeland. Following a defeat at Horseshoe Bend in 1814, Andrew Jackson compelled their capitulation with the Treaty of Fort Jackson on August ninth. The treaty ceded 35 million acres of land in fashionable Georgia and Alabama from the Creek natives and positioned it into the management of america, and compelled the Creek to flee beneath the border to Florida the place they’d be part of the Seminole tribes. The Creek and Seminole tribes would by no means totally settle for the treaty and easily seen the approaching American settlers as intuders on their land. The assist of the Spanish was continued after the tip of the warfare in 1815 so as to keep Spanish management, however was largely achieved outdoors Spanish officers information and subsequently typically lacked sufficient assets. The tip of the Struggle of 1812 additionally served to additional set up an “American line”- a frontier boundary inside Florida between the coalition of native tribes and america. On this method, the Seminole maintained a semi-autonomous state underneath the Spanish, but it surely did not final for lengthy. Below the pretext of Seminole aggression in direction of the “invaders” of their land, American settlers, militias and troopers would combat continuous skirmishes alongside the frontier. This frontier territory set the stage for treaties, wars, the ceding of Florida by Spain and the eventual deportation of the Seminole.
The First Seminole Struggle
Origins of the Struggle
The Struggle of 1812 had concluded with unrest in america. Throughout the warfare the British had constructed a fort on the Apalachicola River. In 1816 it was primarily garrisoned by roughly 350 former slaves, thus granting it the nickname of the “Negro Fort”. Many southern plantation house owners, together with Andrew Jackson, thought of these former slaves to be renegades and a menace to society, they have been afraid that the ex-slaves have been going to smash the innocence of “white woman-hood and the safety of the plantation south”. Later that 12 months, in an try to convey order to the area, america constructed Fort Scott simply north of the Spanish border. Jackson offered the Spanish commander at Pensacola with an ultimatum, both Spain would dismantle the fort or america must remove the fort in self-defense. Really, Spain didn’t have the manpower to carry out the duty, so it fell to the Individuals. The plan for destroying the Fort concerned sending gunboat-accompanied provide boats to Fort Scott, which was additional in-land on the Apalachicola. This was achieved within the hopes of frightening the Fort into attacking the boats, giving america cause to assault the Fort. The plan labored, and on July 27, 1816 a red-hot cannonball fired from an American gunboat struck the key powder journal and obliterated the fort. Thus the Negro energy on the Apalachicola had damaged, and the Seminoles grew weaker. In retaliation for the destruction of the Negro fort, Hitchi chief Neamathla ambushed a US military boat near Fort Scott, killing thirty-four US troopers. This infuriated the US, and after Neamathla despatched a warning to Colonel David Twiggs: “to not cross or minimize a stick of timber on the east facet of the Flint.” Twiggs led a military of 250 males to seize the Hitchiti chief, leading to a firefight that killed 5 Seminoles. Nonetheless, when Neamathla escaped, Twiggs burned down Neamathla’s city, marking the start of the First Seminole Struggle. Neamathla’s actions set the precedent for guerrilla conflicts alongside the border, and led to elevated border skirmishes throughout the summer season of 1817.
The Struggle and Imperial Relations
The First Seminole Struggle was a violent battle in Western Florida from 1817-1819, encompassing conflicts between America and the Seminole Nation. The Seminoles have been fashioned from Native American tribes that had migrated down from the north and banded collectively. A few of this migrating on account of conflicts such because the Struggle of 1812. Moreover, escaped African American slaves discovered a house among the many Seminoles. Collectively they raided white American settlements throughout the border into Georgia and Alabama, killing inhabitants and stealing their property out of Revenge for the Treaty of Fort Jackson. When full, these native raiders would merely flee again throughout the border into Florida, away from the Jurisdiction of the Individuals. Spain couldn’t management these borders, which compelled america to take motion. Andrew Jackson, commander of the southern army district, led the controversial advance into Florida, devastating the opposition. Sooner or later this order could be controversial; members of congress would later declare that the invasion was unconstitutional, because the legislature and government branches of the US weren’t consulted. The conflicts raised tensions between america with Nice Britain and Spain.
On December 26, 1817 secretary of warfare, John C. Calhoun, ordered Jackson to enter Florida: “with full energy to conduct the warfare as he might imagine finest”, understanding that if given the prospect, Jackson would take Florida from Spain. Jackson left in haste quickly after his arrival at Fort Scott on March 9, 1818 with a military of three,300 primarily Tennesean and Georgian militia. On April 1st he moved in on the most important Seminole city of Miccosukee alongside William McIntosh; a half creek who had grown vengeful on account of giant property losses by the hands of the Purple Sticks. There was a rift within the creek confederation, and plenty of creeks stood by america. McIntosh lead a military of Creek Indians who would assist Jackson in his assault, and collectively they took Miccosukee with little resistance. There have been no indicators of withdrawal, and Spanish city of St. Marks was taken 5 days later. Right here the Scottish, Seminole sympathizer; Alexander Arbuthnot, was captured and would finally convey controversy upon Jackson’s marketing campaign.
Jackson’s subsequent goal was Seminole chief Bowleg’s City of Suwanee on the Suwanee River. Right here McIntosh’s military encountered the primary Seminole drive and a firefight ensued ensuing within the Seminole forces being routed. The military continued at full tempo attempting to forestall the Seminole inhabitants of Suwanee from crossing the river. Nonetheless phrase shortly unfold and Suwanee started to evacuate so as to escape the onslaught. Afterward within the day they attacked and shortly compelled the remaining Seminoles to retreat. Jackson ordered the city to be destroyed, and within the course of they captured Robert Ambrister, one other Englishman who supplied the Seminoles with weapons, and different provides. Jackson, upon capturing a second British agent in Florida, confirmed his personal suspicions of British involvement within the Native aggression in direction of the U.S. Jackson ordered Ambrister and Arbuthnot to be executed because of the allegations of aiding the Seminoles towards the US. These executions would result in an elevated potential for battle with Nice Britain.
After the rout at Suwanee, Jackson shortly realized that 500 hostile Indians had gathered close to Pensacola, the primary Spanish settlement in West Florida. Jackson marched his military 240 miles to Pensacola which he occupied on Could 24th with out resistance. There was now just one Spanish heart on the peninsula nevertheless the assigned process was now full. The Seminole preventing drive had damaged west of the Suwanee River and was compelled to disperse. Some forces fled to the Alachua space, nevertheless many withdrew to Tampa Bay and the lakes of North Central Florida. The Floridian Peninsula was now firmly underneath the management of america.
After the Struggle
Though america coveted Florida, the executions of Arbuthnot and Ambrister had enraged Nice Britain, and so they didn’t wish to threat Nice Britain aligning with Spain in a attainable warfare. Subsequently america returned St. Marks and Pensacola to Spain regardless of Jackson’s protest. Nonetheless, recognizing that it had solely taken Andrew Jackson eight weeks to overcome Florida, Spain realized that they might hope to keep up management of the Peninsula. They ceded the Florida to the US on February 22, 1819, in a treaty that may be finalized after two years time, and its conqueror; Andrew Jackson, would change into its first governor. The First Seminole Struggle had opened a interval of inhabitants development and financial achieve for america. They’d proceed to prosper and develop for years to come back.
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