Hinoki cypress Wikipedia

Hinoki cypress Wikipedia

Species of plant (cypress tree)

Chamaecyparis obtusa (Japanese cypress, hinoki cypress[2] or hinoki; Japanese: or hinoki) is a species of cypress native to central Japan in East Asia,[3][4] and extensively cultivated within the temperate northern hemisphere for its top quality timber and decorative qualities, with many cultivars commercially out there.

Description[]

It’s a slow-growing tree which grows to 35 m (115 ft) tall with a trunk as much as 1 m (3 ft 3 in) in diameter. The bark is darkish red-brown. The leaves are scale-like, 2–4 mm (0.079–0.157 in) lengthy, blunt tipped (obtuse), inexperienced above, and inexperienced under with a white stomatal band on the base of every scale-leaf. The cones are globose, 8–12 mm (0.31–0.47 in) in diameter, with 8–12 scales organized in reverse pairs.

Associated species[]

The plant is widespread in Japan. The associated Chamaecyparis pisifera (sawara cypress) might be readily distinguished in its having pointed tricks to the leaves and smaller cones.[3][4] An analogous cypress discovered on Taiwan is handled by totally different botanists as both a wide range of this species (as Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana) or as a separate species Chamaecyparis taiwanensis; it differs in having smaller cones (6–9 mm diameter) with smaller scales, and leaves with a extra acute apex.[3][4]

Timber[]

It’s grown for its very top quality timber in Japan, the place it’s used as a cloth for constructing palaces, temples, shrines, conventional noh theatres, baths, desk tennis blades and masu. The wooden is lemon-scented, mild pinkish-brown, with a wealthy, straight grain, and is extremely rot-resistant. For instance, Horyuji Temple and Osaka Citadel are constructed from hinoki wooden. The hinoki grown in Kiso, used for constructing Ise Shrine, are referred to as 御神木 go-shin-boku, or “divine timber”.

Decorative cultivation[]

It is usually a preferred decorative tree in parks and gardens, each in Japan and elsewhere in temperate climates, together with western Europe and components of North America. Numerous cultivars have been chosen for backyard planting, together with dwarf kinds, kinds with yellow leaves, and kinds with congested foliage. It is usually typically grown as bonsai.

Cultivars[]

Over 200 cultivars have been chosen, various in dimension from timber as massive because the wild species, all the way down to very slow-growing dwarf vegetation below 30 cm (12 in) excessive. Just a few of one of the best identified are listed under.[5][6][7] These marked agm have gained the Royal Horticultural Society’s Award of Backyard Benefit (confirmed 2017).[8]

  • ‘Crippsii’agm[9] makes a broad conic golden-green crown with a vigorous main shoot, rising to 15–20 m (49–66 ft) or extra tall
  • ‘Fernspray Gold’agm[10] – 3.5 m (11 ft), arching sprays of inexperienced/yellow branches
  • ‘Kamarachiba’agm[11] – spreading shrub, 45 cm (18 in) tall by 100 cm (39 in) vast, sprays of yellow-green
  • ‘Kosteri’agm[12] – sprawling dwarf to 2 m (6.6 ft) tall by 3 m (9.8 ft) vast, with sensible inexperienced foliage
  • ‘Lycopodioides’ reaches as much as 19 m (62 ft) tall, with considerably fasciated foliage.
  • ‘Minima’ – below 10 cm (3.9 in) after 20 years with mid-green foliage
  • ‘Nana’agm[13] – darkish inexperienced, rounded dwarf shrub to 1 m (3.3 ft)
  • ‘Nana Aurea’agm[14] – 2 m (6.6 ft), golden tricks to the followers and a bronze tone in winter
  • ‘Nana Gracilis’agm[15] – crowded followers of tiny branches producing richly textured results; typically cited as dwarf however has reached 11 m (36 ft) tall in cultivation in Britain
  • ‘Nana Lutea’agm – compact, slow-growing, golden yellow choice which has turn out to be very talked-about; yellow counterpart to ‘Nana gracilis’
  • ‘Spiralis’ is an erect, stiff dwarf tree
  • ‘Tempelhof’ rising to 2–4 m (6.6–13.1 ft) with green-yellow foliage that turns bronze in winter
  • ‘Tetragona Aurea’ grows to round 18 m (59 ft) tall, with a slender crown and irregular branching, the size leaves in Four equal ranks and branchlets tightly crowded, inexperienced and gold
  • ‘Tsatsumi Gold’agm[16] – 2 m (6.6 ft), contorted branches, yellow-green foliage

Chemistry[]

The lignans chamaecypanones A and B, obtulignolide, and isootobanone might be discovered within the heartwood of Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana.[17] The biflavones sciadopitysin, ginkgetin, isoginkgetin, podocarpusflavone B, 7,7”-O-dimethylamentoflavone, bilobetin, podocarpusflavone A, 7-O-methylamentoflavone, amentoflavone, hinokinin and hinokiflavone have been confirmed within the leaves of the plant.[18] The important oil of Chamaecyparis obtusa incorporates a variety of chemical compounds, together with however not restricted to the next: sabinene, elemol, myrcene, limonene, terpinen-4-ol, eudesmols, α-terpinyl acetate, α-terpinolene, α-terpineol, 3-carene, α-pinene, γ-terpinene, camphene, bornyl acetate, 1-methyladamantane, cuminol, eucarvone, 2-cyclopenten-1-one, 3,4-dimethyl-, 1,3-dimethyl-1-cyclohexene, calamenene, τ-muurolol, borneol, α-cadinol, β-thujaplicin.[19][20] A few of these compounds are fragrances or intermediates used within the perfume trade. Thus, the C. obtusa important oil is utilized in perfumery and private care merchandise, comparable to soaps, shampoos, cosmetics.[21] Hinoki wooden is used as a conventional Japanese stick incense for its mild, earthy aroma.[22]

Important oil distilled from its wooden is uniquely scented and extremely valued.[23]

Pollen[]

Hinoki pollen may cause pollinosis, a particular sort of allergic rhinitis. Chamaecyparis obtusa, together with Cryptomeria japonica (sugi, Japanese cypress), is the main supply of allergic pollen in Japan and a serious reason for hay fever in Japan.[24]

Gallery[]

References[]

  1. ^ Conifer Specialist Group (2000). “Chamaecyparis obtusa“. IUCN Purple Listing of Threatened Species. 2000. Retrieved 11 Could 2006.CS1 maint: ref=harv (hyperlink)
  2. ^ “BSBI Listing 2007”. Botanical Society of Britain and Eire. Archived from the unique (xls) on 23 October 2014. Retrieved 17 October 2014.
  3. ^ a b c Farjon, A. (2005). Monograph of Cupressaceae and Sciadopitys. Kew: Royal Botanic Gardens. ISBN 1-84246-068-4.
  4. ^ a b c Rushforth, Okay. (1987). Conifers. Helm. ISBN 0-7470-2801-X.
  5. ^ Lewis, J. (1992). The Worldwide Conifer Register Half 3: The Cypresses. London: Royal Horticultural Society.
  6. ^ Welch, H.; Haddow, G. (1993). The World Guidelines of Conifers. Landsman’s. ISBN 0-900513-09-8.
  7. ^ Tree Register of the British Isles
  8. ^ “AGM Vegetation – Decorative” (PDF). Royal Horticultural Society. July 2017. p. 16. Retrieved 24 January 2018.
  9. ^ “RHS Plantfinder – Chamaecyparis obtusa ‘Crippsii. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
  10. ^ “RHS Plantfinder – Chamaecyparis obtusa ‘Fernspray Gold. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
  11. ^ “RHS Plantfinder – Chamaecyparis obtusa ‘Kamarachiba. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
  12. ^ “RHS Plantfinder – Chamaecyparis obtusa ‘Kosteri. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
  13. ^ “RHS Plantfinder – Chamaecyparis obtusa ‘Nana. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
  14. ^ “RHS Plantfinder – Chamaecyparis obtusa ‘Nana Aurea. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
  15. ^ “RHS Plantfinder – Chamaecyparis obtusa ‘Nana gracilis. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
  16. ^ “RHS Plantfinder – Chamaecyparis obtusa ‘Tsatsumi Gold. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
  17. ^ Kuo, Y.-H.; Chen, C.-H.; Chiang Y.-M. (2001). “Three novel and one new lignan, chamaecypanones A, B, obtulignolide and isootobanone from the heartwood of Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana“. Tetrahedron Letters. 42 (38): 6731–6735. doi:10.1016/S0040-4039(01)01272-2.
  18. ^ Krauze-Baranowska, M.; Pobłocka, L.; El-Hela, A. A. (2005). “Biflavones from Chamaecyparis obtusa(PDF). Zeitschrift für Naturforschung C. 60 (9–10): 679–685. doi:10.1515/znc-2005-9-1004. PMID 16320608. S2CID 819375.
  19. ^ Raha, Suchismita; Kim, Seong; Lee, Ho; Lee, Sang; Heo, Jeong; Venkatarame Gowda Saralamma, Venu; Ha, Sang; Kim, Eun; Mun, Sung; Kim, Gon (31 October 2018). “Important oil from Korean Chamaecyparis obtusa leaf ameliorates respiratory exercise in Sprague‑Dawley rats and reveals safety from NF-κB-induced irritation in WI38 fibroblast cells”. Worldwide Journal of Molecular Medication. 43 (1): 393–403. doi:10.3892/ijmm.2018.3966. PMC 6257863. PMID 30387810. S2CID 53391206.
  20. ^ Lee, Geun-Shik; Hong, Eui-Ju; Gwak, Ki-Seob; Park, Mi-Jin; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Choi, In-Gyu; Jang, Je-Received; Jeung, Eui-Bae (January 2010). “The important oils of Chamaecyparis obtusa promote hair progress by means of the induction of vascular endothelial progress issue gene”. Fitoterapia. 81 (1): 17–24. doi:10.1016/j.fitote.2009.06.016. PMID 19576968.
  21. ^ Lee, Geun-Shik; Hong, Eui-Ju; Gwak, Ki-Seob; Park, Mi-Jin; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Choi, In-Gyu; Jang, Je-Received; Jeung, Eui-Bae (January 2010). “The important oils of Chamaecyparis obtusa promote hair progress by means of the induction of vascular endothelial progress issue gene”. Fitoterapia. 81 (1): 17–24. doi:10.1016/j.fitote.2009.06.016. PMID 19576968.
  22. ^ “Hinoki Japanese Cypress Important Oil”. Stillpoint Aromatics.
  23. ^ Su, Sharleen. “Distilling Taiwan’s Native Scent”. www.taiwan-panorama.com. Taiwan Panorama. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
  24. ^ Ishibashi, Akira; Sakai, Kenshi (December 2019). “Dispersal of allergenic pollen from Cryptomeria japonica and Chamaecyparis obtusa: attribute annual fluctuation patterns brought on by intermittent section synchronisations”. Scientific Studies. 9 (1): 11479. Bibcode:2019NatSR…911479I. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-47870-6. PMC 6685964. PMID 31391490. S2CID 199474476.

Exterior hyperlinks[]

Media associated to Chamaecyparis obtusa at Wikimedia Commons


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