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Gnetum gnemon – Useful Tropical Plants

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Gnetaceae

Widespread Identify: Melinjo

Gnetum gnemon

Basic Info

Melinjo is an evergreen tree that may develop as much as 18 metres tall. It belongs to a genus that could be a supposed hyperlink between conifers and angiosperms[

200

Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

].
A multipurpose tree, extensively utilized by the native inhabitants for meals, drugs, fibre and varied different commodities. The plant is gathered from the wild and in addition generally planted in or close to gardens[

200

Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

,

303

Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant – its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.

]. The seeds are generally bought in native markets[

63

Title
Nuts.
Publication
 
Author
Howes. F. N.
Publisher
Faber
Year
1948
ISBN
Description
Rather old but still a masterpiece. Has sections on tropical and temperate plants with edible nuts plus a section on nut plants in Britain. Very readable.

].
The first risk to this species is habitat loss via conversion of forests into crop plantations, industrial logging, enlargement of city areas and shifting agriculture at hillside areas. It’s cultivated, but in addition wild specimens are harvested for fruits, leaves, and bark. It’s unknown whether or not this threatens the wild inhabitants. The plant is assessed as ‘Least Concern’ within the IUCN Purple Checklist of Threatened Species(2011)[

338

Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.

].

Recognized Hazards

None identified

Botanical References

200

Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Creator
Huxley. A.
Writer
MacMillan Press
12 months
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Glorious and really complete, although it comprises numerous foolish errors. Readable but additionally very detailed.

Vary

E. Asia – China, India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines, New Guinea to Fiji.

Habitat

Occasional in lowland ridges and mature fallow forest[

303

Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant – its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.

]. Generally present in secondary humid evergreen dipterocarp forests[

303

Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant – its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.

].

Properties

Cultivation Particulars

Grows finest in humid tropical areas at elevations as much as 1,200 metres[

200

Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

,

303

Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant – its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.

]. Very tolerant of various ranges of rainfall, succeeding with a imply annual rainfall within the vary 750 – 5,000mm[

303

Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant – its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.

].
Prefers a place in semi shade in a humus-rich, moist soil[

200

Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

]. Tolerates full solar[

338

Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.

]. Succeeds in heavy shade[

974

Title
Encyclopedia of Tropical Plants – Identification and Cultivation of over 3,000 Tropical Plants
Publication
 
Author
Ahmed Fayaz
Publisher
Firefly Books Ltd.; New Zealand
Year
2011
ISBN
978-1-55407-489
Description
A good photograph and terse but detailed information for over 3,000 species of tropical plants. An excellent reference.

]. Succeeds in a variety of well-drained soils, ideally barely acid to impartial, however tolerating calcareous rocks[

338

Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.

]. Tolerant of low fertility soils[

338

Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.

]. In a position to tolerate drought for some months, assuming some soil moisture retention or irrigation throughout dry season[

338

Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.

]. Tolerant of robust winds, as long as they don’t carry salt spray[

338

Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.

].
Vegetation are deeply rooted with a powerful faucet root system[

303

Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant – its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.

].
The plant exists in a number of varieties, particularly there’s the tree kind (var. Gnemon) and three shrub types (vars., brunonianum, griffithii and tenerum) The cultivated bushes belong to Gnetum gnemon var. Gnemon and are bigger, with bigger fruits[

303

Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant – its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.

].
Melinjo has the flexibility to enhance nitrogen ranges within the soil on account of its mycorrhizal associations with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Scleroderma sinnamariense[

303

Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant – its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.

]. In experimental situations, mycorrhizal inoculation seems to reinforce seedling development below shaded situations in acidic soils[

303

Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant – its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.

].
A dioecious plant, female and male types should be grown if seed is required.

A coupled technique of double fertilization and post-fertilization endosperm formation happens within the genus Gnetum. Nevertheless the product of the second fertilization occasion in Gnetum is diploid and expresses the developmental programme of an embryo. In G. Gnemon, egg cells usually are not fashioned and maternal provisioning of the embryo-nourishing feminine gametophyte takes place totally after fertilization. The dearth of differentiated egg cells in G. Gnemon is unparalleled amongst land vegetation, the organic significance of double fertilization that doesn’t kind endosperm, in Gnetum, is at present unknown. This course of could also be biologically impartial.
Seeds produced thrice yearly in Indonesia, March-April, June-July and September-October. The strobili are visited by nectar-seeking moths of Pyralidae and Geometridae. The sticky pollen of Gnetum attaches on proboscides and antennae of those moths. Lack of showy petals, an obvious drawback in entomophily is compensated for by floral fragrancy

Edible Makes use of

Younger leaves – uncooked or cooked[

200

Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

,

303

Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant – its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.

]. Steamed and eaten as a potherb[

301

Title
Cornucopia II
Publication
 
Author
Facciola. S.
Publisher
Kampong Publications, California.
Year
1998
ISBN
0-9628087-2-5
Description
The second edition of an excellent guide to the edible uses of plants, though it does not give any details of cultivation etc.

,

303

Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant – its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.

,

307

Title
Tropical and Subtropical Trees – A Worldwide Encyclopaedic Guide.
Publication
 
Author
Barwick. M.
Publisher
Thames & Hudson, London
Year
2004
ISBN
0-500-51181-0
Description
A superb book, very concise and well written, giving a wealth of information on 400 or more species including descriptions, habitat, cultivation details and plant uses. A wealth of colour photographs bring each plant vividly to life.

].

Seed – normally cooked[

63

Title
Nuts.
Publication
 
Author
Howes. F. N.
Publisher
Faber
Year
1948
ISBN
Description
Rather old but still a masterpiece. Has sections on tropical and temperate plants with edible nuts plus a section on nut plants in Britain. Very readable.

,

200

Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

]. The nutritious seeds are boiled and eaten as a snack like peanuts[

301

Title
Cornucopia II
Publication
 
Author
Facciola. S.
Publisher
Kampong Publications, California.
Year
1998
ISBN
0-9628087-2-5
Description
The second edition of an excellent guide to the edible uses of plants, though it does not give any details of cultivation etc.

,

303

Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant – its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.

]. Eaten as a dessert nut[

63

Title
Nuts.
Publication
 
Author
Howes. F. N.
Publisher
Faber
Year
1948
ISBN
Description
Rather old but still a masterpiece. Has sections on tropical and temperate plants with edible nuts plus a section on nut plants in Britain. Very readable.

]. The seeds have a slight bitterness[

307

Title
Tropical and Subtropical Trees – A Worldwide Encyclopaedic Guide.
Publication
 
Author
Barwick. M.
Publisher
Thames & Hudson, London
Year
2004
ISBN
0-500-51181-0
Description
A superb book, very concise and well written, giving a wealth of information on 400 or more species including descriptions, habitat, cultivation details and plant uses. A wealth of colour photographs bring each plant vividly to life.

]. A wonderful flour might be obtained from the bottom up seed – it’s used for making skinny crackers, generally known as ’emping’, that are fried in coconut oil and eaten with rice and so on[

200

Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

,

301

Title
Cornucopia II
Publication
 
Author
Facciola. S.
Publisher
Kampong Publications, California.
Year
1998
ISBN
0-9628087-2-5
Description
The second edition of an excellent guide to the edible uses of plants, though it does not give any details of cultivation etc.

]. The seed is 2 – 4cm lengthy, turning scarlet to red-tinged orange when ripe[

200

Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

].

The fruits and inflorescences are added to soups[

301

Title
Cornucopia II
Publication
 
Author
Facciola. S.
Publisher
Kampong Publications, California.
Year
1998
ISBN
0-9628087-2-5
Description
The second edition of an excellent guide to the edible uses of plants, though it does not give any details of cultivation etc.

].

Peel of the ripe fruit is dried and utilized in soups[

301

Title
Cornucopia II
Publication
 
Author
Facciola. S.
Publisher
Kampong Publications, California.
Year
1998
ISBN
0-9628087-2-5
Description
The second edition of an excellent guide to the edible uses of plants, though it does not give any details of cultivation etc.

]. Considerably tasteless[

307

Title
Tropical and Subtropical Trees – A Worldwide Encyclopaedic Guide.
Publication
 
Author
Barwick. M.
Publisher
Thames & Hudson, London
Year
2004
ISBN
0-500-51181-0
Description
A superb book, very concise and well written, giving a wealth of information on 400 or more species including descriptions, habitat, cultivation details and plant uses. A wealth of colour photographs bring each plant vividly to life.

].

The sap from the stem is drinkable[

301

Title
Cornucopia II
Publication
 
Author
Facciola. S.
Publisher
Kampong Publications, California.
Year
1998
ISBN
0-9628087-2-5
Description
The second edition of an excellent guide to the edible uses of plants, though it does not give any details of cultivation etc.

].

Medicinal

The leaf sap is used medicinally to remedy a watch complication[

303

Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant – its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.

].

Agroforestry Makes use of:

It’s doable to make use of this tree for dryland rehabilitation and reforestation. It may well survive annual rainfall of 750 – 1,000mm[

303

Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant – its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.

].
In Papua New Guinea this species might be discovered rising alongside breadfruit (Artocarpus spp.), Pandanus conoideus and different meals and fibre species. It’s intercropped with a number of species like Arctocarpus camansi, Pandanus spp., Durio spp., Nephelium lappaceum (rambutan) and Parkia sp[

338

Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.

].

Different Makes use of

The bast fibres present sturdy cordage for fishing nets, strains, string baggage and different sturdy instruments[

200

Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

,

303

Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant – its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.

]. A possible financial use of this plant is the utilisation of its bark in rope making[

303

Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant – its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.

].

Wooden smoke and topical purposes decreased biting of human volunteers by the anopheline mosquitoes by 79% and 51%, respectively[

303

Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant – its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.

]. Enzyme inhibition prevents insect predation of foliage[

303

Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant – its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.

].

The wooden is used for pulp, home building, paper and bins[

303

Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant – its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.

]

Propagation

Seed – finest sown in situ[

303

Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant – its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.

]. Day by day watering of the sand and seed combination will hasten germination, probably to 3 months[

303

Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant – its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.

]. With no pre-germination remedy, germination could also be 1-2% in 6 months and will attain 100% in 12 months[

303

Title
World Agroforesty Centre
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent online database of a huge range of trees giving very good information on each plant – its uses, ecology, identity, propagation, pests etc.

].
Air layering[

200

Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

].
Quick cuttings, taken beneath a node[

200

Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

].

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