Ginseng - Wikipedia

Ginseng – Wikipedia

root of a plant utilized in natural preparations

Ginseng
Insam (ginseng).jpg
Chinese language title
Conventional Chinese language 1. 人蔘
2. 野山參
3. 水參
4. 白參
5. 紅參
Simplified Chinese language 1. 人参
2. 野山参
3. 水參
4. 白蔘
5. 红蔘
Literal which means
  1. human root (ginseng)
  2. wild mountain root (wild ginseng)
  3. water root (contemporary ginseng)
  4. white root (dried ginseng)
  5. pink root (dried steamed ginseng)
Cantonese title
Chinese language 1. 人參
2. 野生人參
Literal which means
  1. human root (ginseng)
  2. wild human root (wild ginseng)
Hokkien title
Chinese language 人參
Korean title
Hangul 1. 인삼
2. 산삼
3. 장뇌삼
4. 수삼
5. 백삼
6. 홍삼
7. 태극삼
Hanja 1. 人蔘
2. 山蔘
3. 長腦蔘
4. 水蔘
5. 白蔘
6. 紅蔘
7. 太極蔘
Literal which means
  1. human root (ginseng)
  2. mountain root (wild ginseng)
  3. lengthy mind root (wild cultivated ginseng)
  4. water root (contemporary ginseng)
  5. white root (dried ginseng)
  6. pink root (dried steamed ginseng)
  7. taegeuk root (dried blanched ginseng)

Ginseng ([1]) is the foundation of crops within the genus Panax, comparable to Korean ginseng (P. ginseng), South China ginseng (P. notoginseng), and American ginseng (P. quinquefolius), sometimes characterised by the presence of ginsenosides and gintonin.

Though ginseng has been utilized in conventional medication over centuries,[2][3] trendy medical analysis is inconclusive about its medical effectiveness.[4] There isn’t a substantial proof that ginseng is efficient for treating any medical situation, and its use has not been permitted by the US Meals and Drug Administration (FDA) as a prescription drug.[2] Though ginseng is usually offered as a dietary complement, inconsistent manufacturing practices for dietary supplements have led to analyses displaying that ginseng merchandise could also be contaminated with poisonous metals or unrelated filler compounds, and its extreme use might have antagonistic results or untoward interactions with pharmaceuticals.[2][5]

Etymology[edit]

The English phrase “ginseng” comes from the Hokkien Chinese language jîn-sim (人蔘; the place this transliteration is in Pe̍h-ōe-jī). The primary character (pinyin rén; Fashionable Commonplace Mandarin pronunciation: [ʐə̌n] or [ɻə̌n]) means “particular person” and the second character (pinyin: shēn; MSM: [sán]) means “plant root”;[6] this refers back to the root’s attribute forked form, which resembles the legs of an individual.[7]

The botanical genus title Panax, which means “all-healing” in Greek, shares the identical origin as “panacea” and was utilized to this genus as a result of Carl Linnaeus was conscious of its broad use in Chinese language medication as a muscle relaxant.

Historical past[edit]

One of many first written texts masking using ginseng as a medicinal herb was the Shen Nong Pharmacopoeia, written in China in 196 AD. In his Compendium of Materia Medica natural of 1596, Li Shizhen described ginseng as a “superior tonic”. Nonetheless, the herb was not used as a “cure-all” medication, however extra particularly as a tonic for sufferers with continual diseases and those that had been convalescing.[8]

Management over ginseng fields in China and Korea grew to become a difficulty within the 16th century.[9]

Ginseng species[edit]

Ginseng crops belong solely to the genus Panax.[10] Cultivated species embody Panax ginseng (Korean ginseng), Panax notoginseng (South China ginseng), and Panax quinquefolius (American ginseng).[11] Ginseng is present in cooler climates – Korean Peninsula, Northeast China, and Russian Far East, Canada and the US, though some species develop in heat areas – South China ginseng being native to Southwest China and Vietnam. Panax vietnamensis (Vietnamese ginseng) is the southernmost Panax species recognized.

Wild and cultivated ginseng[edit]

Wild ginseng[edit]

Wild ginseng (Korean: 산삼; Hanja: 山蔘; RR: sansam; lit. mountain ginseng) grows naturally in mountains and is hand-picked by gatherers referred to as simmani (심마니).[12] The wild ginseng plant is now nearly extinct in China and endangered globally.[13] This is because of excessive demand for the product in recent times, resulting in the harvesting of untamed crops sooner than they will develop and reproduce (a wild ginseng plant can take years to achieve maturity[14]). Wild ginseng will be processed to be pink or white ginseng.[15] Wild American ginseng has lengthy been utilized by Native People for medication.[16][17][18] Because the mid-1700’s, it has been harvested for worldwide commerce.[16] At this time wild American ginseng will be harvested in 19 states however has restrictions for exporting.[16][19][20]

Cultivated ginseng[edit]

Cultivated ginseng (Korean: 인삼; Hanja: 人蔘; RR: insam; lit. human ginseng) is cheaper in comparison with hardly ever accessible wild ginseng.[12]

Wild cultivated ginseng (Korean: 장뇌삼; Hanja: 長腦蔘; RR: jangnoesam) is planted on mountains by people and is allowed to develop like wild ginseng.[12]

Ginseng processing[edit]

Ginseng seed usually doesn’t germinate till the second spring following the harvest of berries within the fall. They have to first be subjected to a protracted interval of storage in a moist medium with a heat/chilly therapy, a course of referred to as stratification.[21]

Korean ginseng (P. ginseng) is offered commercially as contemporary, pink, and white ginseng; wild ginseng is used solely the place accessible.[22]

Contemporary ginseng[edit]

Contemporary ginseng (Korean: 수삼; Hanja: 水蔘; RR: susam; lit. water ginseng), additionally referred to as “inexperienced ginseng”, is non-dried uncooked product.[23] Its use is restricted by availability.

White ginseng[edit]

White ginseng (Korean: 백삼; Hanja: 白蔘; RR: baeksam; lit. white ginseng) is peeled and dried ginseng.[23] White ginseng is contemporary ginseng which has been dried with out being heated. It’s peeled and dried to scale back the water content material to 12% or much less.[23] White ginseng air-dried within the solar might include much less of the therapeutic constituents. Enzymes contained within the root might break down these constituents within the strategy of drying. Drying within the solar bleaches the foundation to a yellowish-white coloration.

Crimson ginseng[edit]

Crimson ginseng (conventional Chinese language: 紅蔘; simplified Chinese language: 红参; pinyin: hóngshēn; Korean: 홍삼; romaja: hongsam; “pink ginseng”) is steamed and dried ginseng, which has reddish coloration.[23] Crimson ginseng is much less susceptible to decay than white ginseng.[24] It’s ginseng that has been peeled, heated via steaming at normal boiling temperatures of 100 °C (212 °F), after which dried or sun-dried. It’s often marinated in an natural brew which leads to the foundation changing into extraordinarily brittle.

Manufacturing[edit]

Business ginseng is offered in over 35 nations, with China as the biggest client. In 2013, international gross sales of ginseng exceeded $2 billion, of which half was produced by South Korea.[11] Within the early 21st century, 99% of the world’s 80,000 tons of ginseng was produced in simply 4 nations: China (44,749 tons), South Korea (27,480 tons), Canada (6,486 tons), and the US (1,054 tons).[11] All ginseng produced in South Korea is Korean ginseng (P. ginseng), whereas ginseng produced in China contains P. ginseng and South China ginseng (P. notoginseng).[11] Ginseng produced in Canada and the US is generally American ginseng (P. quinquefolius).[11][25]

Ginseng could also be included in vitality drinks or natural teas in small quantities or offered as a dietary complement.[2][4][5][26]

Meals or beverage[edit]

The foundation is most frequently accessible in dried type, both entire or sliced. Ginseng leaf, though not as extremely prized, is usually additionally used.[27]

In Korean delicacies, ginseng is utilized in varied banchan (aspect dishes) and guk (soups), in addition to tea and alcoholic drinks.[28] Ginseng-infused tea and liquor, referred to as insam cha (actually “ginseng tea”) and insam-ju (“ginseng liquor”) is consumed.

Dietary complement[edit]

Though ginseng is usually offered as a dietary complement, considerations have been raised about manufactured ginseng merchandise containing poisonous metals or filler supplies, comparable to rice or wheat.[5][26]

In 2012, Chinese language well being regulators reclassified ginseng root as a dietary herb that can be utilized in well being meals with out prior approval, so long as no particular well being claims are made for it; beforehand, it had been labeled as an natural drug whose inclusion in well being meals required prior approval and licensing.[29] Ginseng-infused teas and vitality drinks are consumed immediately in China and neighboring nations as a type of tonic for vitality,[30] particularly by males 50 and older, who may use them each day. Sliced bits of the dried root are additionally utilized in soups and different sizzling dishes.[28]

Conventional medication[edit]

Though ginseng has been utilized in conventional medication for hundreds of years, trendy analysis is inconclusive about its organic results.[4][31] Preliminary medical analysis signifies potential results on reminiscence, fatigue, menopause signs, and insulin response in folks with delicate diabetes.[2][4] Out of 44 research examined between 2005–2015, 29 confirmed optimistic, restricted proof, and 15 confirmed no results.[32] As of 2017, there may be inadequate proof to point that ginseng has any well being results.[4][32] Nonetheless ginsenosides, distinctive phytochemicals of the Panax species, are being studied for his or her potential organic properties.[4][32]

Though the roots are utilized in conventional Chinese language medication, the leaves and stems include bigger portions of the phytochemicals than the roots, and are simpler to reap.[33] The constituents embody steroid saponins referred to as ginsenosides,[34] however the results of those ginseng compounds haven’t been studied with high-quality medical analysis as of 2019, and due to this fact stay unknown.[2][4][31][32]

FDA warning letters[edit]

As of 2019, the US FDA and Federal Commerce Fee have issued quite a few warning letters to producers of ginseng dietary dietary supplements for making false claims of well being or anti-disease advantages, stating that the “merchandise will not be typically acknowledged as protected and efficient for the referenced makes use of” and are unlawful as unauthorized “new medicine” beneath federal regulation.[35][36][37]

Security and unwanted effects[edit]

Ginseng typically has a very good security profile and the incidence of antagonistic results is minor when used over the brief time period.[4][32] Considerations exist when ginseng is used chronically, probably inflicting unwanted effects comparable to complications, insomnia, and digestive issues.[2][4][32]

The chance of interactions between ginseng and prescription medicines is believed to be low, however ginseng might have antagonistic results when used with the blood thinner warfarin.[2][4] Ginseng additionally has antagonistic drug reactions with phenelzine,[38] and a possible interplay has been reported with imatinib,[39] leading to hepatotoxicity, and with lamotrigine.[40] Different unwanted effects might embody nervousness, insomnia, fluctuations in blood strain, breast ache, vaginal bleeding, nausea, or diarrhea. If taken with different natural dietary supplements, ginseng might work together with them or with prescribed medicines or meals.[2][26]

Overdose[edit]

The frequent ginsengs (P. ginseng and P. quinquefolia) are typically thought-about to be comparatively protected even in giant quantities.[41] One of the frequent and attribute signs of an acute overdose of P. ginseng is bleeding. Signs of delicate overdose might embody dry mouth and lips, excitation, fidgeting, irritability, tremor, palpitations, blurred imaginative and prescient, headache, insomnia, elevated physique temperature, elevated blood strain, edema, decreased urge for food, dizziness, itching, eczema, early morning diarrhea, bleeding, and fatigue.[10][41]

Signs of extreme overdose with P. ginseng might embody nausea, vomiting, irritability, restlessness, urinary and bowel incontinence, fever, elevated blood strain, elevated respiration, decreased sensitivity and response to mild, decreased coronary heart price, cyanotic (blue) facial complexion, pink facial complexion, seizures, convulsions, and delirium.[10][41]

Different crops generally referred to as ginseng[edit]

True ginseng crops belong solely to the genus Panax.[10] A number of different crops are generally known as ginseng, however they’re from a distinct genus and even household. Siberian ginseng is in the identical household, however not genus, as true ginseng. The energetic compounds in Siberian ginseng are eleutherosides, not ginsenosides. As an alternative of a fleshy root, Siberian ginseng has a woody root.

See additionally[edit]

References[edit]

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