Flowering Dogwood - Cornus florida (41123271645).jpg

Flowering Dogwood Wikipedia

Species of flowering plant within the dogwood household Cornaceae

Cornus florida, the flowering dogwood, is a species of flowering tree within the household Cornaceae native to jap North America and northern Mexico. An endemic inhabitants as soon as spanned from southernmost coastal Maine south to northern Florida and west to the Mississippi River.[3] The tree is usually planted as a decorative in residential and public areas due to its showy bracts and attention-grabbing bark construction.

Classification[]

The flowering dogwood is often included within the dogwood genus Cornus as Cornus florida L., though it’s generally handled in a separate genus as Benthamidia florida (L.) Spach. Different outdated names now hardly ever used embody American dogwood, Florida dogwood, Indian arrowwood, Cornelian tree, white cornel, white dogwood, false field, and false boxwood.

Two subspecies are typically acknowledged:

Picture Scientific title Distribution
Flowering Dogwood - Cornus florida (41123271645).jpg Cornus florida subsp. florida jap + south-central United States.
Cornus florida ssp urbiniana 2.jpg Cornus florida subsp. urbiniana (Rose) Rickett northeastern Mexico (Nuevo León, Veracruz).

Description[]

Flowering dogwood is a small deciduous tree rising to 10 m (33 ft) excessive, typically wider than it’s tall when mature, with a trunk diameter of as much as 30 cm (1 ft). A 10-year-old tree will stand about 5 m (16 ft) tall. The leaves are reverse, easy, ovate, 6–13 cm (2.4–5.1 in) lengthy and 4–6 cm (1.6–2.4 in) broad, with an apparently total margin (truly very finely toothed, underneath a lens); they flip a wealthy red-brown in fall.

Flowering dogwood attains its biggest dimension and development potential within the Higher South, generally as much as 40 toes in peak. On the northern finish of its vary, heights of 30–33 toes are extra typical. Scorching, humid summer season climate is critical for brand new development to harden off within the fall.

The utmost lifespan of C. florida is about 80 years.

The flowers are individually small and inconspicuous, with 4 greenish-yellow bracts 4 mm (0.16 in) lengthy. Round 20 flowers are produced in a dense, rounded, umbel-shaped inflorescence, or flower-head, 1–2 cm (0.39–0.79 in) in diameter. The flower-head is surrounded by 4 conspicuous massive white, pink or pink “petals” (truly bracts), every bract 3 cm (1.2 in) lengthy and a pair of.5 cm (0.98 in) broad, rounded, and sometimes with a definite notch on the apex. The flowers are hermaphroditic (“excellent flowers”) .

When within the wild they’ll sometimes be discovered on the forest edge and continuously on dry ridges. Whereas a lot of the wild bushes have white bracts, some chosen cultivars of this tree even have pink bracts, some even virtually a real pink. They sometimes flower in early April within the southern a part of their vary, to late April or early Might in northern and excessive altitude areas. The same Kousa dogwood (Cornus kousa), native to Asia, flowers a few month later.

The fruit is a cluster of two to 10 separate drupes, (fused in Cornus kousa), every 10–15 mm (0.39–0.59 in) lengthy and about 8 mm (0.31 in) broad, which ripen within the late summer season and the early fall to a vibrant pink, or sometimes yellow with a rosy blush. They’re an necessary meals supply for dozens of species of birds, which then distribute the seeds. They’re additionally a larval host plant for a number of moth varieties, together with Eudeilinia herminiata, the dogwood thyatirid moth, Antispila cornifoliella, the stinging rose moth, the grand arches moth,[4] the pecan bark borer,[5] the dogwood borer,[6] the rosaceaous leaf curler, the diamondback epinotia moth, spring azures,[7]cecropia moths,[8] and the Io moth. Whereas not toxic to people, the fruit is extraordinarily bitter and unpleasant-tasting. Flowering dogwood is monoecious, that means the tree has each female and male flowers, and all bushes will produce fruit.

Cultivation[]

Flowering dogwood does greatest horticulturally in moist, acidic soil in a website with some afternoon shade, however good morning solar. It doesn’t do properly when uncovered to intense warmth sources equivalent to adjoining parking tons or air-con compressors. It additionally has a low salinity tolerance. The hardiness zone is 5–9 and the popular pH is between 6.0–7.0.[9] In city and suburban settings, care needs to be taken to not inflict mower injury on the trunk or roots, as this will increase the tree’s susceptibility to illness and pest stress.[9]:98–100 The widespread flowering dogwood has been positioned on the endangered species record in Ontario.[10][11][12]
In areas the place dogwood anthracnose is an issue, householders and public land managers are inspired to know the signs and examine bushes continuously. The number of wholesome, disease-free planting inventory is crucial and transplanting bushes from the forest needs to be prevented. Websites needs to be chosen for moderately well-drained, fertile soils; full solar is really helpful in high-hazard areas (equivalent to stream or pond banks). New plantings needs to be mulched to a depth of 5 to 10 cm (2 to 4 in), avoiding the stem. Useless wooden and leaves needs to be pruned and fully eliminated and destroyed yearly. Crops needs to be watered weekly throughout droughts, with watering accomplished within the morning, avoiding wetting the foliage. Registered fungicides could be utilized when needed, in response to producers directions and recommendation of native Extension Service.[13]

Pink selection flower clusters

Flowering dogwood is grown extensively all through the temperate world.

Chosen cultivars[14]
  • ‘Amerika Contact-O-Pink’ – massive bracts, tinged pink; massive leaves; good illness resistance.
  • ‘Appalachian Spring’ – massive white bracts; pink fall foliage; proof against dogwood anthracnose.
  • ‘Autumn Gold’ – white bracts; yellow fall coloration.
  • ‘Barton’ – massive white bracts; blooms at early age; proof against stem canker and powdery mildew.
  • ‘Bay Magnificence’ – double white bracts; resists warmth and drought; good for Deep South.
  • ‘Cherokee Dawn’ – white bract; vigorous grower with variegated leaves.
  • ‘Cherokee Chief’ – pink bracts; pink new development.[15]
  • ‘Cherokee Courageous’ – Even redder than ‘Cherokee Chief’, smaller bracts however darkish pink coloration; persistently proof against powdery mildew.
  • ‘Cherokee Princess’ – vigorous white bracts, trade commonplace for white flowers.
  • ‘Cherokee Sundown’ – purplish-red bracts; variegated foliage.
  • ‘Gulf Coast Pink’ – greatest pink flowering dogwood in Florida – northern half solely.
  • ‘Hohman’s Gold’ – white bracts; variegated foliage.
  • ‘Jean’s Appalachian Snow’ – massive, overlapping white bracts w/ inexperienced flowers; very proof against powdery mildew.
  • ‘Karen’s Appalachian Blush’ – delicate white bracts edged in pink; some powdery mildew resistance.
  • ‘Kay’s Appalachian Mist’ – stiff, creamy white bracts; pink fall foliage; good resistance to powdery mildew.
  • ‘Plena’ – double white bracts; spot anthracnose-resistant.
  • ‘Purple Glory’ – pink bracts; purple foliage; spot anthracnose-resistant however prone to stem canker.
  • ‘Weaver White’ – massive white blooms; massive leaves; candelabra form; good in north-central Florida.

Propagation[]

Cornus florida is definitely propagated by seeds, that are sown within the fall into ready rows of sawdust or sand, and emerge within the spring. Germination charges for good clear seed needs to be close to 100% if seed dormancy is first overcome by chilly stratification therapies for 90 to 120 days at 4 °C (39 °F).[9]:100–102[16]
Flowering dogwood demonstrates gametophytic self-incompatibility, that means that the crops cannot self-fertilize. That is necessary for breeding applications because it implies that it isn’t essential to emasculate (take away the anthers from) C. florida flowers earlier than making managed cross-pollinations. These pollinations needs to be repeated each different day, because the flowers should be cross-pollinated inside one or two days of opening for pollinations to be efficient.[17]

Tree within the wild in autumn

Softwood cuttings taken in late spring or early summer season from new development could be rooted underneath mist if handled with 8,000 to 10,000 ppm indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). In chilly climates, potted cuttings should be stored in heated chilly frames or polyhouses the next winter to keep up temperatures between Zero and seven °C (32 and 45 °F). Though rooting success could be as excessive as 50–85%, this method will not be generally utilized by business growers. Reasonably, chosen cultivars are typically propagated by T-budding in late summer season or by whip grafting within the greenhouse in winter onto seedling rootstock.[16][9]:102

Micropropagation of flowering dogwood is now utilized in breeding applications aiming to include resistance to dogwood anthracnose and powdery mildew into horticulturally and economically necessary cultivars. Nodal (axillary bud) sections are established in a tradition of Woody Plant Medium (WPM) amended with 4.Four µmol/L 6-Benzyladenine (BA) to advertise shoot development.[18] Rooting of as much as 83% could be obtained when 5–7 week-old microshoots are then transferred to WPM amended with 4.9 µmol/L IBA.[19]

Historic makes use of[]

Native People used the bark and roots in a treatment for malaria; a pink dye was additionally extracted from the roots.[20]
The species has been used within the manufacturing of inks, scarlet dyes, and as a quinine substitute. The arduous, dense wooden has been used for merchandise equivalent to golf membership heads, mallets, picket rake tooth, software handles, jeweler’s bins and butcher’s blocks.[21][9]:100Cornus florida is the state tree and flower of Virginia,[22] the state tree of Missouri, and state flower of North Carolina.[23][24] It was used to deal with canines with mange, which can be the way it acquired its title.[24] The pink berries should not edible, regardless of some rumors in any other case.[25]

In 1915, forty dogwood saplings had been donated by U.S. to Japan within the 1912-15 trade of flowers between Tokyo and Washington, D.C. Whereas the cherry blossom bushes survived the following bitter relations of those two international locations and are the primary function of the Nationwide Cherry Blossom Pageant, all dogwood bushes in Tokyo died besides the one which had been planted in an agriculture highschool. In 2012, the USA despatched 3,000 dogwood saplings to Japan to commemorate the 100 yr anniversary of the Washington D.C. cherry bushes given as a present to the U.S. by Japan in 1912.[26]

References[]

  1. ^ Stritch, L. (2018). “Cornus florida”. IUCN Purple Checklist of Threatened Species. 2018: e.T61990536A61990538. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T61990536A61990538.en. Retrieved Might 3, 2020.
  2. ^ Cornus florida L.” The Plant Checklist.
  3. ^ “Cornus florida County distribution map”. The Biota of North America Program. 2014.
  4. ^ “Lacanobis grandis species data”. bugguide.internet.
  5. ^ “Species Synanthedon geliformis – Pecan Bark Borer – Hodges#2547”. bugguide.internet.
  6. ^ “Species Synanthedon scitula – Dogwood Borer – Hodges#2549”. bugguide.internet.
  7. ^ Adelman, Lauren. “The Pleasure of Butterfly Host Crops”. Lewis Ginter Botanical Gardens. Retrieved April 26, 2020.
  8. ^ Adelman, Lauren. “The Pleasure of Butterfly Host Crops”. Lewis Ginter Botanical Gardens. Retrieved April 26, 2020.
  9. ^ a b c d e Cappiello P, Shadow D (2005). Dogwoods: The Genus Cornus.. Portland: Timber Press.
  10. ^ “Japanese flowering dogwood”. Species at Threat. Authorities of Ontario. Retrieved March 4, 2019.
  11. ^ “Species Profile (Japanese Flowering Dogwood) – Species at Threat Public Registry”. www.registrelep-sararegistry.gc.ca. Authorities of Canada, Setting. Archived from the unique on June 5, 2017. Retrieved April 23, 2017.
  12. ^ https://crops.usda.gov/plantguide/pdf/pg_cofl2.pdf
  13. ^ Anderson RL, Knighten JL, Windham M, Langdon Okay, Hendrix F, Roncadori R (1994). “Dogwood anthracnose and its unfold within the South” (PDF). Venture Report R8-PR 26. Atlanta, GA: USDA Forest Service. p. 10.
  14. ^ Nowicki M, Boggess SL, Saxton AM, Hadziabdic D, Xiang QJ, Molnar T, Huff ML, Staton ME, Zhao Y, Trigiano RN (October 23, 2018). Heinze B (ed.). “Haplotyping of Cornus florida and C. kousa chloroplasts: Insights into species-level variations and patterns of plastic DNA variation in cultivars”. PLOS ONE. 13 (10): e0205407. Bibcode:2018PLoSO..1305407N. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0205407. PMC 6198962. PMID 30352068.
  15. ^ Cornus florida ‘Cherokee Chief“. RHS Plant Selector. The Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved July 17, 2013.
  16. ^ a b Hartmann, HT, DE Kester, FT Davies, RL Geneve. 2002. Hartmann and Kester’s Plant Propagation: Rules and Practices, seventh Version. Prentice Corridor, Higher Saddle River, NJ. pp. 769.
  17. ^ Reed SM (2004). “Self-incompatibility in Cornus florida“. HortScience. 39 (2): 335–338. doi:10.21273/HORTSCI.39.2.335.
  18. ^ Kaveriappa KM, Phillips LM, Trigiano RN (April 1997). “Micropropagation of flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) from seedlings”. Plant Cell Stories. 16 (7): 485–489. doi:10.1007/BF01092771. PMID 30727637. S2CID 40422365.
  19. ^ Sharma AR, Trigiano RN, Witte WT, Schwarz OJ (January 2005). “In vitro adventitious rooting of Cornus florida microshoots”. Scientia Horticulturae. 103 (3): 381–5. doi:10.1016/j.scienta.2004.06.014.
  20. ^ Little, Elbert L. (1980). The Audubon Society Area Information to North American Bushes: Japanese Area. New York: Knopf. p. 616. ISBN 0-394-50760-6.
  21. ^ Petrides GA (1972). A area information to bushes and shrubs; area marks of all bushes, shrubs, and woody vines that develop wild within the northeastern and north-central United States and in southeastern and south-central Canada. The Peterson area information collection. 11. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. p. 106.
  22. ^ “White Dogwood”. Virginia Division of Forestry. Archived from the unique on December 7, 2011. Retrieved April 7, 2012.
  23. ^ Cornus florida“. Missouri Botanical Backyard. Retrieved April 7, 2012.
  24. ^ a b “State Flower–Dogwood” (PDF). North Carolina Museum of Historical past. Archived from the unique (PDF) on July 20, 2012. Retrieved April 7, 2012.
  25. ^ “Dogwood Tree – Stunning Flowers, Distinctive Fruits”. Eat The Planet. January 11, 2017. Retrieved April 26, 2019.
  26. ^ “U.S. eyes 3,000 dogwoods for ‘sakura’ anniversary. The Japan Occasions. Posted: Jan. 17, 2012”. Japantimes.co.jp. Retrieved March 28, 2014.

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