European nettle tree (Celtis australis) | VRO

Current distribution

Scientific title:
Celtis australis (L.).
Frequent title(s):
European nettle tree

This weed isn’t identified to be naturalised in Victoria
Habitat:

Dominate riparian vegetation (Agnote 2009). Mediterranean woodlands and shrublands, montane vegetation (FLIS 2009). No waterlogging (AANF 2009) Can not develop in shade, nicely drained, gentle (sandy) medium (loamy) soils, tolerates nutrient poor (Wiki 2009). Mod. Salt tolerance (UNFL 2009). Drought tolerant (Wiki 2009). Frost tolerant (Blood 2001). 500mm rain (AANF 2009). Invades pine plantations (Blood 2001). Potential weed of agriculture (Agnote 2009).

Potential distribution

Potential distribution produced from CLIMATE modelling refined by making use of appropriate landuse and vegetation kind overlays with CMA boundaries

Map Overlays Used

Land Use:
forestry; horticulture perennial

Ecological Vegetation Divisions
lowland forest; damp forest; riparian; moist forest; excessive altitude shrubland/woodland; granitic hillslopes; rocky outcrop shrubland; riverine woodland/forest;

Colors point out risk of Celtis australis infesting these areas.

Within the non-coloured areas the plant is unlikely to ascertain because the local weather, soil or landuse isn’t presently appropriate.

maps

Purple= Very excessive Orange = Medium
Yellow = Excessive Inexperienced = Seemingly

Impression

QUESTION

COMMENTS

RATING

CONFIDENCE

Social
1. Prohibit human entry? Can develop 20 or 25 meters in peak (Wiki 2009). Bark is skinny and simply broken from mechanical influence; droop because the tree grows, and would require pruning for vehicular or pedestrian clearance beneath the cover (UNFL 2009). Can type dense thickets and dominate riparian vegetation (Agnote 2009). Main obstacle to entry waterways or equipment. Vital works required to offer cheap entry, tracks closed or impassable.

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2. Cut back tourism? Fruits are onerous and other people can roll and slip on them after they drop onto sidewalks and different onerous surfaces (UNFL 2009). Trunk and branches prone to breakage (UNFL 2009). Can type dense thickets and dominate riparian vegetation (Agnote 2009). Some leisure makes use of affected.

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3. Injurious to folks? No spines, burrs, toxins (PFAF 2009; Agnote 2009). No results. No impact, no prickles, no accidents.

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4. Harm to cultural websites? Bushes have deep spreading roots (PFAF 2009) – subsequently might trigger injury to some constructions comparable to footpaths. Reasonable structural impact.

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Abiotic
5. Impression circulate? A deciduous tree (Wiki 2009). Fruit, twigs, or foliage trigger vital litter (UNFL 2009). Invades riparian zones (Agnote 2009). More likely to trigger litter construct up in streams, particularly small streams would endure diminished circulate price in these areas. Minor influence on floor or subsurface circulate both by roots or free floating aquatics.

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6. Impression water high quality? A deciduous tree (Wiki 2009). Fruit, twigs, or foliage trigger vital litter (UNFL 2009). Invades riparian zones (Agnote 2009). Reasonably dense crown (Agnote 2009), subsequently discount in gentle reaching the floor. Noticeable however minor results in both dissolved 02 or gentle ranges.

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7. Enhance soil erosion? Can type dense thickets and dominate riparian vegetation (Agnote 2009). Reasonable likelihood of enormous scale soil motion.

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8. Cut back biomass? Can type dense thickets (Agnote 2009). Biomass might improve.

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9. Change hearth regime? Can type dense thickets (Agnote 2009). – Not sufficient info.

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Neighborhood Habitat
10. Impression on composition
(a) excessive worth EVC
EVC = Valley Grassy Forest (E); CMA = North East; Bioregion = Highlands Northern Fall;
VH CLIMATE potential.
“Invasive bushes comparable to Celtis, are among the many most damaging to the pure ecosystem, on account of their skill to turn out to be structurally dominant.” (Agnote 2009). It out-competes and replaces native shrubs and bushes (Agnote 2009). A few of the identical species of birds, additionally feed throughout the identical interval on fruit of Camphor Laural. This will considerably improve the dispersal of Celtis all through the disturbed, regenerating riparian zones (Agnote 2009).
– Minor displacement of some dominant or indicator species inside anyone layer/strata.

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(b) medium worth EVC EVC = Herb Wealthy Foothills Forest (D); CMA = North East; Bioregion = Victorian Riverina;
VH CLIMATE potential.
“Invasive bushes comparable to Celtis, are among the many most damaging to the pure ecosystem, on account of their skill to turn out to be structurally dominant.” (Agnote 2009). It out-competes and replaces native shrubs and bushes (Agnote 2009). A few of the identical species of birds, additionally feed throughout the identical interval on fruit of Camphor Laural. This will considerably improve the dispersal of Celtis all through the disturbed, regenerating riparian zones (Agnote 2009).
– Main displacement of some dominant/indicator species inside a strata/layer (or some dominant species inside totally different layers).

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(c) low worth EVC EVC = Moist Forest (LC); CMA = Goulburn Damaged; Bioregion = Highlands Northern Fall;
VH CLIMATE potential.
“Invasive bushes comparable to Celtis, are among the many most damaging to the pure ecosystem, on account of their skill to turn out to be structurally dominant.” (Agnote 2009). It out-competes and replaces native shrubs and bushes (Agnote 2009). A few of the identical species of birds, additionally feed throughout the identical interval on fruit of Camphor Laural. This will considerably improve the dispersal of Celtis all through the disturbed, regenerating riparian zones (Agnote 2009).
– Minor displacement of some dominant or indicator species inside anyone layer/strata.

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11. Impression on construction? “Invasive bushes comparable to Celtis, are among the many most damaging to the pure ecosystem, on account of their skill to turn out to be structurally dominant.” (Agnote 2009). It out-competes and replaces native shrubs and bushes (Agnote 2009). A few of the identical species of birds, additionally feed throughout the identical interval on fruit of Camphor Laural. This will considerably improve the dispersal of Celtis all through the disturbed, regenerating riparian zones (Agnote 2009). Displaces all spp inside a stata/layer.

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12. Impact on threatened flora? Mediterranean Woodlands and Shrublands, Montane vegetation of Mt. Hermon (FLIS 2009). “It quickly colonises disturbed bushland and might type dense thickets and dominate riparian vegetation – It out-competes and replaces native shrubs and bushes (Agnote 2009). No specific point out to threatened species, however has the potential to scale back inhabitants sizes of species in habitats it invades and turns into dominant. No particular point out of changing threatened spp. however potential is excessive.

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Fauna
13. Impact on threatened fauna? The fruit of this tree is good and edible, and could be eaten uncooked or cooked (WIKI 2009). No, spines, burrs, thorns (Agnote 2009). Unlikely to have a serious impact on threatened fauna species. Besides have been species are dependant on a selected habitat which is changed, however no reviews of this. Minor results.

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14. Impact on non-threatened fauna? The fruit of this tree is good and edible, and could be eaten uncooked or cooked (WIKI 2009). Unlikely to have a serious impact on fauna species. Besides have been species are dependant on a selected habitat which is changed, however no reviews of this. Minor results on fauna spp.; minor hazard or discount in habitat/meals/ shelter.

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15. Advantages fauna? The fruit of this tree is good and edible, and could be eaten uncooked or cooked (WIKI 2009). A meals supply. Gives an essential various meals supply and/or harbor to fascinating species.

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16. Injurious to fauna? No spines, burrs, thorns, toxins (Agnote 2009). No impact.

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Pest Animal
17. Meals supply to pests? The fruit of this tree is good and edible, and could be eaten uncooked or cooked (WIKI 2009). Subsequently prone to be a meals supply to foxes. Provides meals severe pest (eg. rabbits and foxes), however at low ranges (eg. foliage).

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18. Gives harbor? Can type dense thickets and dominate riparian vegetation (Agnote 2009). More likely to harbour pests comparable to bush rabbits. Capability to harbor rabbits or foxes at low densities or as in a single day cowl.

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Agriculture
19. Impression yield? “Celtis is an invasive environmental weed and a possible weed of agriculture” (Agnote 2009). Potential impacts unclear, prone to prohibit entry of livestock to water sources.

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20. Impression high quality? Invades pine plantations (Blood 2001). More likely to cut back high quality of timber as a result of competitors with C. australis. Minor influence on high quality of produce (eg < 5% discount).

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21. Have an effect on land worth? No info , however it may be managed (Agnote 2009).

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22. Change land use? May be managed (Agnote 2009), subsequently unlikely to trigger a change in land use. Little or no change

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23. Enhance harvest prices? Management would improve harvest prices, particularly in forestry (Blood 2001) Minor improve in value of harvesting
– eg barely extra time or labour is required.

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24. Illness host/vector? No pests or illnesses are of main concern however twigs might sometimes die from the parasitic fungus
which causes witches’ broom (UNFL 2009). Gives host to minor (or frequent) pests, or illnesses.

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Invasive

QUESTION

COMMENTS

RATING

CONFIDENCE

Institution
1. Germination necessities? Seeds are extremely germinable (AANF 2009) however chilly and moist stratification in all probability wanted for germination (Blood 2001). Requires pure seasonal disturbances comparable to seasonal rainfall, spring/summer season temperatures for germination.

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2. Institution necessities? The plant prefers gentle (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils, requires well-drained soil and might develop in nutritionally poor soil. The plant prefers acid, impartial and primary (alkaline) soils. It can not develop within the shade. It requires dry or moist soil and might tolerate drought. The Mediterranean local weather is very appropriate for the plant (WIKI 2009). Requires extra particular necessities to ascertain (eg. open house or naked floor with entry to gentle and direct rainfall).

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3. How a lot disturbance is required? Weed in closely disturbed websites within the Sacramento Valley of California (USDA 2009). Establishes in extremely disturbed pure ecosystems (eg. roadsides, wildlife corridors, or areas which have a higher influence by people comparable to vacationer areas or campsites) or in overgrazed pastures/poorly rising or patchy crops.

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Progress/Aggressive
4. Life type? Tree rising as much as 20m tall (Agnote 2009) – Different.

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5. Allelopathic properties? Some weak allelopathic results (CABA 2009). Minor properties.

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6. Tolerates herb strain? Not sufficient info.

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7. Regular development price? Progress price: quick (UNFL 2009). Fast development price that can exceed most different species of the identical life type.

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8. Stress tolerance to frost, drought, w/logg, sal. and many others? Aerosol salt tolerance: reasonable (UNFL 2009). Water logging causes die again (AANF 2009). Can Tolerate drought (WIKI 2009); Wants minimal rainfall of 500mm (AANF 2009). Very Drought tolerant (PFAF 2009). Tolerates frost (Blood 2001). Tolerant to not less than two and prone to not less than one.

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Replica
9. Reproductive system The flowers are hermaphrodite (have each female and male organs) (WIKI 2009). Pollinated by bees (PFAF 2009). Sexual (self and cross-pollination).

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10. Variety of propagules produced? Small darkish – purple berries (drupes), cling briefly clusters (WIKI 2009). Celtis produces 1000’s of fleshy fruits (Agnote 2009). Above 2000

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11. Propagule longevity? The seed could be saved for as much as 5 years (PFAF 2009). Better than 25% of seeds survive 5-10 years within the soil, or decrease viability however survive 10-20 years.

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12. Reproductive interval? Lengthy residing tree (Wiki 2009). Bushes could be very long-lived, maybe to 1000 years (PFAF 2009). Mature plant produces viable propagules for 10 years or extra, or species types self-sustaining monocultures.

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13. Time to reproductive maturity? No info.

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Dispersal
14. Variety of mechanisms? Small, dark-purple berries (drupes), 1 cm extensive cling briefly clusters and are extraordinarily standard with birds and different wildlife (WIKI 2009). It’s typically planted as a decorative as it’s proof against air air pollution and long-living (WIKI2009). Might sucker (Blood 2001). Very gentle, wind dispersed seeds, or hen dispersed seeds, or has edible fruit that’s readily eaten by extremely cellular animals.

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15. How far do they disperse? Chook dispersed. Seemingly that not less than one seed will likely be dispersed over 1km.

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References

AANF (2009) Adelaide Superior Nursery Reality Sheet. Accessible at http://www.natives.web.au/docs/docs/CeltisAustralisFS.pdf (verified 10/05/2009).

Agnote (2009) NSW Agriculture. Agnote. Accessible at http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/__data/property/pdf_file/0009/155889/celtis.pdf (verified 10/05/2009).

Blood, Okay. (2001) Environmental weeds. A discipline information for SE Australia. C H Jerram Science publishers.

CABA (2009) Cab Abstracts: Research on the allelopathic results of some agroforestry tree crops of Garhwal Himalaya. Bhatt, B. P., Todaria, N. P. (2006).

FLIS (2009) Flowers in Israel. Accessible at http://www.flowersinisrael.com/Celtisaustralis_page.htm (verified 10/05/2009).

PFAF (2009) Vegetation for a future. Accessible at http://www.ibiblio.org/pfaf/cgi-bin/arr_html?Celtis+australis (verified 10/05/2009).

PLNT (2009) Plantnet. Accessible at http://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/cgi-bin/NSWfl.pl?web page=nswfl&lvl=sp&title=Celtis~australis (verified 10/05/2009).

UNFL (2009) College of Florida. Forest Service. Accessible at http://hort.ufl.edu/bushes/CELAUSA.pdf (verified 10/05/2009).

USDA (2009) USDA: Agricultural Analysis service. Accessible at http://www.ars.usda.gov/analysis/publications/publications.htm?SEQ_NO_115=203938 (verified 10/05/2009).

WIKI (2009) Wikipedia – Celtis australis. Accessible at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Celtis_australis (verified 10/05/2009).

International current distribution information references

Australian Plant Title Index (APNI) http://www.cpbr.gov.au/cgi-bin/apni (26/03/2009).

EIS: Environmental Info System (2006) Parks Victoria. (26/03/2009).

International Biodiversity Info Facility (GBIF) (2009) International biodiversity info facility, Accessible at http://www.gbif.org/ (verified 29 Might 2009).

IPMS: Built-in Pest Administration System (2006) Division of Major Industries.

Built-in Taxonomic Info System. (2009) Accessible at http://www.itis.gov/ (verified 07/05/2009).

Missouri Botanical Gardens (MBG) (2009) w3TROPICOS, Missouri Botanical Gardens Database, Accessible at http://mobot.mobot.org/W3T/Search/huge.html (seen 29 Might 2009).

United States Division of Agriculture. Agricultural Analysis Service, Nationwide Genetic Assets Program. Germplasm Assets Info Community – (GRIN) [Online Database]. Taxonomy Question. (2009) Accessible at http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxgenform.pl (verified 26/03/2009).

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