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Die-back of Sissoo

Die-back of Sissoo

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M.Okay. Sharma, R.M. Singal and T.C. Pokhriyal
Indian Council of Forestry Analysis & Schooling, New Forest, Dehra Dun-248006,
India

1. INTRODUCTION

Dalbergia sissoo (shisham,
sissoo) is likely one of the most essential timber species of
India. Shisham grows
naturally and in addition planted on alluvial soils and is extensively
distributed on riverain beds in sub-Himalayan tract from Indus to Assam and
Himalayan valleys.

Dalbergia sissoo is extensively
distributed in lots of elements of India as much as 900m within the sub-
Himalayan
tract and infrequently ascending to 1500m. It grows abundantly and kinds
a forest, both pure or
blended with different species on the brand new alluvium fashioned of
deposits of sand, boulders and many others., within the
riverbeds of those areas. It grows on land-slips
and different locations the place contemporary soil is
uncovered however not on stiff clay. Sissoo timber from
completely different localities have different
traits together with development, type, color, grain,
working and power properties.

Sissoo is a main coloniser on the
new alluvial soils alongside the riverbanks. It’s a
massive
deciduous tree rising as much as Eight ft in girth and 100 ft in peak. The
rotation
of the
pure crop in Uttar Pradesh is about 60 years although in irrigated plantations
of
west Punjab, it’s a lot shorter being about 20 years (Bakshi & Singh 1954).
It thrives
effectively in
sandy loam soil with good drainage. In India, it’s present in Jammu &
Kashmir,
Himachal
Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Delhi, Bihar, Orissa,
West
Bengal, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram,
Meghalaya, Tripura, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh,
Pondicherry,
Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Kerala. Within the sub-Himalayan tract, it happens
alongside rivers and streams,
gregariously rising on alluvial soil. The tree is a
attribute species of khair-sissoo (Acacia
catechu
Dalbergia sissoo) main
serial kind forests (Champion &
Seth 1968). It has been extensively used for afforestation
in most elements of the nation besides
within the highly regarded, chilly and moist tracts.

Sissoo has been extensively planted
alongside roadsides, canal banks and generally on
the non-public vacant and agricultural lands, particularly in Bihar, Haryana,
Punjab, Uttar
Pradesh
and in lots of different elements of the nation.

Based on UP Forest Bulletin yr 1997,
the entire plantation space of Dalbergia
sissoo
in
Uttar Pradesh is about 5,5997 hectares in relation to different planted species
(excluding
miscellaneous and blended species). Nonetheless, the above talked about space
doesn’t cowl farmer’s
discipline, the place this species has been planted for worthwhile
financial return below agroforestry system.

Sissoo can efficiently be grown in
mixture with quite a lot of different crops viz.,
grasses,
agriculture and fruit crops. Cultivation of agricultural crops between the
traces
of sissoo may be
carried out with none problem for at the least two years. Such
cultivation is carried out in Uttar Pradesh in Taungya plantations in addition to
in
departmentally raised mechanised ones. The
agricultural crops, which may be grown
together with Sissoo, are maize, mustard, rapeseed, gram, peas,
wheat,
sugarcane and cotton and many others. Over time D.
sissoo
has been grown as scattered timber
on discipline boundaries and in addition as
windbreaks round fruit orchards.

The extent of sissoo mortality within the pure
forests, plantations and agroforestry has
not but
been enumerated severely. Nonetheless, an try to file the extent of sissoo
mortality in pure forests,
plantations (mono and blended), road-canal sides and
agricultural fields is being initiated with the assistance of respective State Forest
Departments.

2. DIE-BACK IN DALBERGIA
SISSOO
– SYMPTOMS AND DESCRIPTION

2.1. Root ailments

Bakshi et al. (1957), throughout a
survey of ailments in sissoo forests, noticed that the
wilt
and different root ailments are absent within the riverbeds, the place sissoo grows
naturally.
In some
pure forests located away from the river and in addition sure plantations, it
suffers
from root ailments as a consequence of all of the three fungi i.e, Fusarium solani,
Ganoderma
lucidum
and
Phellinus givus in various levels. Bakshi (1955) reported F. solani is
a
ubiquitous soil saprophyte current in all soils together with the place sissoo grows
effectively such
as in
riverine areas.

Throughout latest surveys to completely different states
i.e. Bihar, Haryana, Delhi, Punjab, Himachal
Pradesh
and Uttar Pradesh, sissoo mortality was noticed to be outstanding both in
remoted
timber or on the vegetation rising on agricultural bunds, roads and canal aspect. In
the
uncovered roots of the careworn timber (useless or partially useless) it was noticed
that the
feeding roots had been blackish in color and partially decomposed. In some circumstances,
block
plantations
in addition to blended cropping, exhibited much less mortality. Nonetheless the timber
rising on the fringes are
being affected. An ocular estimation of the realm has
revealed about 20-30 % mortality. The
following ailments had been reported to be
related to sissoo mortality.

Fusarium Wilt

The Fusarium wilt illness has been
reported from Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Punjab in
plantations, raised on
unsuitable websites i.e., stiff, clayey soils and water logged
circumstances. It doesn’t happen in pure
forests and in plantations raised on appropriate
websites.

The illness manifests throughout humid
months from July to September. The
attribute
signs of the illness are yellowing and deaths of leaves in acropetal
succession up the tree. Finally your complete tree seems chlorotic. In
superior levels
of the
illness, the leaves are shed rendering the branches naked. The affected timber
die
inside a
few months. Timber of superior age are normally vulnerable to the illness.
The
outer sapwood displays a attribute pink to reddish stain. Although the stain
is
restricted on this area, it
could hardly ever penetrate into the internal sapwood. The
heartwood is free from the stain. The stain
additionally progresses alongside the outer sapwood
from the roots to the stem and, within the late stage of wilt, it might prolong up the
stem to
about 3m from the bottom (Bakshi
1954). The pathogen is generally restricted to roots.
The fungal hyphae and jelly like substances plug the vessels ensuing
in wilt
signs. Unidentified toxins are produced
within the tradition filtrate, which can even be
liable for inflicting wilt (Bakshi
& Singh 1959).

Elimination of the pathogen from the soil is
not attainable both chemically or by crop
rotation
(Bakshi 1955). Correct web site choice with gentle textured soil, satisfactory soil
moisture
and good drainage is essential for elevating wholesome plantations free from wilt
illness.

Ganoderma Root Rot

Root rot of Sissoo as a consequence of Ganoderma
lucidum
(Leyss.) Karst. Is frequent each in
pure
forests and in plantations. Nonetheless, a severe illness downside could come up when
Sissoo
is raised as a reforested pure crop with out eradicating the stumps and roots of
the unique crop. The illness is prevalent in each gentle and heavy textured soils.
In
gentle
soils, the pathogen spreads quickly on roots and the timber are killed in a
quick
interval.
Nonetheless, in stiff soils, the fungus spreads slowly on roots. The pathogen is a
root inhabitant and infects
the roots by way of intact in addition to injured surfaces. It
causes white spongy rot within the sapwood. The
affected timber exhibit a stag-headed
look and are ultimately
killed. The signs of the illness seem when a
massive portion of the foundation system is broken by the pathogen. Lateral unfold of
the
illness in plantations is thru root contact, which ends up in gaps in
pure
plantations.

Phellinus Root and Butt Rot

Root and butt rot of Sissoo brought on by Phellinus
gilvus
(Schw.) Pat. Has been studied
by
Bakshi (1971). The fungus is primarily a wound parasite and is thought to contaminate
plantation timber. It happens
in affiliation with Ganoderma lucidum or the wilt
pathogen, Fusarium solani. Timber of
superior age are attacked they usually exhibit stag-
headed situation. The fungus causes restricted decay as white rot within the
sapwood and
to a restricted extent within the heartwood. Sporophores of the fungus are developed
on root
and stem bases. They’re annual,
sessile, normally reflexed, hardly ever effuso-reflexed,
leathery when contemporary, drying arduous,
single or imbricate; higher floor with shades of
yellow, brown and pink and both
coarsely furry, sub-zonate in forma gilvoides or
clean with concentric zonations in
forma licnoides; decrease floor yellowish brown,
bores spherical, dissepiments thick,
margin, sterile (Bakshi 1971, 1976).

Root-Knot Nematode

Meloidogyne javanica has been recorded to type galls on roots of sissoo from
Lachhiwala vary nursery, Dehra Dun
(Mehrotra & Sharma 1992). The nematode is polyphagus and has been discovered to assault a number of different tree species
(Sharma & Mehrotra 1992). Heavy infestations of the
nematode have an effect on plant development adversely.

2.2. Entomological Research

About 125 insect species have been reported
to break sissoo amongst them Plecoptra
reflexa
(Lepidoptra: Noctuidae) and Dichomeris eridantis (Lepidoptra:
Gelechiidae
) are the principle defoliators. Plecoptra reflexa is a severe defoliator in
nurseries and younger
plantations all through the pure rising area of sissoo. For the primary
time,
an
epidemic of the defoliator was recorded from Changa-Manga space (Pakistan) in
1899 and afterwards in younger plantations of Chichawati and Kanewal (Punjab). A
severe epidemic was additionally reported in 1927, 1928 and 1932 and contributed to
the
remaining
destruction of Moribund Compartment. The timber are fully stripped of the
leaves
and stay leafless for the higher a part of rising seasons. The cumulative results of repeated defoliations on the
sissoo are disastrous.

2.3. Edaphic
Circumstances

The frequent expertise that sissoo thrives
effectively on free sandy soils however suffers
adversely
from root ailments in stiff and clayey soils is substantiated by analysing the
texture
of soils sustaining wholesome and diseased stands. The success of the species in
free sandy soils seems to be correct soil aeration with good drainage, which
results in
wholesome
development of roots (Bakshi 1957).

The soils with heavy texture and water
logged situation; for a substantial interval of
time,
trigger asphyxiation of the roots. Within the absence of oxygen, the tender roots are
killed
and a lot of fungi colonise them. A standard soil borne fungus, Fusarium
solani has been remoted from the useless roots
(Bagchee 1945, Bakshi 1954). The
fungus colonises the vascular bundle of the
roots and hinders the move of water to the
crown. In consequence wilting takes
place in terminal branches. The leaves flip yellow,
wilt and in excessive circumstances the
affected timber are killed. The outer sapwood of root
displays attribute pink discoloration. Prematurely stage of wilt the
stain could
prolong to the stem.

In North Bihar, poor water drainage has created
water-logged situation for a
extended interval. Extreme water can
create as a lot stress on the plant as water
deficiency. Signs of flooding are
just like these of drought together with stomatal
closure, yellowing of leaf and leaf
scorching. Additional, irregular climatic situation
akin to extended foggy climate
throughout winter (December.- March) and floods within the
plains of North India in the course of the
wet season additionally create unsuitable circumstances for the
development of Dalbergia sissoo.

Failure of sissoo in plantations with
a consequent outbreak of root ailments invariably
happens when the species is compelled on a web site unsuitable for wholesome development in
unnatural environmental circumstances. A typical
instance quoted by Bakshi et al. (1957) of such a
plantations
(Turnerpur Taungya, Lachiwala, Dehra Dun), the place timber seem stag-
headed
and don’t possess the free spreading crown attribute of wholesome timber.
Such
timber dry from high downwards and ultimately die. The incidence of wilt and
different root ailments seems extra
and extra yearly and creates gaps within the
plantations. Nonetheless, there was no
correlation noticed between soil pH and
illness incidence in sissoo.

3. EXTENT OF DALBERGIA SISSOO DIE-BACK

Sissoo could be very well-liked in north India with
almost 10-15% of complete forest cowl. Although
the
precise figures of the mortality price couldn’t be recorded, it was considerably
excessive
in some
pockets. Mortality in sissoo happens in timber between 10 to 25 years.
Seedling
and sapling levels weren’t discovered attacked by the illness. The illness was
first noticed by Bakshi
(1954) each within the pure forests and plantations in
Taungyas, in Dehra Dun and Saharanpur
districts, Uttar Pradesh. Wilting begins throughout
April-Could after the brand new flush of
leaves seems however is frequent between June and
September throughout and instantly
after the rains. The illness is systematic in that
your complete tree reveals signs of assault. Within the early levels, an
affected tree is
characterised by drooping leaves and
branches, as a consequence of lack of turgor. The leaflets flip
yellow, dry up and ultimately drop
off rendering the branches more and more naked. The
complete tree turns into ‘skinny’ in
distinction to the adjoining dense inexperienced timber. Demise of the
affected timber is speedy and happens inside 4-6 months after the crown
reveals the
signs of wilt.

Most injury has been noticed in areas with unique
synthetic forests of
sissoo. The fundamental norms of forestry
prohibit monoculture, as timber develop into weak
to epidemics. In north Bihar, an space of 8400 sq km stretching from the
fertile
Gangetic plains to the terai grasslands
bordering Nepal are severely affected by sissoo
mortality. First the leaves of the
timber flip brown, then they beak off, the sap dries up,
till all that left is useless. Greater than 60 out of 100 timber had been reported
useless from
farmer’s discipline from Bettiah district in
Bihar.

In Himachal Pradesh, 1200 sissoo timber dried
within the final two years and 900 this yr
by 35 km
Jawalamukhi- Kangra freeway. In Dehra Gopipura space, in line with SFDs
sources,
656 useless sissoo timber had been seen in 1996, adopted by 350 tree in 1997.
Most of
timber had been between 30-35 years previous. The mixed an infection by pathogenic
fungi
had contaminated hundreds of sissoo timber in Bilaspur, Una, Hamirpur, Kangra and
elements
of Mandi district. In Kangra, Dehra and Nadaun sub-division alone greater than
2000
tree have dried up.

In Haryana, an alarming 30% mortality
within the main plantations i.e., Sirsa, Hissar,
Rohtak
and Gurgaon have been reported.

4. RESEARCH

Sissoo mortality in pure forests,
plantations and agroforestry programs seems to be
a
advanced phenomenon involving a mix of many environmental stresses. The
components liable for tree mortality are poorly understood.

Within the latest previous, a large-scale mortality
has been reported from the northern states of
India, viz. Bihar, Delhi, Haryana, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and Utter Pradesh.
Being
an
essential timber species, it has not solely disrupted the financial targets of
State
Forest
Departments but additionally incurred monetary losses to massive and marginal farmers.

Bakshi (1957) recorded full
failure of sissoo plantations raised in Tarai area of
Uttar
Pradesh. Unidentified toxins produced within the tradition filtrate had been accountable
for
inflicting
wilt (Bakshi & Singh 1959). In Tarai, the place the water desk is excessive and should
come up
to the floor throughout rains, sissoo suffers from wilting. Nonetheless, in
Bhabhar
tracts,
with good rainfall and satisfactory drainage, sissoo grows healthily.

The fungus grows over a variety of pH,
however optimally at 4.6 pH. The pH of soil
below
sissoo timber at New Forest was between 6.3 – 7.8. Bakshi et al. (1959)
reported that pH of sissoo tissues has no correlation
with the H+ ion focus of the soil in
which
they develop. The pH of the foundation of sissoo lies between 4.6-5.2, which is
ultimate for
the an infection of the pathogen. Nonetheless, the plant tissues keep an acidic pH
within the
vary
4.6-5.2, even in extremely alkaline soils, indicating that the roots possess a
excessive
buffering
capability.

Bakshi et al. (1957) studied the relation of pH and soil
texture. In addition they correlated the incidence of wilt with soil texture and
soil moisture. The illness was not present in soils containing a excessive proportion of sand
and low in silt, offered the drainage was good and water-logging circumstances didn’t exist. Nonetheless, with the
lower in sand and proportionate enhance in silt, there was manifestation of the
illness.

The pathogen is generally restricted to the
roots. It produces jelly like substances, which
plug the
vessels. The fungus is a facultative parasite inhabiting soil and possesses a
wide selection of aggressive saprophytic survival exercise (Bakshi 1955). The
fungus
produces each micro- and macro-conidia in addition to terminal and intercalary
chlamydospores,
that are produced in tradition.

Negi et al. (1999) studied the
heavy mortality of sissoo in Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and
Bihar.
In Bihar the report signifies that northern districts like Gopalganj, Siwan and
Muzaffarpur
had been badly affected. They noticed that the pH of soil within the affected
areas
ranged between 7.5 to 9.7, as in comparison with close to impartial pH in wholesome
localities.
The
chemical evaluation of the vegetation in sick localities confirmed decrease focus
of
potassium
and phosphorus within the leaves, as in comparison with wholesome websites. They concluded
poor uptake of vitamins by the roots in sick localities.

The next components could have performed
a job in making sissoo extra weak to the
pathogens
Fusarium and others:

i) Water Stress: Bakshi et al. 1972
reported that in Karnal Forest Division (Haryana)
110 ha of sissoo plantation had been raised in 1952-1960 and irrigated as much as 1963.
The irrigation was carried out by shallow channels, which result in the
formation of
superficial root system. In 9 out of
eleven coupes the irrigation was stopped
after 1963. Mortality began after
three years in all of the 9 coupes the place the
irrigation was stopped. Within the remaining two coupes the place irrigation was
continued no mortality was recorded. The
timber had dried up as a consequence of lack of water,
the superficial root system was
unable to attract water from the low water desk in
deficit rainfall areas of Haryana.
The main trigger for mortality seems to be
water stress.

ii) Soil Texture:
Bakshi and Singh (1954) reported D. sissoo mortality in Taungya
plantations of Dehradun and
Saharanpur District. The vegetation developed pale
yellow foliage and died all of a sudden. Such
mortality was additionally noticed in Lachiwala
Vary of Dehradun Forest Division.
Observations confirmed that the soil texture had
a major correlation with the illness incidence (Bakshi et al. 1957).
The
illness was not reported in sandy and sandy
loam soils however started to manifest with
rising clay content material. The stiff
and clayey soils result in asphyxiation of the
feeding roots, and had been subsequently
colonised by wilt fungus Fusarium solani.

iii) Excessive Water
Desk: As much as 30% mortality was recorded in sissoo plantations of
Piplee Block of Bareilly
Forest Division and 100% mortality in khair-sissoo
blended plantations of Ganganagar Patiain
Tarai and Bhabar Forest Divisions. It
was noticed that the water desk
at all times remained between 2 – Three m. The age at
which mortality set in appeared to be
associated to the depth of the water desk. In
locations the place the water desk was 2 – Three m deep, mortality began at 10 – 12 years
age; the place the water desk was
barely decrease, mortality expressed on the age 12 – 14 years; and the place it was inside 2 m, mortality was at an early age of
5 – 6
years. It seems like when the roots come
involved with the water desk, the
vegetation develop into extra vulnerable to Fusarium
solani
an infection, and in the end die
(Bakshi et al. 1972, Singh
1980).

5. SOLUTIONS TO
SISSOO DIE-BACK

5.1. Findings from
Surveys

The mechanism behind dieback illness
within the varied North Indian States i.e., Bihar,
Haryana,
Himachal Pradesh, Delhi and Uttar Pradesh may be defined thus. Foliage
nutrient
focus is meant to be an indicator of the physiological behaviour of
the
timber rising at completely different websites. It has been noticed that the vegetation rising
on
fertile
soil can have excessive vitamins of their foliage in comparison with these rising in
infertile
soil (Desk 1). Nonetheless, Dalbergia sissoo prefers to develop on extremely
leached
sandy
soil alongside the river belt. Therefore, websites wealthy in vitamins, akin to clayey soil
with
excessive moisture content material will not be so beneficial for sissoo. In Desk 1, it will probably
be seen
that
sissoo rising in regular websites shops larger concentrations of vitamins in its
foliage,
in comparison with websites which have larger mortality. Within the latter websites, the vegetation
have low
nutrient concentrations (Desk 1). This may be coupled with undeniable fact that the excessive
moisture content material and water logging create beneficial circumstances for pathogen
exercise
ensuing
in root mortality, thus affecting nutrient uptake, which lastly creates stress
circumstances for sissoo. Stress websites exhibit scarcity of phosphorus and
potassium in foliage. As well as, the upper pH (7.4- 8.5) noticed at websites could also be
contributory to
the
larger mortality: the upper pH hinders phosphorus and potassium uptake.
Potassium
is thought to be liable for controlling stomatal transpiration and its
deficiency
disturbs the water stability of the plant thereby inflicting stress.

Desk 1. Foliage Nutrient Focus (%)

Regular Websites

 

N

P

Okay

Ca

Mg

Uttar Pradesh (Dehra Dun)

4.18

0.28

2.40

2.33

0.30

Uttar Pradesh (Dehra Dun)

2.34

0.11

0.58

3.17

0.30

Uttar Pradesh (Ramnagar)

2.55

0.11

0.67

3.5

0.23

Bihar (Yadav)

2.46

0.24

0.96

2.38

0.15

Uttar Pradesh (Gonda)

2.64

.0.07

0.86

2.72

Websites with excessive mortality

Uttar Pradesh (Gonda )

2.42

0.03

0.55

2.50

Bihar

2.96

0.02

0.36

1.38

0.27

Himachal Pradesh (Una)

2.10

0.03

0.52

1.67

0.29

Delhi

2.92

0.04

0.37

1.50

0.34

Haryana (Bhiwani)

2.91

0.04

0.46

1.75

0.36

Dehra Dun (Maldevta)

1.74

0.03

0.72

0.65

0.34

(Negi et al. 1999)

It’s typically suspected that every time a
plant grows below stress it diverts extra assimilates in the direction of roots for storage,
restore and upkeep. Negi et al. (1999) noticed that sissoo rising in annoying
websites allotted extra carbon to its roots (60%) and fewer to foliage (40%), in comparison with
these in regular websites (roots – 51%; foliage 49%). 

The sooner plantations had been raised by
sowing with seed, however replacements had been carried out with cuttings. The water desk at Bankatwa
different from 2-Three m. Through the wet season the roots begin touching the water
desk, ensuing within the dying of the finer roots and thereby colonisation of wilt fungus.
This appears to have an effect on the crown growth, and branches began drying from the highest.
This continued for a number of years, and in the end the timber died. The pH worth at
the positioning ranged from 7.5 to eight.5. This will inhibit phosphorous and potassium uptake. Low
phosphorous and potassium in foliage creates disturbance in nutrient
biking and water stability within the vegetation.

Within the Hasanpur, North Gonda district, pure
sissoo plantations had been raised below the Taungya system in 1951. These plantations
seem like present process a vegetation succession course of, nonetheless. After 50 years,
the brand new vegetation comprised of 60% Mallotus phillipenses, 18% Dalbergia
sissoo
, 9% Trewia nudiflora, 3% Eugenia jambolonia, with scattered Holoptelia
integrifolia
and Cassia fistula. (Negi et al. 1999). The girth class distribution different
between 50-170 cm. For Dalbergia sissoo and 20-70 cm. For Mallotus phillipenses. This
suggests websites with excessive moisture and clayey soils should not beneficial for D.
sissoo,
and different mesic species colonised the positioning over time.

Desk 2. Soil Texture and pH

Website

Sand

Silt

Clay

Texture

pH

Uttar Pradesh:

Rupipur

82

13

5

Sandy

8.09

Benketwa

90

8

2

Sandy

7.61

Hasnapur

51

28

21

Loamy

7.41

Bihar:

Excessive mortality web site

45

42

13

Loamy

8.21

Regular web site

82

14

4

Sandy

8.80

Delhi:

Water stress, radiation impact

89

5

6

Sandy

8.00

Haryana:

Excessive mortality web site

66

15

19

Loamy

8.50

The excessive mortality of sissoo in Delhi could also be attributed to the
water stress, soil
compaction and excessive photo voltaic radiation. It’s
attention-grabbing to notice that the block plantations
and blended cropping haven’t exhibited any severe mortality apart from a
few
people within the fringes. This may be as a consequence of the truth that blended
cropping/block
plantations could create the suitable
microclimatic circumstances for survival of sissoo
(Negi et al. 1999).

Sissoo mortality on highway and canal
sides in Bihar, Haryana and Himachal Pradesh can
be
correlated with extended water logged circumstances throughout wet season and
seepage
of
canal water. The signs akin to stomatal closure, yellowing, scorching and
discount
in leaf measurement gave the impression to be just like these of drought circumstances. Extended
water
logging creates anaerobic circumstances for root development, inflicting root infections,
and
inhibits nutrient uptake particularly of P, Okay and Ca, and in the end results in
dying.

In 1998, surveys had been carried out in Haryana. In
Ginnaur a pure stand of sissoo alongside the
canal financial institution recorded very excessive mortality – 400 timber in a block had been discovered
struggling
from
wilt illness (pers. Obsns.). The realm was water logged and the positioning was silty.
However
in a
near-by block the place a blended stand of neem, jamun, Pongamia pinnata, sissoo,
Albizzia
lebbeck
and Eucalyptus had been established, sissoo suffered a lot mortality
however
not the
others. The opposite sissoo plantations surveyed had been in Yamuna Nagar and
Bhiwani.
Right here too the expansion was poor, in all probability as a consequence of stiff soil within the former and
‘Kanker-‘
pan within the latter.

The mortality is mostly seen alongside
roadside, canal banks, agriculture discipline
bunds, and even in areas between rivers significantly Ganga, Yamuna and its
tributaries. Nonetheless, no mortality has been
noticed within the pure sissoo rising
areas on the banks of the river Ganga
close to Rishikesh, Nandprayag and few sporadic
higher elements of the Himalaya.

5.2.
Ongoing Remedial Measures

Mortality has been to this point, reported
primarily as a consequence of pathogens (i.e. Fusarium,
Ganoderma, Phellinus, Meloidogyne
and many others.). Different contributing components embrace water
logging, non-judicious irrigation schedules,
imbalances in soil bodily properties (soil, air, moisture, texture and many others.) and monoculture plantations.
Elimination of the pathogen from the soil isn’t attainable both chemically
or by crop rotation (Bakshi 1955). Correct number of web site with gentle
textured soil, satisfactory soil moisture and good drainage, is essential for elevating
wholesome plantations.

Edaphic circumstances akin to soil bodily
properties (viz., soil air – water stability), and nutrient deficiencies might also contribute to
sissoo parching. Antagonistic hydrological circumstances, primarily water-logging results in prolonged soil moisture
regimes at saturation and sub saturation ranges which,
in flip, result in the dying of sissoo.

Regardless of the buildup of information, it’s
nonetheless not exactly attainable to isolate the reason for sissoo mortality. As such it’s
troublesome to suggest precise remedial measures. Nonetheless, correct drainage, appropriate web site for
planting, blended plantation, extraction of useless and diseased vegetation, and controlling human interference in
the forest areas seem like the suitable strategy to go.

The brand new plantations should ideally be situated
in appropriate websites. Silvicultural practices akin to uprooting and elimination of contaminated timber must be
instantly noticed. Periodic monitoring and evaluation of the
mortality and pests is fascinating.

5.3. Urged
Remedial Measures

If we wish to develop
sissoo profitably within the mortality-affected areas in North India, the next points
have to be thought of:

  1. Land use patterns must be developed
    to test the topsoil erosion within the Himalayan areas;
  2. Whereas developing roads, canals, railway
    tracks and different growth actions, correct drainage programs need to be developed to keep away from water
    logging. Sissoo prefers to develop on the well-drained porous
    and sandy soils, as an alternative of waterlogged and clayey soils;
  3. Seedlings must be used for establishing
    plantations, planting must be carried out in blocks, ideally in blended cropping.
    Monoculture of sissoo must be prevented to forestall the foundation rot from G. lucidum as
    a results of root contact; and
  4. Really useful
    silvicultural practices must be strictly adopted, beginning with web site and provenance
    choice.

6. FUTURE STRATEGIES

The fundamental trigger for sissoo mortality has nonetheless not been remoted.
A small multi- disciplinary staff must be set as much as
examine additional the issue, which ought to provide you with appropriate remedial measures. A collaborative examine could
be arrange between ICFRE Institutes, Universities, State
Forest departments and neighbouring nations and Worldwide companies. The
define of the research may be as follows:

  1. Standing of the mortality in relation
    to pure forests, plantations (mono- and mixed-
    crops),
    agroforestry system and variations within the agro-climatic components;
  2. Pathogens and
    their behaviour in relation to environmental components;
  3. Root behaviour research in pure
    forests, monoculture, blended, highway and canal-side
    plantations
    and agroforestry programs;
  4. Modifications in physiological and
    biochemical parameters in relation to incidences of
    mortality
    in pure forests, plantations and agroforestry programs;
  5. Genetic base research – DNA markers – for illness resistant
    germplasms;
  6. Standardisation of nursery practices and propagation strategies; and
  7. Plantation administration – drainage, soil
    amendments, density, thinning and different
    silvicultural
    practices.

Sissoo is now planted throughout India as effectively
because the neighbouring nations like Nepal,
Bhutan,
Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Pakistan, Afghanistan and different tropical
and
subtropical nations in Africa. Subsequently, a robust community linking all these
nations
could be very beneficial by way of sharing of information and planting strategies,
and
change of latest genetic materials.

7. REFERENCES

Bagchee, Okay. D. 1945. Pathological
notes No. 2 – Wilt and dieback of Shisham, Babul
and Khair within the synthetic regeneration below agriculture-cum-forestry
administration.
Indian Forester 71(1): 20-24.

Bakshi, B. Okay. 1954. Wilt of shisham (Dalbergia
sissoo
Roxb.) as a consequence of Fusarium solani
Sensu
Snyder and Hansen. Nature 174-4423: 278-91.

Bakshi, B. Okay. 1955. Wilt illness of shisham (Dalbergia
sissoo
Roxb .). II. Behaviour
of Fusarium solani, the wilt organism in soil. Indian Forester 81(4):
276-281.

Bakshi, B. Okay. 1957. Wilt illness of
shisham (Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.). IV. The impact
of soil
moisture on the expansion and survival of Fusarium solani in laboratory.
Indian
Forester
83(8): 505-512.

Bakshi, B. Okay. 1974. Management of root illness
in plantation in reforested stands (with
particular reference to Khair, Sissoo, Eucalyptus and many others.). Indian Forester 100(1):77-
78.

Bakshi, B. Okay. 1976. Forest Pathology –
Ideas in apply in Forestry. FRI Press,
PLO,
FRI, Dehra Dun., India.

Bakshi, B. Okay.,
Arora, Okay. Okay. & Singh, S. 1957. Root illness of shisham (Dalbergia
sissoo).
V.
Incidence of illness in relation to soil pH and soil texture. Indian
Forester
83(9): 555-558.

Bakshi, B. Okay. & Singh, S. L. 1959. Root illness
of shisham (Dalbergia sissoo). VIII
Inoculation research on wilt. Indian Forester 85(7): 415-421.

Champion, H. G. & Seth, S. Okay.
1968. A revised survey of forest varieties of India.
Supervisor
of publications Delhi, Govt. of India Press.

Mehrotra, M. D. & Sharama, V.
1992. Some new host file of root knot nematodes.
Indian Forester 118:856-57.

Negi, J. D. S., Pokhriyal, T. C.,
Sharma, S. D. & Bhandari, R. S. 1999. Shisham
mortality in India – A case examine. Unpublished report.

Sharama, V. & Sharama, V. 1992. Meloidogyna
species reason for root knot of
essential forestry tree species in nursery. Indian Forester 118:
961-962.


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