Phoenix dactylifera

Date Palms – The True Date Palm and Other Species of Phoenix

Phoenix dactylifera  Phoenix dactylifera crown
Phoenix dactylifera, the true Date Palm. Crown of the true Date Palm from beneath.


The Genus
Phoenix and Its Traits

As a gaggle, there are about 13 completely different species of

.  All are members of the Date
Palm group. 
Their pure distribution ranges from the Canary Islands throughout northern and
southern Africa into the Center East, far south Europe, and Asia.
Plant measurement ranges from small to massively tall. 
Some are single trunk and others are clumped (suckering) with greater than
one stem.
  All are pinnate or feather sort
In most areas,
Phoenix dwell in quite arid situations whereas a number of
species tolerate way more humid environments.
All bushes are pinnate and all share a number of attention-grabbing traits. 
The petioles are armed with spines. 
These spines are literally a modified leaflet, typical of this genus. 
In Phoenix canariensis these spines can attain a size as much as a foot lengthy
and might be harmful to the eyes and pores and skin.
The Pygmy Date Palm has smaller spines, sometimes three to 5 inches
lengthy, however equally as harmful to the eyes.


One other attribute of this genus are that the leaves are
Because of this, in
cross part, the leaves a “V-shaped” upward, i.e. they might maintain water in
this V-shape.
Reduplicate leaves
are V formed downward and way more widespread within the palm world.
You may bear in mind this by the reminder that, with induplicate leaflets, the water
“goes in the leaflet”.

induplicate leaflets Phoenix reclinata Phoenix reclinata leaf and spines
Induplicate leaf, typical of all Phoenix Spines on a eliminated Phoenix reclinata leaf, juvenile

One other attention-grabbing attribute of Phoenix is
that every one species on this genus are dioecious. 
Because of this any given plant is both a male or a feminine. 
One can’t make viable seeds (or fruit) with out a male and a feminine. 
Non-pollinated feminine blossoms will abort and fall to the bottom with out
ever making fruit.  Pollen from the
males is often distributed by both wind or bugs to the females. 
In date groves, this can be performed manually by employees. 
Date Palm s
eeds are fashioned in giant dependent clusters and the fruit is initially
inexperienced, turning to yellow/pink, and eventually to a tan/brown or black coloration. 
The fruit or pulp layer of the true Date Palm is way thicker than this
layer in different species of Phoenix. It’s candy and fairly wealthy in sugar. 
It’s due to this thick fruit layer that the Phoenix dactylifera
is the one species grown for consumption of the fruit as a meals crop.

Phoenix dactylifera female blossom with seeds  Phoenix dactylifera male blossom
Feminine Phoenix dactylifera
with immature fruits
Male blossom, Phoenix dactylifera

As with different dioecious genera of palms, hybridization can
happen.  This appears to be of
explicit significance with Phoenix. In habitat places there may be normally
little or no hybridization.  That is
as a result of, in an given pure habitat, there may be sometimes just one species of
this genus.  In different phrases, there
is not any different Phoenix species to hybridize with. 
However in home situations, akin to in a botanical backyard or a non-public backyard
with many Phoenix species, hybridization is sort of widespread. This has led to
variation within the look of Phoenix nursery inventory as seeds are sometimes
obtained domestically the place hybridization has occurred. 

Consequently, we see Pygmy Date and Senegal Date Palms that aren’t true
of their look or type.  They appear a
bit completely different than one would see in habitat. 
extra dramatic is once we see a single trunk species that ought to solely have one
stem and all of the sudden begins to sucker with many stems.  That is the
hybridization at work.  For those who start to rigorously take a look at all of the Pygmy
Date Palms round, you may begin to see this variation in trunk measurement, crown measurement,
and look of the leaves.  That is all of the work of hybridization. 
Phoenix as a gaggle are very promiscuous. 

Tradition and Development of

Of the 13 species of Phoenix, 4 species are
single trunk and the remaining type suckering teams of stems. 
Some trunks, such because the Phoenix canariensis, are massively thick and
tall, typically to over 60 toes of trunk. 
Different species akin to Phoenix acualis are trunk much less and appear to be
leaves coming from one level within the floor. 
Clumps of Phoenix reclinata can get fairly giant over time. 
It can be crucial with Phoenix that what species you’re rising
and provides them sufficient room for his or her eventual measurement.  If house is restricted,
take into account Phoenix roebellenii, which is a a lot smaller species and rarely
will get over 10 toes of trunk.

Phoenix canariensis commercial usage Phoenix dactylifera shopping center
Phoenix canariensis used as a business grouping Phoenix dactylifera utilized in giant numbers in a shopping mall


Most Phoenix species tolerate warmth fairly effectively and due to this fact
do effectively in sizzling, desert areas.  It’s
commonplace to see giant Phoenix canariensis in full solar in locations akin to Palm
Springs, Las Vegas and Phoenix.  Date Palm
groves are present in inland, sizzling desert areas of California and this species thrives in
the Center East.  Different species might have a little bit of solar safety should you
dwell in a desert space. 
Relating to chilly tolerance, as a gaggle Phoenix are moderately chilly hardy. 
Phoenix canariensis, sylvestris, dactylifera and theophrastii have been
recognized to tolerate chilly temperatures into the teenagers Fahrenheit. 
Though Phoenix wouldn’t be thought-about among the many most chilly hardy of
palms, most species do fairly effectively planted domestically in Southern California.  

Most sorts of Phoenix can be thought-about to have a gradual to medium
price of development.  From a small plant,
it sometimes takes ten years or extra to get a fruiting true Date Palm Tree.  Removing and institution of
bigger suckers from mature crops can velocity up the
time to fruiting.  When one sees a
Canary Island Palm with twenty or thirty toes of trunk, one can assume that
plant to be a number of many years previous. 
And, as a result of giant Canaries are fairly standard as a backyard specimen, they’re
usually dug from one location and replanted in one other location. 
Most species will transplant effectively, however a big root ball and experience
with shifting is required.  Sometimes
cranes are used to maneuver giant specimens.

  Phoenix canariensis, multiple, commercial setting
Each of the pictures above present Phoenix canariensis which were dug and planted in an upscale procuring middle, both as a gaggle or single

Recognition of the sorts of giant sized Phoenix has modified over the
years.  Favorites appear to vary with the
wind.  They’re utilized as a result of they’re giant, stately, and make a serious
architectural assertion. 
In my thirty years as a
nurseryman, initially the Canary Island palm was most wanted. 
Subsequently the Senegal Date Palm gave the impression to be the craze. 
In newer occasions, the true Date Palm has turn out to be standard, in all probability
as a result of it is a little more inexpensive.  The latter is the results of city
sprawl and conversion of current Date groves into properties and communities. 
These grove specimens are dug and planted into panorama areas.  General,
nonetheless, of all of the bigger species, Phoenix canariensis nonetheless reigns as
the king in reputation. 

Most Phoenix species tolerate a point of drought. 
It isn’t uncommon to see a specimen in a vacant lot the place it’s only
residing on rain water.  It’s true
that home irrigation will result in extra fast development, however water restriction
sometimes doesn’t trigger loss of life of the tree.



, the Canary Island Palm: 


As talked about above,
have a really numerous look from small to giant. 
Essentially the most classical
species is Phoenix Canariensis, often called the Canary
Island Date Palm.  It’s the largest of the Date Palm household and will get
trunks as much as 60 toes tall and typically as thick as three toes.  Its trunk is
barely tough however not “knobby” just like the

Phoenix dactylifera
.  The crown is
full with many lengthy pinnate leaves, typically to 15 toes or longer.  The
proximal leaflets on this and different species have modified to type sharp, lengthy
spines.  These are harmful and fairly vicious.  Considered in
cross-section, the Canary leaves are quite flat and never as plumose as a

, and are a darkish inexperienced in comparison with the gray-green of
the dactylifera.  Fruits are small (1 cm) and yellow when mature. 

This species is native to the Canary Islands, a gaggle of
islands within the Atlantic Ocean southwest of Spain close to the African continent.  It’s a favourite
decorative palm and planted worldwide.  It wants room for development and may
not be planted too intently to a construction or dwelling.  Due to it is gradual
development, bigger specimens are sometimes bought for resale to different places. 
A preferred measurement for resale is ten toes of trunk in order that the cover is overhead. 
Smaller, bushy Canaries are fairly unapproachable till they’ve trunked. 

Phoenix canariensis, group  Phoenix canariensis, single  Phoenix canariensis triple
Phoenix canariensis at Balboa Park, San Diego One other Canary Palm at a house A novel planting of three Phoenix canariensis collectively

A serious drawback with this species is a fungal illness
referred to as Fusarium Wilt.  That is transmitted by pruning tools, climbing
spikes or saws.  It causes a progressive loss of life of the decrease leaves, usually
on one facet, progressing up the crown and ultimately killing the tree. 
As a result of it’s transmitted by pruning tools (and arborists), it’s not
unusual to see a number of bushes all contaminated in the identical location on the identical
time.  Tools launched and handed the illness to every tree.  To
my information there isn’t a universally efficient therapy for this illness and
contaminated crops normally should be sacrificed.  That is devastating for
house owners and anybody with giant Canary Palms ought to spend money on their very own pruning
tools that ought to solely be used on their bushes.  One can think about that
“cleaning” chain saws is almost not possible.

Replace 2017: It’s presently felt for certain that different
issues switch Fusarium Wilt and that this maybe contains wind, birds and

Phoenix canariensis fusarium decline  Phoenix canariensis fusarium death  
Specimen (proper) in decline, in all probability from Fusarium  
The Canary within the entrance is lifeless from Fusarium

About twenty years in the past and due to a pruning method
on the decrease leaf bases, the time period “Pineapple Palm” started rising.  Such
pruning causes a bulge or growth of the trunk instantly beneath the crown of
leaves.  This can be a synthetic look and disappears if the pruning just isn’t
redone at common intervals.  If one enjoys this look and desires to
preserve it, take into account buying pruning tools and chainsaws in your tree. 
Some owners will even prune juvenile Canaries in such a fashion.
Remember that now, in 2014, there may be hypothesis that wind dispersion or bugs
might play a task in transferring this illness.

Phoenix canariensis pineapple  Pineapple Palm pruning  Phoenix canariensis juvenile, pineapple
This photograph exhibits the strategy of “pineapple
pruning” on a big Canary Island Palm.
That is one other view of the identical palm Right here it has been performed to a juvenile Canary Palm

Phoenix canariensis is sort of chilly hardy, maybe right down to
about 15 or 16 levels Fahrenheit.  It isn’t uncommon to see specimen
crops in cooler areas like Southern Europe or Northern California. The fruit of
this species is edible by report, however as a result of it’s fairly skinny and sparse, it’s
not almost as wanted because the fruit of the Date Palm, Phoenix dactylifera.


Phoenix canariensis leaves  Phoenix canariensis trunk Pheonix canariensis, juvenile
An in depth up view of the crown of Phoenix
Canariensis crown
An in depth up image of the trunk of Phoenix
A juvenile P. canariensis, too small to stroll

Phoenix dactylifera, the True Date Palm
From a historic and useful resource perspective, that is the most typical
and standard of the Date Palm household.  It is because mature bushes produce
fruit which is excessive in sugar and eaten by thousands and thousands of individuals.  There’s
proof that this fruit has been consumed for a lot of 1000’s of years. 
The precise space of origin of this species is unknown, however felt to be within the
Persian space or northern Africa.  The
medjool number of

is likely one of the extra standard
varieties due to its tender, supple fruit.  Date growers will propagate a
grove from what is chosen because the most interesting cultivars of a given selection to
optimize the standard of their fruit.  Do not forget that one will need to have a feminine
plant to supply the fruit and males should pollinate the blossoms of the females.
One tree can produce as much as 200 kilos of dates throughout a rising season. 
Date grower usually get municipal legal guidelines to forestall the introduction of different
species of Phoenix into their rising space in order that hybridization with such species and deterioration of their date crop does
not happen. This protects their crop of palm dates.

Phoenix dactylifera in a row Phoenix dactylifera knobby trunk Phoenix dactylifera petioles
A number of Date Palms in a row An in depth-up of the knobby trunk of Phoenix dactylifera Shut-up of the petioles of the Date Palm; observe yellow coloration

Phoenix dactylifera are sometimes seen as a single trunk tree, however many specimens are suckering with a number of stems.  The extra
stems are sometimes eliminated for simpler entry to the principle trunk for choosing fruit. 
The trunks are shorter than the Canary Palm and sometimes about 30 to 40 toes. 
Many occasions the trunks tackle a “knobby” look from tissue from the previous,
eliminated leaves bases after pruning (see photograph above).  The crowns of leaves are smaller than
a Canary and extra of a gray-green or typically blue coloration.  This blue coloration
to the leaves is much more obvious in sizzling, dry climates.  Leaves
are armed with spines and fruit-bearing sometimes takes about 10 years. 

Phoenix dactylifera single  Phoenix dactylifera loaded with fruit  Phoenix dactylifera suckers
Phoenix dactylifera, solitary specimen Mature feminine Phoenix dactylifera, loaded with fruit Date Palm exhibiting suckering tendency

This species is equally as chilly hardy and drought tolerant
because the Canary Palm, however does higher than the Canary with dry, inland desert
warmth.  Bushes are additionally inclined to Fusarium (above).  In additional
current years, this species has gained in reputation due to the supply
of dug bushes from sold-off date groves (see pictures above).

Phoenix roebellenii, the Pygmy Date Palm

The Pygmy Date palm has been standard for a few years due to it is ease of
development and small stature.  Its origins come from Asia and extra particularly
Southern China. Laos and Vietnam.  Of observe and in distinction to the species
above, the Pygmy dates come from extra humid areas and this species natively usually grows alongside
river beds.  One other attention-grabbing reality is that natively this species is
usually a suckering species with thinner trunks and sparse crowns. 
Domestically grown, the crops are sometimes single trunk with fuller crowns. 
It’s doable to seek out each single trunk and suckering varieties at specialty
nurseries.  However, the purpose ought to be made that business crops are sometimes
planted as “multiples”.  Because of this a number of single trunk crops are
put into one pot.  That is against the true, suckering plant seen in
habitat.  It’s speculated that the suckering potential of this “species” was
misplaced someplace alongside the time throughout business manufacturing of the species. 

Phoenix roebelenii Phoenix roebelenii triple Phoenix roebelenii single trunk container
Phoenix roebelenii,
single, in a backyard
Phoenix roebelenii, a triple, in a backyard space A single trunk specimen, pretty previous, within the nursery

Trunks of Phoenix roebellenii in home plantings are
sometimes below ten toes and about three to five inches thick.  Because of this a
very previous specimen won’t sometimes be above 12 toes in peak.  A number of
specimens will usually present the “stair step” look with a dominant plant and
shorter companions adjoining to the principle trunk.  With age, trunks have heaps
of fiber, matting and hair.  This may be pruned clear to provide a considerably
flaring, knobby trunk (see beneath).  The crowns of leaves are
sometimes full and tender showing.  Like different Phoenix species, leaves do
have spines and this species shouldn’t be planted near walkways and
stairwells.  In coastal areas crops demand full solar and “shading out” of a
specimen may end up in decline or loss of life to the plant.  Though not the
best plant for indoor rising, it may be performed if sufficient direct mild is
given.  Two pictures beneath of nursery crops present (at an early age) the
distinction between two particular person specimens being planted in a container and the
true suckering nature of some Pygmy Date Palms.  To the untrained eye it
may be troublesome to tell apart, however suckers precise start and emanate from he
mom trunk. 


Phoenix roebelenii double  Phoenix roebelenii suckering Phoenix roebelenii knobby trunk
Two particular person Pygmy Dates planted in a single pot.  This
not true suckering.
This can be a sucker off the principle
stem.  Examine it to the crops
within the photograph to the left.
Observe the “knobby” trunk
from cleansing
the trunk on this Pigmy Date Palm.

Most Phoenix species favor full solar.  Phoenix
(in most areas) is not any exception to this rule.  Crops positioned
in shaded out areas under-perform.  Ideally, it ought to be given not less than
half day solar.  Thus, planting them on the north facet of a house in shade might
lead to poor efficiency or demise.  Some solar safety could also be wanted in
sizzling desert areas.  Crops are a bit drought tolerant,
however not as a lot as lots of the different species of Phoenix.  Chilly tolerance is
into the low twenties F.  As that is lower than many different Phoenix
species, one can see this species just isn’t the optimum selection for colder areas.
Sadly, dwelling enchancment facilities push them to prospects in colder areas
who in all probability ought to strive one thing else.  

Pygmy Date palms might be dug and moved, however do not be fooled
by their smaller measurement.  For those who do plan on digging one, get a really giant
root ball.  All too many individuals have misplaced their plant as a result of they thought
a “little plant” solely wants somewhat root ball. 

Phoenix rupicola, the Cliff Date Palm

This can be a solitary trunking species that comes from India and adjoining areas
at quite excessive elevations and sometimes on hillsides or slopes of mountains, thus
giving it the identify of “Cliff Date Palm”.  It resemble the Canary Island
Palm however is smaller, has a thinner trunk and a a lot softer and extra sleek
showing crown.  Trunks are sometimes a couple of foot in diameter and solely
get to about 25 toes.  The leaves are fairly flat and in a single aircraft and
about ten toes in size.  The spines are much less vicious than the Canary and
the leaf coloration is extra of an emerald inexperienced.  Due to the droopy
attribute of the leaf, it’s usually felt to be extra unique showing than
the Canary Palm. 

This species may be a super selection for somebody who likes
the assertion of a Canary Island Palm however does not have the room for it. 
This species is unquestionably an exquisite palm, nevertheless it does not have the chilly
hardiness of the
or dactylifera.  Estimates are that it’ll
tolerate temperatures within the mid-twenties F, however not low 20’s.  It’s
argued that that is probably the most stunning of the solitary Date Palms with its
sleek and tender crown.  It prefers full solar in coastal areas and, as a result of
of its measurement, just isn’t a super palm for inside rising.

 Phoenix rupicola juvenile Phoenix rupicola Phoenix rupicola mature
Phoenix rupicola at Balboa Park, San Diego     Phoenix rupicola crown of depart One other instance of the Cliff Date Palm


Phoenix reclinata, the Senegal Date Palm

This suckering species has a number of stems and is a medium to typically
giant palm native to central and southern Africa, Madagascar and the Comoro
Islands.  I point out above that it’s “typically giant” as a result of heights of
this species are variable however have been recognized to achieve 50 toes.  The time period
“reclinata” is felt to check with the “reclining” nature of the outer stems as
they transfer away from the clump after which upwards.  Stems are four to eight inches in
thickness and coated with fibers and hairs.  This species freely suckers
so pruning and elimination of trunks is commonly needed to provide it a sleek
look.  Left unchecked, clumps can turn out to be overwhelming with as many as
fifty trunks.  Due to this, this species can be thought-about a excessive
upkeep species, particularly throughout its earlier years. 

Classical crops from habitat usually have a really flat (one
aircraft) leaf, however business cultivars are sometimes plumose and “spiky”. 
Mature specimens show one of many nicest traits of the species:
taller trunks gracefully leaning away from the midline and silhouetting
themselves towards the blue of the sky.  These trunks due to this fact might present a
light curve as they head upwards, considerably paying homage to a Coconut.  They are often fairly stunning if stems
are artistically eradicated to provide variable heights to the trunks and
crowns and might be very dramatic in an open garden setting or towards a tall
constructing.  This species needs to be planted in full solar.  It ought to be
given ample room and may tolerate temperatures into the low twenties F.

 Phoenix reclinata very old specimen Phoenix reclinata specimen Phoenix reclinata domestic setting
Phoenix reclinata, an previous specimen in San Diego       One other smaller specimen in Balboa Park, San Diego   A pleasant
P. reclinata in a home planting


Phoenix sylvestris, the Toddy Palm or Wild Date

This species is from southern Pakistan and India.  It resembles a
Phoenix canariensis
however the trunk just isn’t as thick.  It carries many leaves and the
total crown form is considerably smaller and extra “rounded” than the
Phoenix canariensis
It is named the “Silver Date Palm”, the “Toddy Palm”, and the “Wild Date
Palm”.  The trunk does get to about 40 to 50 toes and sometimes will present previous
retained leaf bases giving it a patterned look of the trunk. 
Totally different from the Canary Island Palm, this species has a number of ranks of
leaflets on the leaves (not flat in profile) and should seem considerably “fluffy”. 

For some individuals, Phoenix sylvestris might appear to be a substitute for the Canary
Island Palm.  However, it’s not as chilly hardy because the Canary.  It additionally has
a special coloration to the leaves and a thinner trunk.  I might estimate this
species will tolerate temperatures into the low 20’s F, maybe higher teenagers. 
It does tolerate sizzling situations and is an effective grower.  Like different species,
this can be very spiny and care have to be used when pruning this species.


 phoenix sylvestris mature Phoenix sylvestris mature2
Phoenix sylvestris alongside a avenue planting A specimen in a botanical backyard  


Phoenix theophrastii,

Cretan Date Palm
Phoenix theophrastii
is a Phoenix
species with a really restricted
space of distribution, native to Southern Greece and the Island of Crete and
maybe some surrounding areas.  It’s a suckering species that will get to
over 40 toes peak.  It has quite skinny trunks and could be very spiny with
prickly leaves.  Some really feel it may be associated to the true Date Palm. 
It is crowns of leaves are smaller than the

P. dactylifera
and it suckers extra
than the Date Palm.  Totally different than
P. dactylifera, this species fruit is
not candy or notably edible.  It does have a considerably grey coloration to
the crown.  Specimens look very thick and impenetrable when smaller however
with time will present some taller stems.

Phoenix theophrasti
Phoenix theophrastii, exhibiting how prickly and
thick a plant is
at this stage


Phoenix acaulis, the Dwarf Date Palm 

Phoenix acualis is a novel species in that it’s mainly “trunkless”. 
It is for that reason that it is named the Dwarf Date Palm.  It’s
native to northern India and Nepal.  It’s a small palm and single trunked. 
Nevertheless, like different
Phoenix, it’s spiny.  Trunks apparently are
subterranean and roots hunt down water as this species is commonly present in very arid
areas.  Fruits and blossoms are sometimes seen at floor stage.  General
the plant is a quite small plant with gray-green leaves.  Due to its
small measurement, it might do effectively amongst succulents or in a xerophytic backyard.

 Phoenix acaulis box phoeni acaulis base
Phoeni8x acualis, a 12 12 months previous plant on the
An in depth-up of the identical plant   


Phoenix loureiri
and different uncommon species

Phoenix loureiri is from India and different Asian international locations
and is often a single trunk plant however might be seen to sucker.  It’s a
smaller species with trunks seldom over 15 toes and a couple of foot in diameter. 
They’re a substitute for the a lot bigger Phoenix canariensis and have considerably
plumose leaves.  The leaf coloration is inexperienced to gray-green.  There’s felt
to be quite a lot of P. loureiri often called “humilus“.  It might tolerate full
solar or partial solar and has a point of chilly hardiness. 

Phoenix lourerii
Phoenix loureiri in a
botanical backyard

There are a number of different uncommon species of Phoenix, however it’s
past the aim of this text to cowl these species.  Let it’s stated
that they’re all spiny, single or trunking, and lots of have decorative worth.

Phoenix Hybrids

It’s fairly widespread for nurserymen and plant lovers to
make intrageneric hybrids (crosses inside a genus).  We have now seen quite a lot of
such crosses in orchids, bromeliads and varied sorts of palms.  However, with
Phoenix, hybridization happens with out man’s effort and solely requires
mere proximity of various species.  Basically, Phoenix set
seeds fairly simply.  In habitat, this potential might be prosurvival. 
However, in habitat, there aren’t sometimes a number of completely different species of
facet by facet or in the identical space. So, within the wild, the species
procreates, stays pure and lives on.  In a home setting that is normally
not the case.  One should assume that seeds from any given plant in a
home space are hybrids except ones has pollinated the male blossom with pure
pollen or there aren’t any different species round.  That is true no matter
the species of feminine Phoenix.  As nurserymen will usually go for
cheaper domestically offered seeds of “impure” heritage, there’s a
of “completely different” trying ” Phoenix being bought and grown all through the

I’m not implying that it is a dangerous factor.  It simply makes it a guessing
sport as to the establish or parentage of any given home Phoenix that one
would possibly see.  And, the extra one appears to be like, the extra one sees proof for this
pure strategy of hybridization.  One would possibly see a “Canary” with an
remarkably skinny trunk.  Or, a Pygmy Date with a husky trunk and really lengthy,
stiff leaves.  In truth, I’ve seen nearly each mixture of
traits conceivable.. The essential factor is to only acknowledge this
reality and relaxation assured that calling a special trying plant a “hybrid” might in
reality be the right reply.

Beneath is an instance of a plant that seems to be a
Phoenix canariensis.
  The crown seems to be a traditional Canary Island
Date Palm.  However, the trunk is sort of slender, about 12 inches thick. 
This is able to be very uncommon for a Canary.  Additionally, it’s fairly easy in contrast
to a typical Canary.  May it’s a P. rupicola?  My guess is
that it is a hybrid. 

Phoenix hybrid

I discussed beforehand how Phoenix reclinata in
its pure type has a really flat leaf, single aircraft kind of.  The
image beneath exhibits an instance of this pure type of reclinata.

Phoenix reclinata flat leaf

Examine the image above to the extra sometimes seen
plumose (multi-ranked leaflets) “Phoenix reclinata” beneath.  Observe
how the leaflets come off the petiole at a number of angles.  That is the
results of hybridization.

Phoenix reclinata plumose leaf

Beneath is an instance of the Phoenix roebelenii from
domestically produced seeds.  Observe there’s a sucker emanating from the
base of the mom trunk.  That is additionally the results of hybridization within the
home atmosphere.

Pheonix roebelenii hybrid

The extra one appears to be like, the extra uncommon mixtures of
morphology one will discover.  Phoenix hybridize like loopy.


Will my Date Palm make edible dates?Most likely not except you propose forward.  Principally, one will need to have the true Phoenix dactylifera to get dates, and
one will need to have a feminine.  And, there have to be a male within the space of your
feminine. There are numerous sorts of the Date Palm with
variations within the high quality of the fruit.  Additionally, you can not produce other
species of male plant close by otherwise you’ll get hybrid dates which normally aren’t

Can I lower suckers off my Date Palm to make it a
single trunk specimen?
The reply is sure, and that is generally performed in business groves of
Date Palms.  That is usually performed simply above the soil line.

How lengthy does it take to get edible dates?A Phoenix dactylifera must be a feminine and of fruiting measurement.
Sometimes such a plant has trunk effectively overhead.  This can take a minimal
of ten years, normally longer.  And, you could have a pure male Date Palm
close by to pollinate it.  A feminine with no male within the space won’t produce
edible dates.   And, hybridization with different Dates such because the Pygmy
Palm or the Canary Palm will give un-edible dates.

How do I get a big Canary Island Palm for my
If sources allow it, most purchase an current giant P. canariensis from
somebody who transplants giant specimen palms.  This implies the dealer buys
one from somebody, already giant, and digs it up and strikes it to your yard. 
As a result of this requires quite a lot of effort, time, crane bills, and threat,
buying such a plant is normally costly.  One can, after all, purchase a
containerized smaller tree and be affected person.

What’s the greatest measurement to purchase if I get a big
Canary Island Palm?
This varies, particular person to particular person, however most individuals need one that’s
overhead.  For sensible causes, this retains the sharp spines effectively above
you head should you stroll beneath it.  For that reason, crops with a trunk of
about ten toes are the most well-liked.  Notice that, in time, you ten-footer
will get a lot taller.  I’ve seen previous specimens with greater than forty toes of
trunk.  If sources are restricted, plant a smaller containerized plant and
be affected person.  In time, it too will get overhead and majestic showing. 

Ought to I take advantage of my very own pruning tools for eradicating
previous leaves on my Phoenix?
The reply is sure!  Fusarium is a illness that Phoenix are very
inclined to.  It’s sometimes transmitted by pruning tools, shears,
shoe spikes, and many others.  If a trimmer makes use of tools that’s reserved just for
your crops, it will not transmit the illness.  This contains chain saws. 
I really feel it’s nearly not possible to completely sterilize a sequence noticed, it doesn’t matter what
anybody tells you.  It’s all too widespread to listen to of a dying Canary that was
pruned six month in the past.  Though Fusarium infections are commonest with
Canary Island Palms, there are reviews of its transmission to a number of different
Phoenix species.  It’s undoubtedly advisable to
have an expert pruner use your tools when he works in your crops. 
If this isn’t doable, demand that the tree trimmer very completely sterilizes
his tools. 

What can I do to keep away from all of the dropping fruit from
my Date Palm (or different Phoenix). 
There is no such thing as a chemical or drug that stops fruiting in your Phoenix. 
For those who get a male, there might be no fruit however you’ll nonetheless have falling
blossoms.  The perfect factor to do is lower off the blossoms when they’re
younger.  It doesn’t damage the tree and allows you to keep away from fruit that may type

Can I promote my giant Canary Island Date Palm?The reply is sure, whether it is accessible and never too giant.  It should
be illness free and a superb trying tree.  Very giant palms have a really
restricted buying market.  Even when yours is the right measurement, understand that
you will not get wealthy promoting it and the same old worth paid for a ten foot Canary is
below $1000.  Extra revenue might be made by the shopping for skilled, nevertheless it’s
almost not possible to keep away from this.  If , learn our article “I need to
promote my giant palm tree” at this web site.  This text factors out the
drop in worth of Canary Palms due to illness issues and threat to the

A backbone punctured by means of my pores and skin and is painful. 
What ought to I do?
Such an damage at all times requires a medical analysis as a result of the backbone
can break off below the pores and skin and result in varied problems and an infection. 
For those who undergo such an damage, quick search medical consideration.  
All the time use eye safety if working round a Phoenix Palm. 

My Canary Island Palm has Fusarium. What can I do?Sadly, that is normally a deadly an infection and your plant will
in all probability die.  You possibly can rent a plant pathologist to advise you, however do not
be overly optimistic that the plant will survive.  (see pruning precautions
above).  Ensure you do not switch the an infection to different adjoining
Phoenix crops.

Can I dig up and transfer my Pygmy Date Palm? 
Though giant Phoenix are generally dug and survive, the
is a little bit of a problem.  Due to its small measurement, individuals
suppose all that’s wanted is a small root ball.  This isn’t true and lots of
smaller Pygmies which are dug die slowly over the subsequent month or two.  To
succeed you could acquire a really giant root ball and watch out to keep away from tearing the

Will rooting into the bottom on my containerized
Phoenix palm damage the plant?
Phoenix palms in containers are notably susceptible to shock when
they’ve rooted into the bottom after which are moved, tearing the roots which have
labored their approach into the soil.  Inside a number of weeks, one sometimes sees the
new spear and leaves which are opening flip brown.  They appear dry, brown and
lifeless.  It at all times impacts the latest leaves probably the most.  If one is
transplanting a Phoenix or simply bought one, at all times take a look at the brand new spear and
the latest leaves for indicators of shock or damage.  And, if the plant
recovers, you will note the brand new spear flip inexperienced and wholesome trying.

Can I plant my Pygmy Date Palm proper subsequent to the
The reply to this query is pretty apparent: the reply is not any for
well being and security causes.  Eye punctures by spines are one thing one needs
to keep away from. 

My Phoenix Palm does not appear to be any of the
pictures.  What do I’ve

As talked about above, Phoenix are very promiscuous and hybridize fairly simply. 
For that reason, one ceaselessly sees palms which are “in-betweeners” and do not
seem like a particular species.  In an space like Tampa or Miami, it’s
typically extra widespread to see hybrids than it’s to see pure species.  This
is why crops grown from wild collected seeds (little probability of hybridization)
are sought out by specialty palm nurserymen.

Can I develop my Phoenix Palm inside the home?Phoenix species are a poor selection for inside rising. 
Sadly, as a result of widespread species such because the Pygmy Date Palm are so readily
accessible within the dwelling enchancment facilities, individuals suppose they need to develop effectively
inside the home.  The actual fact is they’re a little bit of an issue as an inside
plant.  They want plenty of solar and good air motion.  There are some
successes indoors, however there are significantly better species to develop as houseplants. 
If one does selected to develop one inside, be very cautious about accidents from the

I need dates.  Is there any solution to inform if a
small plant is a feminine or a male?
The reply is not any.  Provided that you get a eliminated sucker from a recognized
feminine guardian, can you are expecting the intercourse

I’ve one feminine Date Palm.  Will I get good

To get pure fruit you additionally want the feminine flowers to be pollinated by a male
Phoenix dactylifera.  For those who solely have one feminine plant, any fruit
fashioned would more than likely obtain pollen from another sort of Phoenix
and provides hybrid fruit which is undoubtedly inferior in high quality.  That is
why the date grove localities attempt to stop owners from introducing different
species of Phoenix.  



I hope that the reader now understands that there are a lot of
species of
Phoenix.  However, there is just one true Date Palm.  And, to
get edible dates, you could acquire a feminine
Phoenix dactylifera, the
true Date Palm. 
And, you could have male crops for pollination in your locality.  Some species of
Phoenix are suckering (a number of stems), others are single trunk. Some are
brief whereas others tower overhead.  All have spines.  Suckering
species might have pruning of offsets to create probably the most stunning mature specimen. 
Phoenix  don’t make
nice home crops, however might be grown with some success indoors if given sufficient
mild.  All
Phoenix hybridize simply..

At our nursery we provide all of the species of
sale in containers.  We additionally promote over 800 different sorts of palms and
numerous species of cycads and different tropical crops.  We aren’t firm that digs and cranes giant
specimens, however could possibly help you in finding advantageous specimen bushes or a
respected transplanting firm.  Please contact us if you’re .


Phoenix canariensis, multiple
A number of
Phoenix canariensis

Phoenix caespitosa, Saudi Arabia, Tom McCoy
The uncommon
Phoenix caespitosa
, Saudi Arabia,
by Tom McCoy






Phil Bergman
Proprietor and Writer

Jungle Music Palms, Cycads and Tropical

Nursery Location: 450
Ocean View Ave., Encinitas, CA 92024

Hours: 9AM to 4PM, Monday by means of Saturday

Telephone: 619 291 4605

E mail:

[email protected]




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