Cycas revoluta - Wikipedia

Cycas revoluta – Wikipedia

Species of plant

Cycas revoluta (Sotetsu [Japanese ソテツ], sago palm, king sago, sago cycad, Japanese sago palm), is a species of gymnosperm within the household Cycadaceae, native to southern Japan together with the Ryukyu Islands. It’s one in all a number of species used for the manufacturing of sago, in addition to a decorative plant.

Cycads’ solely relation to the true palms (Arecaceae) is that each are seed vegetation. The Latin particular epithet revoluta means “curled again”,[2] in reference to the leaves. That is additionally referred to as kungi (comb) palm in Urdu talking areas.[3]

Description[edit]

This very symmetrical plant helps a crown of shiny, darkish inexperienced leaves on a thick shaggy trunk that’s sometimes about 20 cm (7.9 in) in diameter, typically wider. The trunk may be very low to subterranean in younger vegetation, however lengthens above floor with age. It may develop into very previous specimens with 6–7 m (over 20 ft) of trunk; nevertheless, the plant may be very slow-growing and requires about 50–100 years to realize this top. Trunks can department a number of occasions, thus producing a number of heads of leaves.[4]

CycadKingSago.jpg

The leaves are a deep semiglossy inexperienced and about 50–150 cm (20–59 in) lengthy when the vegetation are of a reproductive age. They develop out right into a feather-like rosette to 1 m (3.3 ft) in diameter. The crowded, stiff, slender leaflets are 8–18 cm (3.1–7.1 in) lengthy and have strongly recurved or revolute edges. The basal leaflets grow to be extra like spines. The petiole or stems of the sago cycad are 6–10 cm (2.4–3.9 in) lengthy and have small protecting barbs.

Roots are referred to as coralloid with an Anabaena symbiosis permitting nitrogen fixation.[5] Tannins-rich cells are discovered on both aspect of the algal layer to withstand the algal invasion.

As with different cycads, it’s dioecious, with the males bearing pollen cones (strobilus) and the females bearing teams of megasporophylls. Pollination might be completed naturally by bugs or artificially.

Cultivation and makes use of[edit]

Propagation of Cycas revoluta is both by seed or clonally by removing of basal offsets. It is among the most generally cultivated cycads, grown open air in heat temperate and subtropical areas, or below glass in colder areas. It grows finest in sandy, well-drained soil, ideally with some natural matter. It wants good drainage or it should rot. It’s pretty drought-tolerant and grows nicely in full solar or outside shade, however wants shiny gentle when grown indoors. The leaves can bleach considerably if moved from indoors to full solar open air.

Of all of the cycads, C. revoluta is the most well-liked in cultivation. It’s seen in nearly all botanical gardens, in each temperate and tropical places. In lots of areas of the world, it’s closely promoted commercially as a panorama plant. Additionally it is fairly widespread as a bonsai plant. First described within the late 18th century, it’s tolerant of delicate to considerably chilly temperatures, supplied the bottom is dry. Frost harm can happen at temperatures under −10 °C (14 °F). C. revoluta often defoliates in winter on this temperate local weather, however will often flush (develop) a number of new leaves by spring.

This plant has gained the Royal Horticultural Society’s Award of Backyard Advantage[6] (confirmed 2017).[7]

Sago[edit]

The pith accommodates edible starch, and is used for making sago. Earlier than use, the starch have to be fastidiously washed to leach out toxins contained within the pith. Extracting edible starch from the sago cycad requires particular care because of the toxic nature of cycads.[8] Cycad sago is used for lots of the similar functions as palm sago. Sago is extracted from the sago cycad by chopping the pith from the stem, root and seeds of the cycads, grinding the pith to a rough flour after which washing it fastidiously and repeatedly to leach out the pure toxins. The starchy residue is then dried and cooked, producing a starch just like palm sago/sabudana. The cycad seed accommodates cycasin toxin and shouldn’t be eaten as it’s attainable for cycasin toxin to outlive probably the most vigorous of repeated washings. Cycasin toxin may cause ALS, Parkinson’s, prostate most cancers and fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma.

Aulacaspis yasumatsui is a scale insect feeding on C. revoluta, and unchecked is ready to destroy the plant.[9]

Chemistry[edit]

Instance of a full-grown tree

The hydro-alcoholic extract of leaves of C. revoluta reveals the presence of alkaloids, steroids and tannins whereas the chloroform extract reveals the presence of saponins, tannins and sugars.[10] Leaflets additionally include biflavonoids.[11]Estragole is the first unstable compound emitted from the female and male cones of C. revoluta.[12]

Toxicity[edit]

Cycad sago is extraordinarily toxic to animals (together with people) if ingested. Pets are at specific danger, since they appear to search out the plant very palatable.[13] Medical signs of ingestion will develop inside 12 hours, and will embody vomiting, diarrhea, weak spot, seizures, and liver failure or hepatotoxicity characterised by icterus, cirrhosis, and ascites. The pet could seem bruised, have nostril bleeds (epistaxis), melena (blood within the stool), hematochezia (bloody straining), and hemarthrosis (blood within the joints).[14] The ASPCA Animal Poison Management Heart estimates a fatality fee of 50 to 75% when ingestion of the sago palm is concerned. If any amount of the plant is ingested, a poison management middle or physician ought to be contacted instantly. Results of ingestion can embody everlasting inner harm and demise.

All components of the plant are poisonous; nevertheless, the seeds include the best degree of the toxin cycasin. Cycasin causes gastrointestinal irritation, and in excessive sufficient doses, results in liver failure.[15] Different toxins embody Beta-methylamino L-alanine, a neurotoxic amino acid, and an unidentified toxin which has been noticed to trigger hindlimb paralysis in cattle.[16]

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hill (2003). “Cycas revoluta“. IUCN Pink Listing of Threatened Species. 2003. Retrieved 11 Might 2006.CS1 maint: ref=harv (hyperlink)
  2. ^ Gledhill, D. (2008). The Names of Crops. Cambridge College Press. p. 329. ISBN 9780521866453.
  3. ^ Harrison, Lorraine (2012). RHS Latin for gardeners. United Kingdom: Mitchell Beazley. p. 224. ISBN 9781845337315.
  4. ^ Thunberg, Carl Peter. 1782. Verhandelingen uitgegeeven door de hollandse maatschappy der weetenschappen, te Haarlem 20(2): 424, 426–427.
  5. ^ Ultrastructure and phenolic histochemistry of the Cycas revoluta-Anabaena symbiosis. M. Obukowicz, M. Schaller and G.S. Kennedy, New Phytologist, April 1981, Quantity 87, Concern 4, pages 751–759, doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.1981.tb01711.x
  6. ^ Cycas revoluta“. Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
  7. ^ “AGM Crops – Decorative” (PDF). Royal Horticultural Society. July 2017. p. 22. Retrieved 24 January 2018.
  8. ^ Lafferty, Jamie (2020-01-07). “How a Plant Saved a Japanese Island”. BBC.
  9. ^ Aulacaspis yasumatsui (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Diaspididae), a Scale Insect Pest of Cycads Just lately Launched into Florida. Forrest W. Howard, Avas Hamon, Michael Mclaughlin, Thomas Weissling and Si-lin Yang, The Florida Entomologist, March 1999, Vol. 82, No. 1, pages 14-27 (article)
  10. ^ Leaves Of Cycas revoluta: Potent Antimicrobial And Antioxidant Agent. Manoj Ok Mourya, Archana Prakash, Ajay Swami, Gautam Ok Singh and Abhishek Mathur, World Journal of Science and Know-how, 2011, Vol 1, No 10, pages 11-20 (article)
  11. ^ Phytochemical Investigation of Cycas circinalis and Cycas revoluta Leaflets: Reasonably Lively Antibacterial Biflavonoids. Abeer Moawad, Mona Hetta, Jordan Ok. Zjawiony, Melissa R. Jacob, Mohamed Hifnawy, Jannie P. J. Marais and Daneel Ferreira, Planta Med., 2010, 76(8), pages 796-802, doi:10.1055/s-0029-1240743
  12. ^ Estragole (4-allylanisole) is the first compound in volatiles emitted from the female and male cones of Cycas revoluta. Hiroshi Azuma and Masumi Kono, Journal of Plant Analysis, November 2006, Quantity 119, Concern 6, pages 671-676, doi:10.1007/s10265-006-0019-2
  13. ^ Suspected cycad (Cycas revoluta) intoxication in canine, Botha CJ, Naude TW, Swan GE, et al.| J S Afr Vet Assoc | 1991
  14. ^ Muller-Esneault, Susan (2009). “Cycas Revoluta: The Sago Palm, or Cycad Toxicity”. Critterology.com. Archived from the unique on 2012-06-05. Retrieved 2009-05-12.
  15. ^ Chosen toxic plant issues small animals, Knight MW, Dorman DC | Vet Med | 1997 | 92(3):260-272
  16. ^ Toxicology Temporary: Cycad toxicosis in canine, Hany Youssef| Veterinary Medication | Might 1, 2008 | [1]

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