Genus of Australasian flowering vegetation of Asteraceae (daisy) household
Craspedia is a genus of flowering vegetation within the daisy household generally referred to as billy buttons and woollyheads. They’re native to Australia and New Zealand the place they develop in quite a lot of habitats from sea stage to the Alps. The genus is present in each state of Australia besides the Northern Territory. In New Zealand, Craspedia is discovered from East Cape on the North Island south to Stewart Island. It additionally happens on Campbell Island and the Chatham Islands.
Craspedia are rosette-forming herbs with compound capitula borne on erect, unbranched scapes. The capitula are hemispherical to spherical heads of tiny flowers. Most species are perennial; one species is recorded as an annual (Craspedia haplorrhiza). The leaves have appreciable variation in kind, ranging in color from white to inexperienced, and are sometimes coated in advantageous hairs.
A carefully associated genus is Pycnosorus, additionally usually known as billy buttons. The genera may be distinguished by the attachment of particular person flower heads to the compound heads; in Pycnosorus they’re instantly hooked up, and in Craspedia they come up on small stalks. The 2 genera may very well be monophyletic.
The genus Craspedia was first described by Johann Georg Adam Forster in 1786. It’s positioned inside the household Asteraceae, tribe Gnaphalieae, with about 23 species. The unique description included just one species, Craspedia uniflora. Early authors included Pycnosorus, which was later segregated. Molecular phylogeny steered the 2 genera have been sister clades, however there may be some proof that the 2 genera could in actual fact be monophyletic.
Checklist of species
In keeping with the World Compositae Guidelines
The genus is known as for the Greek Kraspedon, that means an edge, hem or border, due to the woolly fringes of the leaves belonging to the sort species.
Biogeography and evolution
There are two centres of range in Craspedia, each related to upland areas. One in all these is within the alpine and subalpine zone of Kosciuszko Nationwide Park in Australia, the place seven species are discovered. The opposite centre is a bigger space on the northwestern South Island of New Zealand, the place a number of species develop.
Species of Craspedia are present in a variety of habitats from coastal to alpine and are usually vegetation of open areas, typically ruderal. Observations of some Australian species recommend they re-establish effectively after hearth. In Australia Craspedia are generally discovered rising in forest habitat, whereas in New Zealand they’re usually excluded from closed Nothofagus forests. Craspedia species could happen in dense, widespread populations in mainland Australia, however usually not in New Zealand or Tasmania.
Most Australian non-alpine species are present in native grasslands and shrublands related to Eucalyptus forests. Alpine species happen in Tasmania. In New Zealand, species may be discovered on coastal sand dunes, wetlands, fellfields, and greywacke rock scree.
Craspedia develop in a variety of soil varieties, together with sands, gravels, clays, and loams, that are derived from completely different geologies throughout a broad rainfall gradient. They look like illiberal solely of very infertile and acidic soils. That is obvious within the absence of Craspedia from elements of western Tasmania that are characterised by soils derived from pre-Cambrian quartzose rock. These sandy, infertile soils are dominated by a moist heath ecosystem referred to as buttongrass moorland.
Craspedia is hardy to USDA zones 9–11. It may be propagated by reducing a rosette from a clump, however usually seed is a extra dependable and speedy methodology. Seeds will sprout in days on germination media. Crops are usually self-fertile. The alpine species want common water and glorious drainage. All species desire cool roots; surrounding the vegetation with rock, gravel, or sand gives higher circumstances. A plant will begin rising as a single rosette, and every rosette usually produces one flower stalk.Cultivars embody ‘Golf Magnificence’.
Craspedia is grown each as a decorative backyard plant, and floriculture for reduce flowers and floral preparations, together with dried flowers. Africa is a supply of exports.
Articles and books
- Ford, Kerry A.; Ward, Josephine M.; Smissen, Rob D.; Wagstaff, Steven J.; Breitwieser, Ilse (August 2007). “Phylogeny and Biogeography of Craspedia (Asteraceae: Gnaphalieae) Primarily based on ITS, ETS and psbA-trnH Sequence Knowledge”. Taxon. 56 (3): 783–794. doi:10.2307/25065861. JSTOR 25065861.
- Forster, Johann Georg Adam (1786). “Craspedia”. Florulae insularum Australium: prodromus (Fl.Ins.Austr.). Gottingae: Joann. Christian Dietrich. p. 58.CS1 maint: ref=harv (hyperlink)
- Rozefelds, Andrew C.; Buchanan, Alex M.; Ford, Kerry A. (June 2011). “New Species Of Craspedia (Asteraceae: Gnaphalieae) From Tasmania And Dedication Of The Identification Of C. Macrocephala Hook” (PDF). Kanunnah. 4: 93–116.
- Schmidt-Lebuhn, Alexander N. (2013). “Reciprocal monophyly of Craspedia and Pycnosorus (Asteraceae, Gnaphalieae) and the issues of utilizing ribosomal DNA on the lowest taxonomic ranges”. Australian Systematic Botany. 26 (3): 233. doi:10.1071/SB13018.CS1 maint: ref=harv (hyperlink)
- Schmidt-Lebuhn, Alexander N.; Milner, Kirsty V. (2013). “A quantitative examine of morphology in Australian Craspedia (Asteraceae, Gnaphalieae)”. Australian Systematic Botany. 26 (3): 238. doi:10.1071/SB13017.CS1 maint: ref=harv (hyperlink)