Conker tree Wikipedia

Conker tree Wikipedia

species of flowering plant within the lychee household Sapindaceae

Aesculus hippocastanum, the horse chestnut,[1][2][3] is a species of flowering plant within the soapberry and lychee household Sapindaceae. It’s a massive deciduous, synoecious (hermaphroditic-flowered) tree.[4] It’s generally known as horse-chestnut,[5]buckeye,[6]conker tree, or Spanish chestnut.[6]

Description[]

Aesculus hippocastanum is a big tree, rising to about 39 metres (128 ft) tall[7]:371 with a domed crown of stout branches; on outdated bushes the outer branches are sometimes pendulous with curled-up suggestions. The leaves are reverse and palmately compound, with 5–7 leaflets; every leaflet is 13–30 cm (5–12 in) lengthy, making the entire leaf as much as 60 cm (24 in) throughout, with a 7–20 cm (3–8 in) petiole. The leaf scars left on twigs after the leaves have fallen have a particular horseshoe form, full with seven “nails”. The flowers are often white with a yellow to pink blotch on the base of the petals;[7] they’re produced in spring in erect panicles 10–30 cm (4–12 in) tall with about 20–50 flowers on every panicle. Its pollens usually are not toxic for honey bees.[8] Often just one–5 fruits develop on every panicle; the shell is a inexperienced, spiky capsule containing one (hardly ever two or three) nut-like seeds known as conkers or horse-chestnuts. Every conker is 2–4 cm (341 12 in) in diameter, shiny nut-brown with a whitish scar on the base.[9]

Floral diagram of A. hippocastanum. The sunshine inexperienced construction denotes nectary. Floral system: ↘ K5 C2:2 A5+2 G(3).

Etymology[]

The frequent identify horse chestnut originates from the similarity of the leaves and fruits to candy chestnuts, Castanea sativa (a tree in a special household, the Fagaceae), along with the alleged statement that the fruit or seeds might assist panting or coughing horses.[10][11]

Though it’s generally generally known as buckeye,[6] for the resemblance of the seed to a deer’s eye, buckeye is extra generally used for New World members of the genus Aesculus.[12]

Distribution and habitat[]

Aesculus hippocastanum is native to a small space within the Pindus Mountains blended forests and Balkan blended forests of South East Europe.[13] Nonetheless, it may be discovered in lots of components of Europe as far north as Gästrikland in Sweden, in addition to in lots of parks and cities within the northern United States and Canada.

Makes use of[]

It’s extensively cultivated in streets and parks all through the temperate world, and has been notably profitable in locations like Eire, Nice Britain and New Zealand, the place they’re generally present in parks, streets and avenues. Cultivation for its spectacular spring flowers is profitable in a variety of temperate weather conditions supplied summers usually are not too sizzling, with bushes being grown as far north as Edmonton, Alberta, Canada,[14] the Faroe Islands,[15]Reykjavík, Iceland and Harstad, Norway.

In Britain and Eire, the seeds are used for the favored youngsters’s recreation conkers. In the course of the First World Battle, there was a marketing campaign to ask for everybody (together with youngsters) to gather the seeds and donate them to the federal government. The conkers have been used as a supply of starch for fermentation utilizing the Clostridium acetobutylicum technique devised by Chaim Weizmann to provide acetone to be used as a solvent for the manufacturing of cordite, which was then utilized in army armaments. Weizmann’s course of might use any supply of starch, however the authorities selected to ask for conkers to keep away from inflicting hunger by depleting meals sources. However conkers have been discovered to be a poor supply, and the manufacturing facility solely produced acetone for 3 months; nevertheless, they have been collected once more within the Second World Battle for a similar motive.[16]

A number of recent conkers

The seeds, particularly these which are younger and recent, are barely toxic, containing alkaloid saponins and glucosides. Though not harmful to the touch, they trigger illness when eaten; consumed by horses, they’ll trigger tremors and lack of coordination.[17]

The horse-chestnut is a favorite topic for bonsai.[18]

Although the seeds are mentioned to repel spiders there’s little proof to assist these claims. The presence of saponin could repel bugs however it isn’t clear whether or not that is efficient on spiders.[19]

Aesculus hippocastanum is affected by the leaf-mining moth Cameraria ohridella, whose larvae feed on horse chestnut leaves. The moth was described from North Macedonia the place the species was found in 1984 however took 18 years to succeed in Britain.[20]

In Germany, they’re generally planted in beer gardens, notably in Bavaria. Previous to the appearance of mechanical refrigeration, brewers would dig cellars for lagering. To additional shield the cellars from the summer season warmth, they’d plant chestnut bushes, which have spreading, dense canopies however shallow roots which might not intrude on the caverns. The follow of serving beer at these websites developed into the fashionable beer backyard.[21]

Medical makes use of[]

The seed extract standardized to round 20 p.c aescin (escin) is used for its venotonic impact, vascular safety, anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging properties.[22][23] Major indication is persistent venous insufficiency.[23][24] A Cochrane Evaluation steered that horse chestnut seed extract could also be an efficacious and secure short-term therapy for persistent venous insufficiency, however definitive randomized managed trials had not been carried out to verify the efficacy.[25]

Security[]

Two preparations are thought of: complete horse chestnut extract (complete HCE) and purified β-aescin. Traditionally, complete HCE has been used each for oral and IV routes (as of 2001). The speed of antagonistic results is low; in a big German research, 0.6%, consisting primarily of gastrointestinal signs.[medical citation needed] Dizziness, headache and itching have been reported. One critical security challenge is uncommon instances of acute anaphylactic reactions, presumably in a context of complete HCE.

One other is the danger of acute kidney harm, “when sufferers, who had undergone cardiac surgical procedure got excessive doses of horse chestnut extract i.v. for postoperative oedema. The phenomenon was dose dependent as no alteration in kidney perform was recorded with 340 μg/kg, delicate kidney perform impairment developed with 360 μg/kg and acute kidney harm with 510 μg/kg”.[26] This virtually definitely came about in a context of complete HCE.

Three medical trials have been since carried out to evaluate the results of aescin on kidney perform. A complete of 83 topics have been studied; 18 wholesome volunteers given 10 or 20 mg iv. for six days, 40 in-patients with regular kidney perform given 10 mg iv. two instances per day (besides two youngsters given 0.2 mg/kg), 12 sufferers with cerebral oedema and regular kidney perform given a large iv. dose on the day of surgical procedure (49.2 ± 19.3 mg) and 15.4 ± 9.4 mg every day for the next 10 days and 13 sufferers with impaired kidney perform attributable to glomerulonephritis or pyelonephritis, who got 20–25 mg iv. every day for six days. “In all research renal perform was monitored every day resorting to the same old assessments of renal perform: blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine, creatinine clearance, urinalysis. In a specific variety of instances paraaminohippurate and labelled EDTA clearance have been additionally measured. No indicators of growth of renal impairment within the sufferers with regular renal perform or of worsening of renal perform within the sufferers with renal impairment have been recorded.” It’s concluded that aescin has wonderful tolerability in a medical setting.[27]

Uncooked horse chestnut seed, leaf, bark and flower are poisonous because of the presence of esculin and shouldn’t be ingested. Horse chestnut seed is classed by the FDA as an unsafe herb.[23] The glycoside and saponin constituents are thought of poisonous.[23]

Different chemical compounds[]

Quercetin 3,4′-diglucoside, a flavonol glycoside can be present in horse chestnut seeds.[28]Leucocyanidin, leucodelphinidin and procyanidin A2 can be present in horse chestnut.

Anne Frank tree[]

A tremendous specimen of the horse-chestnut was the Anne Frank tree within the centre of Amsterdam, which she talked about in her diary and which survived till August 2010, when a heavy wind blew it over.[29][30] Eleven younger specimens, sprouted from seeds from this tree, have been transported to the USA. After an extended quarantine in Indianapolis, every tree was shipped off to a brand new house at a notable museum or establishment in the USA, such because the 9/11 Memorial Park, Central H.S. in Little Rock, and two Holocaust Facilities. One in all them was planted outside in March 2013 in entrance of the Kids’s Museum of Indianapolis, the place they have been initially quarantined.[31]

Image of Kyiv[]

The horse chestnut tree is likely one of the symbols of Kyiv, the capital of Ukraine.[32]

Illnesses[]

Gallery[]

References[]

  1. ^ a b Allen, D.J.; Khela, S. (2017). “Horse Chestnut, Aesculus hippocastanum” [errata version published in 2018]. IUCN Purple Record of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2017: e.T202914A122961065. Retrieved 27 September 2019.
  2. ^ Aesculus hippocastanum“. Pure Sources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 26 September 2020.
  3. ^ Brouillet L, Desmet P, Coursol F, Meades SJ, Favreau M, Anions M, Bélisle P, Gendreau C, Shorthouse D, et al. “Aesculus hippocastanum Linnaeus”. knowledge.canadensys.internet. Database of Vascular Vegetation of Canada (VASCAN). Retrieved 26 September 2020.
  4. ^ Aesculus hippocastanum: Replica”. Archived from the unique on 2015-01-30.
  5. ^ “BSBI Record 2007”. Botanical Society of Britain and Eire. Archived from the unique (xls) on 2014-10-23. Retrieved 2014-10-17.
  6. ^ a b c NCCIH.nih.gov Horse Chestnut web page
  7. ^ a b Stace, C. A. (2010). New Flora of the British Isles (Third ed.). Cambridge, U.Okay.: Cambridge College Press. ISBN 9780521707725.
  8. ^ Bee bushes – Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum)
  9. ^ Rushforth, Okay. (1999). Bushes of Britain and Europe. Collins ISBN 0-00-220013-9.
  10. ^ Lack, H. Walter. “The Discovery and Rediscovery of the Horse Chestnut” (PDF). Arnoldia. 61 (4).
  11. ^ Little, Elbert L. (1994) [1980]. The Audubon Society Subject Information to North American Bushes: Western Area (Chanticleer Press ed.). Knopf. p. 541. ISBN 0394507614.
  12. ^ Wott, John A. “The Many Faces of Aesculus(PDF). Washington Park Arboretum Bulletin.
  13. ^ Aesculus hippocastanum“. Euro+Med Plantbase Challenge. Archived from the unique on September 28, 2007.
  14. ^ Edmonton
  15. ^ Højgaard, A., Jóhansen, J., & Ødum, S. (1989). A century of tree planting on the Faroe Islands. Ann. Soc. Sci. Faeroensis Supplementum 14.
  16. ^ “Conkers – collected to be used in two world wars”. Making historical past. BBC. Retrieved 27 September 2014.
  17. ^ Lewis, Lon D. (1995). Feeding and care of the horse. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 9780683049671. Retrieved 2011-10-21.
  18. ^ D’Cruz, Mark. “Ma-Ke Bonsai Care Information for Aesculus hippocastanum”. Ma-Ke Bonsai. Archived from the unique on 2012-03-15. Retrieved 2011-07-05.
  19. ^ Edwards, Jon (2010). “Spiders vs conkers: the definitive information”. Royal Society of Chemistry. Archived from the unique on 2013-09-06. Retrieved 2013-09-09.
  20. ^ Lees, D.C.; Lopez-Vaamonde, C.; Augustin, S. 2009. Taxon web page for Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimic 1986. In: EOLspecies, http://www.eol.org/pages/306084. First Created: 2009-06-22T13:47:37Z. Final Up to date: 2009-08-10T12:57:23Z.
  21. ^ Schäffer, Albert (2012-05-21). “120 Minuten sind nicht genug” [120 minutes aren’t enough]. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (in German). Retrieved 2016-10-11.
  22. ^ Diehm, C.; Trampisch, H. J.; Lange, S.; Schmidt, C. (1996). “Comparability of leg compression stocking and oral horse-chestnut seed extract remedy in sufferers with persistent venous insufficiency”. Lancet. 347 (8997): 292–4. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(96)90467-5. PMID 8569363. S2CID 20408233.
  23. ^ a b c d Horse Chestnut, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Most cancers Heart
  24. ^ “Horse Chestnut”. Nationwide Heart for Complementary and Integrative Well being. Could 2006. Retrieved October 24, 2019.
  25. ^ Pittler MH, Ernst E. (2012). “Horse chestnut seed extract for persistent venous insufficiency”. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 11: CD003230. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003230.pub4. PMC 7144685. PMID 23152216.
  26. ^ Parfitt, Kathleen (1999). Martindale: The entire drug reference.: Das komplette Arzneimittelverzeichnis. pp. 1543–4. ISBN 085369429X.
  27. ^ Sirtori CR (September 2001). “Aescin: pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and therapeutic profile”. Pharmacol. Res. 44 (3): 183–193. doi:10.1006/phrs.2001.0847. PMID 11529685.
  28. ^ Wagner, J. (1961). “Quercetin-3,4?-diglukosid, ein Flavonolglykosid des Roßkastaniensamens”. Die Naturwissenschaften. 48 (2): 54. Bibcode:1961NW…..48Q..54W. doi:10.1007/BF00603428. S2CID 29060667.
  29. ^ Sterling, Toby (24 August 2010). “Anne Frank’s ‘lovely’ tree felled by Amsterdam storm”. The Scotsman. Retrieved 24 August 2010.
  30. ^ Grey-Block, Aaron (23 August 2010). “Anne Frank tree falls over in heavy wind, rain”. Reuters. Archived from the unique on 24 August 2010. Retrieved 24 August 2010.
  31. ^ Pamela Engel (24 March 2013). “Saplings from Anne Frank’s tree take root in US”. Retrieved 26 July 2018 – by way of Yahoo Information.
  32. ^ “Thujoy Khreshchatyk”. Why Kyivans miss chestnuts and the way they grew to become an emblem of the capital, Ukrayinska Pravda (29 Could 2019) (in Ukrainian)
  33. ^ “Extent of the bleeding canker of horse chestnut downside”. UK Forestry Fee. Archived from the unique on 2009-12-09. Retrieved 2010-01-09.
  34. ^ a b [1]
  35. ^ “Different frequent pest and illness issues of horse chestnut”. UK Forestry Fee. Archived from the unique on 2009-12-09. Retrieved 2010-01-09.
  36. ^ “Bleeding Canker”. Royal Horticultural Society. 11 November 2009. Archived from the unique on 16 January 2010. Retrieved 2010-01-09.


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