Chrysanthemum × morifolium - Wikipedia

Chrysanthemum × morifolium – Wikipedia

Species of plant

Chrysanthemum × morifolium
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Asterales
Household: Asteraceae
Genus: Chrysanthemum

C. × morifolium

Binomial identify
Chrysanthemum × morifolium
  • Anthemis × artemisifolia Willd.
  • Anthemis × grandiflora Ramat.
  • Anthemis × stipulacea Moench
  • Chrysanthemum × hortorum W.Mill.
  • Chrysanthemum × indicum Thunb.
  • Chrysanthemum indicum var. purpureum Pers.
  • Chrysanthemum × maximoviczianum Ling
  • Chrysanthemum × morifolium Ramat.
  • Chrysanthemum × morifolium var. gracile Hemsl.
  • Chrysanthemum × morifolium f. japonense Makino
  • Chrysanthemum × morifolium var. sinense (Sabine) Makino
  • Chrysanthemum × sinense Sabine
  • Chrysanthemum × stipulaceum (Moench) W.Wight
  • Dendranthema × grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitam.
  • Dendranthema × morifolium (Ramat.) Tzvelev
  • Dendranthema × sinense (Sabine) Des Moul.
  • Matricaria × morifolia Ramat.
  • Pyrethrum × sinense (Sabine) DC.
  • Tanacetum × morifolium Kitam.
  • Tanacetum × sinense (Sabine) Sch.Bip.

Chrysanthemum × morifolium (also called florist’s daisy[2] and hardy backyard mum,[3] or in China juhua[4]) is a species of perennial plant from household Asteraceae.

Botanical historical past[edit]

Chrysanthemums of the Immortal Blossoms in an Eternal Spring (仙萼長春冊) by Giuseppe Castiglione (1688–1766)

In China, they’ve been round since 500 BC. In 1630, greater than 500 varieties had been already talked about there.[by whom?] In Europe, particularly in Holland, they’ve been identified for the reason that mid-17th century, however their common dissemination occurred solely within the 19th century. Chrysanthemum was first appreciated in China as a medicinal plant.[citation needed]

It’s labeled within the oldest Chinese language medical materials, Shennong Ben Cao Jing (early trendy period), within the class of superior medicine and is a part of the merchandise associated to the seek for immortality. “In extended use, it lifts the inhibition of blood and qi, alleviates the physique, slows down ageing, and prolongs life” says the basic. “Lightening the physique” was a objective to achieve the ethereal state of Immortals in a position to fly and “trip the clouds”. From Jin and Tang dynasties (across the fifth century AD), chrysanthemum started to be appreciated as a decorative plant, whereas persevering with for use for dietary causes.

The primary monograph on chrysanthemums was revealed in 1104 AD. Liu Meng (劉蒙),[5]:296–97 the writer of a “Chrysanthemum Treatise” (菊譜),[5]:242 classifies the chrysanthemums in response to their colours: the traditional ones are yellow, then come the whites, the purples and at last the reds. It lists a complete of 35 cultivated varieties that may very well be noticed within the gardens close to the Buddhist shrines of Longmen Grottoes. Within the 16th century, the well-known doctor and herbalist Li Shizhen in his Nice Treaty of Medical Matter, stories 100 cultivars. He attributes to them some medicinal properties equivalent to “eliminating warmth and toxins”, “bettering visible acuity” and so forth. In 1630, a survey of over 500 cultivars 17 and about 2000 initially of 20th century.[6]

The primary European writer to say chrysanthemum is Jacobus Breynius (Jacob Breyn) in 1689 in his Prodromus Plantarum Rariorum. This service provider and botanist describes the Matricaria japonica maxima, as a really elegant flowering plant, double, pink or gentle purple 20 and current in a number of varieties. The primary botanical description of the florists’ chrysanthemum goes to Thomas d’Audibert de Ramatuelle. In 1792, within the Journal of Pure Historical past, this botanist describes the cultivated plant, with huge purpurine flowers, introduced again from China by the navigator Marseillais Blancard, below the names of “Camomile with massive flowers”, Anthemis grandiflora. He insists on distinguishing it from the Chrysanthemum indicum of Linnaeus with small yellow heads. He proposes in a notice to name it additionally Chrysanthemum morifolium. From this primary cultivated plant introduced again from China in 1789 by Blancard, then from these introduced again (from China in 1846 and Japan in 1863) will likely be created in Europe hundreds of cultivars and hybrids. Joined hundreds of cultivars developed independently in China and Japan, there’s presently an enormous complicated cultivars (estimated from 20,000 to 30,000).[7]

Creator Wilhelm Miller writes, “The frequent chrysanthemums of the florists (C. hortorum) are sometimes known as ‘large-flowering’ and ‘autumn chrysanthemums,’ to differentiate them from the hardy outside species. They’re the blended product of C. indicum and C. morifolium, two species of vegetation that develop wild in China and Japan. The outside or hardy chrysanthemums are derived from the identical species, being much less developed varieties. The florist’s chrysanthemum shouldn’t be essentially a glasshouse topic.”[8]

The greater than 1,000 varieties which have existed in Europe for the reason that 19th century are divided into quite a few varieties. The indicum hybrids because the oldest group have the chrysanthemum chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum indicum) because the dad or mum.[9]


The plant is 30–90 centimetres (12–35 in) excessive and vast, which grows as a perennial herbaceous or barely woody plant on the bottom. The stems stand upright. The leaves are broad ovate in define and wedge-shaped within the petiole, the size of the leaves is greater than 6 inches. The decrease leaves are plumed, additional up the stems they’re more and more complete. Deciduous leaves seem within the spring. They’re alternate, lobed pinnatifid and toothed. They’re as much as 12 cm lengthy, fleshy and coated with grey hairs. They exhale a robust odor when they’re wrinkled.

The plant’s texture is thick and leathery. The numerous branches, that are silky and coated with a brief down, kind a dense tuft. The everyday flower heads are radiated, that’s to say shaped of peripheral florets, feminine, zygomorphous, with ligules and central florets actinomorphous, tubulated, bisexual. The exterior bracts are herbaceous, with a slender scariety margin.[3]

In complicated complete inflorescences are some to many cup-shaped partial inflorescences collectively. The tongue flowers can have within the many types of colours of inexperienced, white, or yellow, pink to purple. There are varieties with easy flowers that seem like daisies and varieties with double flowers, wanting like pompoms roughly huge. The plant begins to bloom when the size of the day is lower than 14 hours.

To notice, in the course of the millennia and a half of cultivation, tens of hundreds of various cultivars have been obtained, with flower heads of very totally different shapes, sizes and colours. It’s primarily by wanting on the leaves that one can know that it’s a chrysanthemum.[10]

Cultivation and makes use of[edit]

This plant might be famous for its recognition as an indoor houseplant partially due to its air cleansing qualities as per a examine achieved by NASA, eradicating trichloroethylene, benzene, formaldehyde, ammonia, and different chemical substances from the air.[11] On the whole, the plant is finest fertilized as soon as a month and watered two to a few occasions per week relying on local weather. By way of stems produced per yr in 1997, Japan was by far the most important producer with 2 billion stalks, adopted by the Netherlands (800 million), Colombia (600 million), Italy (500 million). C. × morifolium is hardy to USDA zones 5–9.


In pure medication the “flower” is used in opposition to eye irritation and impure pores and skin. It additionally applies as an air air purifier.

Contact with elements of vegetation could in some circumstances trigger pores and skin irritation and allergy symptoms.[13]


The plant is eaten by numerous aphids, capsid bugs, earwigs, leaf miners, nematodes, spider mites, thrips, and whiteflies. The plant can die from numerous ailments which embody aster yellows, Botrytis, leaf spots, rust, powdery mildew, verticillium wilt, and rotting of stem and roots, and even viruses.[3]



  1. ^ Chrysanthemum × morifolium (Ramat.) Hemsl”. Crops of the World On-line. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 2020-02-24.
  2. ^ Chrysanthemum ×morifolium Ramat. (professional sp.) florist’s daisy”. Crops Retrieved 22 September 2012.
  3. ^ a b c “Chrysanthemum morifolium (Hardy backyard mum)”. Tremendous Retrieved 22 September 2012.
  4. ^ Wang YJ, Guo QS, Yang XW, Xu WB, Tao HY. Characterization of chemical parts of important oil from flowers of Chrysanthemum morifolium produced in Anhui province. (Chinese language) Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2008 Oct;33(19):2207-11. PMID 19166008
  5. ^ a b Zheng Jinsheng, Nalini Kirk and Paul D. Buell. Dictionary of the Ben Cao Gang Mu, Quantity 3: Individuals and Literary Sources. College of California Press, 2018. ISBN 9780520965560
  6. ^ Michel Cointat, Tales of flowers: Probably the most stunning flowers of the backyard, Editions L’Harmattan, 2002. (ISBN 978-2-7475-2149-9).
  7. ^ Didier Bernard , The Golden Flower: Chrysanthemum, Its historical past – tradition The principle varieties , Gunten,October 15, 2008 ( ISBN 2914211384 ).
  8. ^ Arthur Herrington, The Chrysanthemum, Applewood Books, 2008. (ISBN 978-1-4290-1286-7).
  9. ^ Wu Zheng-yi, Peter H. Raven, Deyuan Hong (ed.): Flora of China. Quantity 20–21: Asteraceae , Science Press and Missouri Botanical Backyard Press, Beijing and St. Louis, 2011. ISBN 978-1-935641-07-0 .
  10. ^ Joseph Needham , Science and Civilization in China: Quantity 6, Biology and Organic Know-how, Half 1, Botany , Cambridge College Press,February 6, 1986 ( ISBN 0521087317 ).
  11. ^ “Inside Panorama Crops for Indoor Air Air pollution Abatement” (PDF). Archived from the unique (PDF) on 2017-08-29. Retrieved 2013-12-25.
  12. ^ Ruth Schneebeli-Rely: Flower Nation China Quantity 1 , Birkhäuser, 1995, ISBN 9783764351823 , p. 80 f.


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