Chlorophytum comosum - Wikipedia

Chlorophytum comosum – Wikipedia

Chlorophytum comosum, typically known as spider plant however often known as airplane plant, St. Bernard’s lily, spider ivy, ribbon plant,[2] and hen and chickens[3] is a species of perennial flowering plant. It’s native to tropical and southern Africa, however has turn into naturalized in different components of the world, together with western Australia.[4][5]Chlorophytum comosum is simple to develop as a houseplant; variegated types are the preferred.

Description[edit]

Chlorophytum comosum grows to about 60 cm (24 in) tall. It has fleshy, tuberous roots, every about 5–10 cm (2–4 in) lengthy. The lengthy slim leaves attain a size of 20–45 cm (8–18 in) and are round 6–25 millimetres (0.2–1.0 in) large.[6]

Flower of Chlorophytum comosum ‘Vittatum’

Flowers are produced in a protracted, branched inflorescence, which may attain a size of as much as 75 cm (30 in) and finally bends downwards to fulfill the earth. Flowers initially happen in clusters of 1–6 at intervals alongside the stem (scape) of the inflorescence. Every cluster is on the base of a bract, which ranges from 2–8 cm (0.8–3.1 in) in size, turning into smaller in direction of the tip of the inflorescence. A lot of the flowers that are produced initially die off, in order that the inflorescences are comparatively sparsely flowered.[6]

Particular person flowers are greenish-white, borne on stalks (pedicels) some 4–8 mm (0.2–0.3 in) lengthy. Every flower has six triply veined tepals that are 6–9 mm (0.2–0.4 in) lengthy and barely hooded or boat-shaped at their suggestions. The stamens encompass a pollen-producing anther about 3.5 mm (0.1 in) lengthy with a filament of comparable size or barely longer. The central type is 3–8 mm (0.1–0.3 in) lengthy. Seeds are produced in a capsule, 3–8 mm (0.1–0.3 in) lengthy, on stalks (pedicels) which lengthen to as much as 12 mm (0.5 in).[6]

The inflorescences carry plantlets on the suggestions of their branches, which finally droop and contact the soil, growing adventitious roots. The stems (scapes) of the inflorescence are known as “stolons” in some sources, however this time period is extra appropriately used for stems which don’t bear flowers and have roots on the nodes.[7]

Taxonomy[edit]

Chlorophytum comosum was first formally described by the Swedish naturalist Carl Peter Thunberg as Anthericum comosum within the 1794 quantity of Prodromus Plantarum Capensium, Thunberg’s work on the vegetation of South Africa.[8][9] It was subsequently moved to a variety of completely different genera, together with Phalangium, Caesia, Hartwegia Nees and Hollia, earlier than receiving its present placement in Chlorophytum by Jacques in 1862.[4]

The species has been confused with Chlorophytum capense (L.) Voss by some authors, however this can be a completely different species.[1]

Intra-specific variation[edit]

Fleshy roots of pot-grown Chlorophytum comosum

There are three described styles of the species: the autonym C. comosum var. comosum has strap-shaped slim leaves and is discovered alongside forest margins, C. comosum var. bipindense has broader, petiolate leaves with stripes on the underside and the inflorescences are 2–Three occasions the size of the leaves, and C. comosum var. sparsiflorum additionally has broader leaves that slim to the bottom and often lacks a petiole and the striping on the underside of the leaf and the inflorescences are as much as two occasions the size of the leaves. The latter two are rain forest-dwelling taxa that had earlier been described as separate species, however botanists Axel Dalberg Poulsen and Inger Nordal diminished the taxa to styles of C. comosum in 2005.[10]

Delimitation of species boundaries throughout the genus Chlorophytum is reported to be tough, presumably due to a number of evolutionary radiations into forest environments that led to morphological features which might be too just like reliably distinguish separate species. The proof given to help that is the widespread distribution of most taxa within the genus and poor seed dispersal, resulting in the conclusion of deeper evolutionary divergence among the many taxa.

The three described varieties in C. comosum might be an instance of this convergent evolution of leaf form among the many forest-dwelling varieties from species of disparate origin, resulting in the species C. comosum being polyphyletic, as a substitute of the standard view of morphological divergence among the many varieties throughout the species with the idea of a typical origin (monophyly). The widespread C. comosum var. comosum has slender, close to linear leaves that lack a petiole just like vegetation present in cultivation and is just discovered rising on the margins of the rain forest. The 2 different varieties, C. comosum var. sparsiflorum and C. comosum var. bipindense, possess petioles and have broader leaves obligatory for accumulating extra gentle within the shady Guineo-Congolean rain forest. A examine printed in 2005 used 16 morphological characters and was unable to delimit species boundaries amongst these three taxa, in order that they have been relegated to varietal standing.[10] A follow-up examine printed in 2008 offered preliminary proof from phylogenetic evaluation of plastid and nuclear DNA sequences that established samples from disparate collections websites recognized as C. comosum have been polyphyletic.[11]

Distribution[edit]

Chlorophytum comosum has a widespread native distribution in Africa, being native to 6 of the 10 World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions areas of Africa (West Tropical Africa, West-Central Tropical Africa, Northeast Tropical Africa, East Tropical Africa, South Tropical Africa and Southern Africa).[4]

Cultivation[edit]

Chlorophytum comosum ‘Variegatum’ in a dangling basket displaying the plantlets

Chlorophytum comosum is a well-liked houseplant. The species with all-green leaves types solely a small proportion of vegetation bought. Extra frequent are two variegated cultivars:[2]

  • C. comosum ‘Vittatum’ has mid-green leaves with a broad central white stripe. It’s typically bought in hanging baskets to show the plantlets.[2] The lengthy stems are white.
  • C. comosum ‘Variegatum’ has darker inexperienced leaves with white margins. It’s typically smaller than the earlier cultivar.[2] The lengthy stems are inexperienced.

Each cultivars have gained the Royal Horticultural Society’s Award of Backyard Benefit[12][13] (confirmed 2017).[14]

Propagation[edit]

A picture of a spider plant's plantlets and budding flowers.

An image of a spider plant’s plantlets and budding flowers.

Propagating Chlorophytum comosum generally happens via potting the plantlets, informally known as ‘spiderettes’,[15] or ‘pups’,[16] immediately into potting soil hooked up to the principle plant or slicing the operating stems after which potting it.

Spider vegetation are simple to develop, having the ability to thrive in a variety of situations. They’ll tolerate temperatures right down to 2 °C (35 °F), however develop finest at temperatures between 18 °C (65 °F) and 32 °C (90 °F). Crops might be broken by excessive fluoride or boron ranges.[2]

Air purification[edit]

The NASA Clear Air Research decided that this plant was efficient at eradicating frequent family air toxins formaldehyde and xylene.

Spider vegetation have additionally been proven to cut back indoor air air pollution within the type of formaldehyde, and roughly 70 vegetation would neutralize the formaldehyde launched by supplies in a consultant (ca. 167 m2 [1,800 sq ft]) energy-efficient home, assuming every plant occupies a 3.8 l (0.84 imp gal; 1.0 US gal) pot.[17]

See additionally[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Chlorophytum comosum“. Germplasm Assets Data Community (GRIN). Agricultural Analysis Service (ARS), United States Division of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 2008-03-17.
  2. ^ a b c d e Poole, R.T.; Chase, A.R. & Osborne, L.S. (1991), Spider Plant Manufacturing Information (CFREC-Apopka Foliage Plant Analysis Be aware RH-91-33), Central Florida Analysis and Schooling Middle, College of Florida, retrieved 2011-09-26
  3. ^ Ernst van Jaarsveld (November 2012). “Chlorophytum comosum”. PlantZAfrica.com. South African Nationwide Biodiversity Institute. Retrieved June 27, 2016.
  4. ^ a b c World Guidelines of Chosen Plant Households, The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, retrieved 2011-09-26, seek for “Chlorophytum comosum”
  5. ^ Howell, J.T., P.H. Raven & P. Rubtzoff. 1958. Flora of San Francisco. Wasmann J. Biology 16:1-155.
  6. ^ a b c McCune, S. & Hardin, D. W. (1994), “Chlorophytum comosum (Thunb.) Jacques”, PlantNET – The Plant Data Community System of The Royal Botanic Gardens and Area Belief, Sydney, Australia: The Royal Botanic Gardens and Area Belief, retrieved 2011-09-27
  7. ^ Hickey, M.; King, C. (2001). The Cambridge Illustrated Glossary of Botanical Phrases. Cambridge College Press.
  8. ^ “Anthericum comosum Thunb., Prodr. Pl. Cap. 1: 63 (1794)”. Worldwide Plant Names Index (IPNI). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 26 September 2011.
  9. ^ Thunberg, Carl Peter. 1794. Prodromus Plantarum Capensium. p. 63.
  10. ^ a b Poulsen, AD, and I Nordal. 2005. A phenetic evaluation and revision of Guineo-Congolean rain forest taxa of Chlorophytum (Anthericaceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 148: 1-20.
  11. ^ Bjorå, CS, A Hemp, G Hoell, and I Nordal. 2008. A taxonomic and ecological evaluation of two forest Chlorophytum taxa (Anthericaceae) on Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. Plant Systematics and Evolution, 274: 243-253.
  12. ^ “Chlorophytum comosum ‘Variegatum’ (v) | variegated spider ivy/RHS Gardening”.
  13. ^ “Chlorophytum comosum ‘Vittatum’ (v) | spider ivy ‘Vittatum’/RHS Gardening”.
  14. ^ “AGM Crops – Decorative” (PDF). Royal Horticultural Society. July 2017. p. 18. Retrieved 24 January 2018.
  15. ^ “StackPath”. www.gardeningknowhow.com. Retrieved 2020-11-13.
  16. ^ Almanac, Outdated Farmer’s. “Spider Crops”. Outdated Farmer’s Almanac. Retrieved 2020-11-13.
  17. ^ Wolverton, B. C.; McDonald, Rebecca C.; Watkins, E. A. (1984). “Foliage vegetation for eradicating indoor air pollution from energy-efficient properties” (PDF). Financial Botany. 38 (2): 224–228. doi:10.1007/BF02858837. hdl:2060/19860066312. S2CID 41933312. Archived from the unique (PDF) on April 27, 2015.

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