Toona sinensis — Wikipedia Republished // WIKI 2

Cedrus deodara — Wikipedia Republished // WIKI 2

Species of plant

Cedrus deodara, the deodar cedar, Himalayan cedar, or deodar/ devdar/ devadar/ devadaru, is a species of cedar native to the western Himalayas in Jap Afghanistan, Northern Pakistan (particularly in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) and India (Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim and, Arunachal Pradesh states and the Darjeeling Area of West Bengal), Southwestern Tibet and Western Nepal, occurring at 1,500–3,200 m (4,921–10,499 ft) altitude.


It’s a massive evergreen coniferous tree reaching 40–50 m (131–164 ft) tall, exceptionally 60 m (197 ft) with a trunk as much as 3 m (10 ft) in diameter. It has a conic crown with stage branches and drooping branchlets.[2]

The leaves are needle-like, largely 2.5–5 cm (0.98–1.97 in) lengthy, often as much as 7 cm (2.8 in) lengthy, slender (1 mm (0.039 in) thick), borne singly on lengthy shoots, and in dense clusters of 20–30 on quick shoots; they differ from vibrant inexperienced to glaucous blue-green in color. The feminine cones are barrel-shaped, 7–13 cm (2.8–5.1 in) lengthy and 5–9 cm (2.0–3.5 in) broad, and disintegrate when mature (in 12 months) to launch the winged seeds. The male cones are 4–6 cm (1.6–2.4 in) lengthy, and shed their pollen in autumn.[2]


The botanical title, which can be the English frequent title, derives from the Sanskrit time period devadāru, which implies “wooden of the gods”, a compound of deva “god” and dāru “wooden and tree”.

Cultural significance

The deodar is the nationwide tree of Pakistan.[3]

Amongst Hindus, because the etymology of deodar suggests, it’s worshiped as a divine tree. Deva, the primary half of the Sanskrit time period, means divine, deity, or deus. Dāru, the second half, is cognate with (associated to) the phrases durum, druid, tree, and true.[4] A number of Hindu legends discuss with this tree. For instance, Valmiki Ramayan reads:[5]

”Within the stands of Lodhra bushes,[6] Padmaka bushes [7] and within the woods of Devadaru, or Deodar bushes, Ravana is to be searched there and there, along with Sita. [4-43-13]”


It’s extensively grown as a decorative tree, usually planted in parks and huge gardens for its drooping foliage. Basic cultivation is restricted to areas with delicate winters, with bushes incessantly killed by temperatures under about −25 °C (−13 °F), limiting it to USDA zone 7 and hotter for dependable development.[8] It will possibly reach somewhat cool-summer climates, as in Stateline, Nevada, and Ushuaia, Argentina.[9]

Leaves and female cone of Cedrus deodara.

Leaves and feminine cone of Cedrus deodara.

Essentially the most cold-tolerant bushes originate within the northwest of the species’ vary in Kashmir and Paktia Province, Afghanistan. Chosen cultivars from this area are hardy to USDA zone 7 and even zone 6, tolerating temperatures all the way down to about −30 °C (−22 °F).[8] Named cultivars from this area embody ‘Eisregen’, ‘Eiswinter’, ‘Karl Fuchs’, ‘Kashmir’, ‘Polar Winter’, and ‘Shalimar’.[10][11] Of those, ‘Eisregen’, ‘Eiswinter’, ‘Karl Fuchs’, and ‘Polar Winter’ had been chosen in Germany from seed collected in Paktia; ‘Kashmir’ was a choice of the nursery commerce, whereas ‘Shalimar’ originated from seeds collected in 1964 from Shalimar Gardens, India (within the Kashmir area) and propagated on the Arnold Arboretum.[10]

C. deodara,[12]
and the 2 cultivars ‘Feelin’ Blue’[13]
and ‘Aurea’,[14]
have gained the Royal Horticultural Society’s Award of Backyard Benefit (confirmed 2017).[15]

Makes use of

Development materials

Wood of Cedrus deodara.

Wooden of Cedrus deodara.

Deodar is in nice demand as constructing materials due to its sturdiness, rot-resistant character and wonderful, shut grain, which is able to taking a excessive polish. Its historic use to assemble non secular temples and in landscaping round temples is nicely recorded. Its rot-resistant character additionally makes it a really perfect wooden for establishing the well-known houseboats of Srinagar, Kashmir. In Pakistan and India, in the course of the British colonial interval, deodar wooden was used extensively for development of barracks, public buildings, bridges, canals and railway vehicles.[4] Regardless of its sturdiness, it’s not a robust timber, and its brittle nature makes it unsuitable for delicate work the place energy is required, equivalent to chair-making.[citation needed]

Natural Ayurveda

C. deodara is utilized in Ayurvedic drugs.[4]

The interior wooden is fragrant and used to make incense. Inside wooden is distilled into important oil. As bugs keep away from this tree, the important oil is used as insect repellent on the ft of horses, cattle and camels. It additionally has antifungal properties and has some potential for management of fungal deterioration of spices throughout storage.[citation needed] The outer bark and stem are astringent.[16]

Close up of leaves.

Shut up of leaves.

Due to its antifungal and bug repellent properties, rooms manufactured from deodar cedar wooden are used to retailer meat and meals grains like oats and wheat in Shimla, Kullu, and Kinnaur district of Himachal Pradesh.

Cedar oil is usually used for its fragrant properties, particularly in aromatherapy. It has a attribute woody odor which can change considerably in the middle of drying out. The crude oils are sometimes yellowish or darker in shade. Its functions cowl cleaning soap perfumes, family sprays, flooring polishes and pesticides and can be utilized in microscope work as a clearing oil.[16]


The bark of Cedrus deodara accommodates massive quantities of taxifolin.[17] The wooden accommodates cedeodarin, ampelopsin, cedrin, cedrinoside,[18] and deodarin (3′,4′,5,6-tetrahydroxy-8-methyl dihydroflavonol).[19] The principle elements of the needle important oil embody α-terpineol (30.2%), linalool (24.47%), limonene (17.01%), anethole (14.57%), caryophyllene (3.14%), and eugenol (2.14%).[20] The deodar cedar additionally accommodates lignans[21] and the phenolic sesquiterpene himasecolone, along with isopimaric acid.[22] Different compounds have been recognized, together with (−)-matairesinol, (−)-nortrachelogenin, and a dibenzylbutyrolactollignan (4,4′,9-trihydroxy-3,3′-dimethoxy-9,9′-epoxylignan).[23]

See additionally


  1. ^ Farjon, A. (2013). “Cedrus deodara“. IUCN Purple Listing of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2013: e.T42304A2970751. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2013-1.RLTS.T42304A2970751.en.
  2. ^ a b Aljos, Farjon (1990). Pinaceae: drawings and descriptions of the genera Abies, Cedrus, Pseudolarix, Keteleeria, Nothotsuga, Tsuga, Cathaya, Pseudotsuga, Larix and Picea. Koenigstein: Koeltz Scientific Books. ISBN 978-3-87429-298-6.[page needed]
  3. ^ “Pakistan”. Archived from the authentic on 2016-11-28.[non-primary source needed]
  4. ^ a b c McGowan, Chris (March 5, 2008). “The Deodar Tree: the Himalayan ’Tree of God“.[self-published source?]
  5. ^ “ValmikiRamayan”.[non-primary source needed]
  6. ^ Symplocos racemosa
  7. ^ Wild Himalayan Cherry
  8. ^ a b Ødum, S. (1985). Report on frost harm to bushes in Denmark after the extreme 1981/82 and 1984/85 winters. Denmark: Hørsholm Arboretum.[page needed]
  9. ^
  10. ^ a b Humphrey James, Welch (1993). Haddows, Gordon (ed.). The World Guidelines of Conifers. Bromyard: Landsman’s Bookshop. ISBN 978-0-900513-09-1.
  11. ^ Gerd, Krüssmann (1983). Handbuch der Nadelgehölze (in German) (2nd ed.). Berlin: Parey. ISBN 978-3-489-62622-0.[page needed]
  12. ^ “RHS Plantfinder - Cedrus deodar“. Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved 21 January 2018.
  13. ^ “RHS Plantfinder - Cedrus deodara ’Feelin’ Blue“. Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved 21 January 2018.
  14. ^ “RHS Plantfinder - Cedrus deodara ’Aurea“. Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved 21 January 2018.
  15. ^ “AGM Crops - Decorative” (PDF). Royal Horticultural Society. July 2017. p. 16. Retrieved 24 January 2018.
  16. ^ a b “Cedarwood Oils”. Flavours and fragances of plant origin. Meals and Agriculture Group of the United Nations. 1995. ISBN 92-5-103648-9.
  17. ^ Willför, Stefan; Ali, Mumtaz; Karonen, Maarit; Reunanen, Markku; Arfan, Mohammad; Harlamow, Reija (2009). “Extractives in bark of various conifer species rising in Pakistan”. Holzforschung. 63 (5): 551–8. doi:10.1515/HF.2009.095. S2CID 97003177.
  18. ^ Agrawal, P.Okay.; Agarwal, S.Okay.; Rastogi, R.P. (1980). “Dihydroflavonols from Cedrus deodara“. Phytochemistry. 19 (5): 893–6. doi:10.1016/0031-9422(80)85133-8.
  19. ^ Adinarayana, D.; Seshadri, T.R. (1965). “Chemical investigation of the stem-bark of Cedrus deodara“. Tetrahedron. 21 (12): 3727–30. doi:10.1016/S0040-4020(01)96989-3.
  20. ^ Zeng, Wei-Cai; Zhang, Zeng; Gao, Hong; Jia, Li-Rong; He, Qiang (2012). “Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, and Antimicrobial Actions of Important Oil from Pine Needle (Cedrus deodara)”. Journal of Meals Science. 77 (7): C824–9. doi:10.1111/j.1750-3841.2012.02767.x. PMID 22757704.
  21. ^ Agrawal, P.Okay.; Rastogi, R.P. (1982). “Two lignans from Cedrus deodara”. Phytochemistry. 21 (6): 1459–1461. doi:10.1016/0031-9422(82)80172-6.
  22. ^ Agarwal, P.Okay.; Rastogi, R.P. (1981). “Terpenoids from Cedrus deodara“. Phytochemistry. 20 (6): 1319–21. doi:10.1016/0031-9422(81)80031-3.
  23. ^ Tiwari, AK; Srinivas, PV; Kumar, SP; Rao, JM (2001). “Free radical scavenging energetic elements from Cedrus deodara”. Journal of Agricultural and Meals Chemistry. 49 (10): 4642–5. doi:10.1021/jf010573a. PMID 11600001.

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