Castanospermum - Wikipedia

Castanospermum – Wikipedia

Castanospermum australe (Moreton Bay chestnut or blackbean), the one species within the genus Castanospermum,[2][3] is a flowering plant within the household Fabaceae, native to the east coast of Australia in Queensland and New South Wales, and to the Pacific islands of Vanuatu, New Caledonia, and the island of New Britain (Papua New Guinea).[4]

It’s a giant evergreen tree rising to 40 metres (130 ft) tall, although generally a lot smaller.[5] The leaves are 15 centimetres (5.9 in) lengthy and 6–7 centimetres (2.4–2.8 in) broad, pinnate, with 11-15 leaflets. The flowers are bicoloured purple and yellow, 3–Four centimetres (1.2–1.6 in) lengthy, produced in racemes 6 centimetres (2.4 in) lengthy. The fruit is a cylindrical pod 12–20 centimetres (4.7–7.9 in) lengthy and 4–6 centimetres (1.6–2.4 in) diameter, the inside divided by a spongy substance into one to 5 cells, every of which incorporates a big chestnut-like seed.

Frequent names[edit]

The 1889 e-book ‘The Helpful Native Vegetation of Australia’ information the widespread names of Castanospermum australe as “Moreton Bay Chestnut” and “Bean tree” and notes that it was referred to as “Irtalie” by Aboriginal folks of the Richmond and Clarence Rivers (New South Wales) and “Bogum” by “others of Northern New South Wales”.[6] Different names which have been utilized by Aboriginal peoples are: baway,[7] yiwurra,[7] junggurraa,[7] mirrayn,[7] ganyjuu,[7] and binyjaalga.[8]

Chemical substances[edit]

In 1981, castanospermine was remoted from the seeds.[9] Members of this and carefully associated genuses accumulate iminosugars of their leaves.[10]

Cultural significance[edit]

On account of its significance as a meals, the blackbean tree was a seasonal gathering level for Aboriginal peoples, and this acted as a catalyst for ceremonies.[11]Songlines that includes the black bean seeds have been collected.[12] The bark fibre has been used for fish and animal traps, nets and baskets, and the empty seed pods have been used as toy boats.[12] Moreover, the tree has been used as a seasonal sign for when to hunt jungle fowl.[12]

Meals[edit]

The unprocessed seeds are toxic, and may trigger vomiting and diarrhoea,[13] however they grow to be edible when fastidiously ready by roasting, slicing up into small items, leaching with working water for a number of days, and pounding into flour and roasting it as a damper.[14] The seeds have been ready and eaten for at the very least 2,500 years.[15] The 1889 e-book ‘The Helpful Native Vegetation of Australia’ notes and describes this use of the beans.[16] As of 2012, the meals was not utilized in fashionable bush tucker, and there was no dietary info out there on the seeds.[5]

Decorative use[edit]

The timber are standard as potted vegetation in Asia, Europe and America.[17] As well as, they’ve been used as shade timber in landscaping for parks.[5]

Wooden[edit]

The wooden was utilized by Aboriginal folks for spear throwers.[12] The timber, which considerably resembles walnut, is gentle, fine-grained, and takes polish,[18] and the wooden has a sturdiness score above-ground of over 40 years longevity.[19]

On account of its significance as a meals for Aboriginal folks, blackbean timber had been unfold by hand into mountain areas on the east coast of Australia. All of the timber in New South Wales are descended from a single seed.[11] The plant naturally spreads by water.[12] It has been launched to India, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka, South Africa and the US of America.[5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Cardoso D, Pennington RT, de Queiroz LP, Boatwright JS, Van Wyk BE, Wojciechowski MF, Lavin M (2013). “Reconstructing the deep-branching relationships of the papilionoid legumes”. S Afr J Bot. 89: 58–75. doi:10.1016/j.sajb.2013.05.001.
  2. ^ “ILDIS LegumeWeb entry for Castanospermum“. Worldwide Legume Database & Info Service. Cardiff Faculty of Laptop Science & Informatics. Retrieved 30 January 2014.
  3. ^ USDA; ARS; Nationwide Genetic Sources Program. “GRIN species information of Castanospermum“. Germplasm Sources Info Community—(GRIN) [Online Database]. Beltsville, Maryland: Nationwide Germplasm Sources Laboratory. Archived from the unique on 2015-09-24. Retrieved 30 January 2014.
  4. ^ Debevec, Mojca (2002). “Castanospermum australe – Rising Native Vegetation”. www.anbg.gov.au. Australian Nationwide Botanic Gardens, Parks Australia.
  5. ^ a b c d Lim, T.Ok. (1 January 2012). “Castanospermum australe”. Edible Medicinal And Non-Medicinal Vegetation. 2. Springer Netherlands. pp. 593–600. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-1764-0_73. ISBN 978-94-007-1763-3.
  6. ^ J. H. Maiden (1889). The helpful native vegetation of Australia : Together with Tasmania. Turner and Henderson, Sydney. p. 396.
  7. ^ a b c d e “Seed phrases in native language” (PDF). Moist Tropics Administration Authority. Retrieved 28 February 2018.
  8. ^ “Gumbaygnggirr Language Names” (PDF). Nationwide Parks and Wildlife Service. Retrieved 28 February 2018.
  9. ^ Hohenschutz, Liza D.; Bell, E.Arthur; Jewess, Phillip J.; Leworthy, David P.; Pryce, Robert J.; Arnold, Edward; Clardy, Jon (January 1981). “Castanospermine, A 1,6,7,8-tetrahydroxyoctahydroindolizine alkaloid, from seeds of Castanospermum australe”. Phytochemistry. 20 (4): 811–814. doi:10.1016/0031-9422(81)85181-3.
  10. ^ Kite GC, Cardoso D, Lewis GP, Zartman CE, de Queiroz LP, Veitch NC (2015). “Monomethyl ethers of 4,5-dihydroxypipecolic acid from Petaladenium urceoliferum: Enigmatic chemistry of an enigmatic legume”. Phytochemistry. 116: 198–202. doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2015.02.026. PMID 25817832.
  11. ^ a b Miskelly, Greg (13 November 2017). “Aboriginal folks unfold native vegetation by hand: research”. ABC Information. Retrieved 13 November 2017.
  12. ^ a b c d e Rossetto, Maurizio; Ens, Emilie J.; Honings, Thijs; Wilson, Peter D.; Yap, Jia-Yee S.; Costello, Oliver; Spherical, Erich R.; Bowern, Claire; Borges, Renee M. (Eight November 2017). “From Songlines to genomes: Prehistoric assisted migration of a rain forest tree by Australian Aboriginal folks”. PLOS ONE. 12 (11): e0186663. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0186663. PMC 5695580. PMID 29117184.
  13. ^ “Australia’s most toxic vegetation – Australian Geographic”. Australian Geographic. 2012-07-04. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  14. ^ Historic Aboriginal course of for cooking black beans. Royal Botanic Gardens. 12 November 2017. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  15. ^ “Black bean”. Royal Botanic Gardens. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  16. ^ J. H. Maiden (1889). The helpful native vegetation of Australia : Together with Tasmania. Turner and Henderson, Sydney. p. 15.
  17. ^ Jack, Helen (30 Might 2007). “Bentley man says cash does develop on timber”. The Northern Star. Retrieved 13 November 2017.
  18. ^  This text incorporates textual content from a publication now within the public area: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). “Moreton Bay Chestnut”. Encyclopædia Britannica. 18 (11th ed.). Cambridge College Press. p. 831.
  19. ^ “Black bean”. www.daf.qld.gov.au. Archived from the unique on 13 November 2017. Retrieved 13 November 2017.

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