Species of plant
Cassia fistula, generally often known as golden bathe,purging cassia,Indian laburnum, or pudding-pipe tree, is a flowering plant within the subfamily, Caesalpinioideae of the legume household, Fabaceae. The species is native to the Indian subcontinent and adjoining areas of Southeast Asia. It ranges from eastward all through India to Myanmar and Thailand and south to Sri Lanka and southern Pakistan. It’s a standard decorative plant and can also be utilized in natural medication. It’s each the nationwide tree and nationwide flower of Thailand. It’s the state flower of Kerala in India.
The golden bathe tree is a medium-sized tree, rising to 10–20 m (33–66 ft) tall with quick progress. The leaves are deciduous, 15–60 cm (6–24 in) lengthy, and pinnate with three to eight pairs of leaflets, every leaflet 7–21 cm (3–8 in) lengthy and 4–9 cm (1.6–3.5 in) broad. The flowers are produced in pendulous racemes 20–40 cm (8–16 in) lengthy, every flower 4–7 cm (1.6–2.8 in) diameter with 5 yellow petals of equal dimension and form. The fruit is a legume, 30–60 cm (12–24 in) lengthy and 1.5–2.5 cm (0.6–1.0 in) broad, with a pungent odor and containing a number of seeds.
The tree has sturdy and really sturdy wooden, and has been used to assemble “Ehela Kanuwa”, a web site at Adam’s Peak, Sri Lanka, which is made from C. fistula (ahala, ehela, or aehaela, ඇහැල in Sinhala ) heartwood.
C. fistula is extensively grown as a decorative plant in tropical and subtropical areas. It blooms in late spring. Flowering is profuse, with bushes being lined with yellow flowers, many instances with virtually no leaf being seen. It grows effectively in dry climates. Progress for this tree is finest in full solar on well-drained soil; it’s comparatively drought-tolerant and barely salt-tolerant. It should tolerate mild transient frost, however can get broken if the chilly persists. It may be topic to mildew or leaf spot, particularly throughout the second half of the rising season. The tree blooms higher with pronounced variations between summer time and winter temperatures.
Pollinators and seed dispersal
Numerous species of bees and butterflies are identified to be pollinators of C. fistula flowers, particularly carpenter bees (Xylocopa sp.). In 1911, Robert Scott Troup carried out an experiment to find out how the seeds of C. fistula are dispersed. He discovered that golden jackals feed on the fruits and assist in seed dispersal.
In India, flowers of the golden bathe tree are generally eaten by folks. The leaves have additionally been used to complement the diets of cattle, sheep, and goats fed with low-quality forages.
In Ayurvedic medication, the golden bathe tree is called aragvadha, which means “illness killer”. The fruit pulp is taken into account a purgative, and self-medication or any use with out medical supervision is strongly suggested in opposition to in Ayurvedic texts. Although it has been utilized in herbalism for millennia, little analysis has been carried out in fashionable instances, though it’s an ingredient in some mass-produced natural laxatives. When used as such, it is called “cassia pods”.
In India, a cathartic made out of the pulp is typically added to tobacco.
The golden bathe tree is the state flower of Kerala. The flowers are of formality significance within the Vishu pageant of Kerala, and the tree was depicted on a 20-rupee stamp. The golden rain tree is the nationwide flower of Thailand; its yellow flowers symbolize Thai royalty. A 2006–2007 flower pageant, the Royal Flora Ratchaphruek, was named after the tree, which is thought in Thai as ratchaphruek (Thai: ราชพฤกษ์) and the blossoms generally known as dok khun (Thai: ดอกคูน). C. fistula can also be featured on a 2003 joint Canadian-Thai design for a 48-cent stamp, a part of a collection that includes nationwide emblems. The tree is steadily cultivated in Buddhist temples in Sri Lanka the place the Sinhala identify is Ehela, ඇහැල.
In Laos, its blooming flowers identified domestically as dok khoun are related to the Lao New Yr. Individuals use the flowers as choices on the temple and likewise cling them of their properties for the New Yr in perception that the flowers will convey happiness and good luck to the households.
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- “Cassia fistula“. Pure Assets Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved January 11, 2016.
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- “Cassia fistula“. Germplasm Assets Info Community (GRIN). Agricultural Analysis Service (ARS), United States Division of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved April 2, 2019.
- U. S. Division of Agriculture, William Saunders; Catalogue of Financial Vegetation within the Assortment of the U. S. Division of Agriculture; Washington D. C.; June 5, 1891
- sinhala botany web site
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- Murali, KS (1993) Differential reproductive success in Cassia fistula in numerous habitats—A case of pollinator limitations? In: Present Science (Bangalore), 65 (3). pp. 270-272.
- Troup, R.S. (1911).Silviculture of Indian Timber. Printed beneath the authority of His Majesty’s Secretary of State for India in Council. Oxford Clarendon Press
- Heuzé V., Thiollet H., Tran G., Hassoun P., Lebas F., 2018. Golden tree (Cassia fistula). Feedipedia, a programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. https://www.feedipedia.org/node/325
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- Hargreaves, Dorothy; Hargreaves, Bob (1970). Tropical Timber of the Pacific. Kailua, Hawaii: Hargreaves. p. 14.
- Lao NEWS on LNTV: When the golden bathe bushes, often known as Dok Khoun in Laos blossom.17/4/2014
Media associated to Cassia fistula at Wikimedia Commons
Database on state of setting, Kerala (2008): Kerala Symbols