{The native range of Carya ovata}

Carya ovata (Mill

Carya ovata (Mill

Carya ovata (Mill.) Okay. Koch

Shagbark Hickory

Juglandaceae — Walnut household

David L. Graney

Shagbark hickory (Carya ovata) might be essentially the most distinctive of
all of the hickories due to its loose-plated bark. Widespread names
embrace shellbark hickory, scalybark hickory, shagbark, and
upland hickory. Shagbark hickory is evenly distributed all through
the Japanese States and, along with pignut hickory, furnishes
the majority of the business hickory. The robust resilient
properties of the wooden make it appropriate for merchandise topic to
affect and stress. The candy nuts, as soon as a staple meals for
American Indians, present meals for wildlife.

Habitat

Native Vary

Shagbark hickory is discovered all through a lot of the Japanese United
States from southeastern Nebraska and southeastern Minnesota
by means of southern Ontario and southern Quebec to southern Maine,
southward to Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and
japanese Texas, and disjunctly within the mountains of northeastern
Mexico. It’s largely absent from the southeastern and Gulf
coastal plains and decrease Mississippi Delta areas.

{The native range of Carya ovata}
-The native vary of shagbark hickory.

Local weather

Shagbark hickory grows finest in a moist local weather. It is among the
hardiest of the hickory species, nonetheless, and has efficiently
tailored to a variety of weather conditions. Inside shagbark’s
pure vary, common annual rainfall varies from 760 to 2030 mm
(30 to 80 in) with 510 to 1020 mm (20 to 40 in) of rainfall
throughout the rising season. Common snowfall normally is lower than
Three cm (1 in) within the southern and southwestern portion of the
tree’s vary to 254 cm (100 in) or extra in northern New York and
southern Ontario.

Inside the vary of shagbark hickory common annual temperatures
fluctuate from 4° C (40° F) within the north to just about 21°
C (70° F) in southeastern Texas. Common January temperature
varies from -9° to 13° C (15° to 55° F) whereas
imply July temperature varies from 18° to 27° C (65°
to 80° F). Excessive temperatures of -40° and 46° C
(-40° and 115° F) have been recorded inside shagbark’s
pure vary. The common rising season additionally varies broadly from
about 140 days within the North to 260 days within the South.

Soils and Topography

Websites occupied by shagbark hickory fluctuate tremendously. Within the North it
is discovered on upland (typically south-facing) slopes, whereas farther
south it’s extra prevalent on soils of alluvial origin (15,16).
Within the Ohio Valley, shagbark grows mainly on north and east
slopes of fertile uplands; within the Cumberland Mountains it’s
confined to the coves and the north and east slopes; and in
Arkansas, Mississippi, and Louisiana it grows principally in
river bottoms. Shagbark is discovered on higher websites as much as elevations
of 910 m (3,000 ft) within the Blue Ridge Mountains of the Carolinas
and on north and east-facing benches at elevations above 610 m
(2,000 ft) in northern Arkansas. In northern Arkansas, shagbark
hickory is commonly quite common on clayey soils derived from
Mississippian and Pennsylvanian shale formations and should
symbolize practically half of the stocking of privately owned woodlots
on these websites.

The vary of shagbark hickory encompasses 7 soil orders and 14
suborders (24). Ultisols are the dominant upland soils within the
southern half of the shagbark vary whereas Alfisols and Mollisols
are main soil orders within the northern portion of the vary. The
soils inside shagbark’s vary are derived from all kinds of
guardian materials-sedimentary and metaphoric rocks, glacial until,
and loess. The soils additionally symbolize a variety in soil
fertility, akin to Alfisols and Mollisols that are excessive in base
saturation to Ultisols that are low. Shagbark hickory is
delicate to adjustments in soil fertility. Within the northern a part of
its vary, the species is discovered on quite a lot of upland websites; in
the southern areas, it’s extra frequent within the extra fertile backside
lands and on the higher north- and east-facing upland websites.

Related Forest Cowl

Hickories are constantly current within the broad forest affiliation
generally known as oak-hickory however aren’t typically ample (20).
Shagbark hickory is particularly listed as a minor part in
six forest cowl sorts (7): Bur Oak (Society of American
Foresters Kind 42), Chestnut Oak (Kind 44), White Oak-Black
Oak-Northern Crimson Oak (Kind 52), Pin Oak-Sweetgum (Kind 65),
Loblolly Pine-Hardwood (Kind 82), and Swamp Chestnut
Oak-Cherrybark Oak (Kind 91). It is usually a possible affiliate in
the Japanese White Pine (Kind 21), Beech-Sugar Maple (Kind 60),
White Oak (Kind 53), and Northern Crimson Oak (Kind 55) forest cowl
sorts. By most of its vary, shagbark hickory is related
with oaks, different hickories, and varied combined upland hardwoods.
Within the South it is usually related to numerous bottom-land
hardwood species.

Life Historical past

Replica and Early Development

Flowering and Fruiting- Shagbark hickory is monoecious and
flowers within the spring. The staminate catkins are 10 to 15 cm (4
to six in) lengthy and develop from axils of earlier season leaves or
from internal scales of the terminal buds on the base of the present
development. The pistillate flowers seem in brief spikes about Eight mm
(0.Three in) lengthy on peduncles terminating in shoots of the present
yr. Flowers open when leaves are practically full measurement in late March
within the southwest to early June within the north and northeastern half
of the vary.

The fruit, a nut, is variable in measurement and form. Borne 1 to three
collectively, particular person fruits are Three to six cm (I to 2.5 in) lengthy,
oval to subglobose or obovoid, depressed on the apex, and
enclosed in a skinny husk developed from the floral involucre. The
fruit ripens in September and October and seeds are dispersed
from September by means of December. Husks are inexperienced previous to
maturity and switch brown to brownish black as they ripen. The
husks turn out to be dry at maturity and break up freely to the bottom into
4 valves alongside grooved sutures. The enclosed nut is gentle
brownish white, oblong-ovate, considerably compressed, normally
prominently four-angled on the apex and rounded on the base (25).
The shell is comparatively skinny and the kernel is good and edible.
The majority of the edible embryonic plant is cotyledonary tissue.

Seed Manufacturing and Dissemination- Shagbark hickory
reaches business seedbearing age at 40 years. Though most
seed manufacturing happens from 60 to 200 years, some seed is
produced as much as 300 years (16). Good seed crops happen at intervals
of 1 to three years with gentle crops or no seed throughout the
intervening years. Tree diameter and crown measurement or floor are
most likely the perfect indicators of shagbark seed manufacturing. In
southeastern Ohio, 6-year seed manufacturing of dominant and
codominant shagbark hickory bushes with imply d.b.h. of 20.7 cm
(8.1 in) (age 60 years), 26.1 cm (10.Three in) (age 90 years) and
45.1 cm (17.Eight in) (age 75 years) averaged 16, 36, and 225 sound
seed per tree per yr, respectively (17). Some particular person
shagbark bushes have been recognized to supply 53 to 70 liters (1.5 to
2 bushels) of nuts throughout a superb yr (4). The germination of
contemporary seed is 50 to 75 %.

A number of species of bugs affect seed manufacturing by inflicting
aborting or untimely dropping of fruits or by decreasing the
germinative capability of mature nuts. Particularly critical are the
hickory shuckworm (Laspeyresia caryana), pecan weevil
(Curculio caryae), and the hickorynut curculios (Conotrachelus
affinis
and C. hicoriae). In good seed years about
half of the full seed crop is sound, however in years of low seed
manufacturing, insect depredation may very well be proportionally greater,
and a really low share of sound seed is produced (17).

Shagbark nuts are heavy, averaging about 220/kg (100/lb) and are
disseminated primarily by gravity with some extension of seeding
vary attributable to squirrels and chipmunks.

Seedling Improvement- Shagbark seeds present embryo
dormancy that’s overcome naturally by over wintering within the
duff, or artificially by stratification in a moist medium or
plastic bag at about 3° C (37° F) for 90 to 120 days
(3). Shagbark nuts ought to be saved in hermetic containers at 5°
C (41° F) and 90 % relative humidity. Nuts saved
longer than 2 years have decrease germination percents and require
solely 60 days stratification (3). In forest tree nurseries,
unstratified nuts are sown within the fall and stratified nuts are
sown within the spring. Mulching is really helpful and safety from
rodents is commonly required (4). Germination is hypogeal.

Shagbark seedlings usually produce an extended taproot and little or no
high development throughout early growth. Within the Ohio Valley,
1-year-old seedlings grown within the open or beneath gentle shade in
pink clay soil produced a median root size of 0.3 (1 t) and a
high top of seven cm (2.Eight in). By age Three the taproot prolonged to
about 0.Eight m (2.6 ft) whereas the highest elevated solely to 19.Eight cm (7.8
in) (16).

Vegetative Replica- Shagbark hickory is a prolific
sprouter. Almost the entire minimize or fire-killed hickories with
stump diameters as much as 20 to 24 cm (Eight to 10 in) will produce
sprouts. As stump diameters improve in measurement, stump sprouting
declines, and proportion of root suckers will increase (16). Younger
hickory sprouts are vigorous and may keep a aggressive
place within the cover of a newly regenerated stand. After 10 to
20 years the speed of sprout top development declines and hickory
will usually lose crown place to the quicker rising oaks and
related species.

Sapling and Pole Levels to Maturity

Development and Yield- Shagbark hickory is a medium-sized tree
averaging 21 to 24 m (70 to 80 ft) tall, 30 to 61 cm (12 to 24
in) in d.b.h., and should attain heights of 40 m (130 ft) with a
diameter of 122 cm (48 in). The tree characteristically develops
a transparent straight cylindrical bole, however there’s a tendency for
the principle stem to fork at one-half to two-thirds of the tree
top (16). Though shagbark is among the quickest rising
hickories, its development charges are lower than a lot of the oaks and
different related species in upland stands. Consultant top
and d.b.h. by age are proven in desk 1 for shagbark in numerous
geographic areas. Regional quantity tables for hickory bushes and
even-aged hickory stands are additionally obtainable (2,23). Hickory
usually constitutes a small share of the stocking in upland
hardwood stands and essentially the most acceptable per acre yields of such
stands are these introduced by Schnur (23), Gingrich (8), and Dale
(5).

Desk 1-Common diameter and top of shagbark
hickory in chosen geographic areas (tailored from 2)
Age D.b.h. Top
S. Indiana and
N.Kentuck¹
Ohio
Valley¹
Cumberland
Mountains²
Mississippi
Valley²
(yr) (cm) (m) (m) (m)
10 3 2.1 0.9 1.2
20 7 5.5 4.0 2.4
30 10 9.8 6.1 4.6
40 14 13.1 8.2 7.0
50 17 15.5 10.4 9.8
60 20 17.7 12.5 12.5
70 24 19.5 14.6 15.2
80 27 21.3 16.5 17.7
90 29 22.9 18.3 19.8
(yr) (in) (ft) (ft) (ft)
10 1.2 7 3 4
20 2.8 18 13 8
30 4.0 32 20 15
40 5.4 43 27 23
50 6.8 51 34 32
60 8.0 58 41 41
70 9.4 64 48 50
80 10.5 70 54 58
90 11.6 75 60 65

¹Second
development.
²Virgin forest.

Rooting Behavior- Shagbark seedlings usually
develop a big and deep taproot with few laterals. The taproot
could penetrate to a depth of 0.6 to 0.9 m (2 to three ft) within the first
Three years with a correspondingly sluggish development of seedling shoots.
Shagbark is rated as windfirm on most websites.

Response to Competitors- Shagbark hickory is classed as
intermediate in shade tolerance. Saplings and small copy
persist beneath dense overstory canopies for a few years and reply
quickly when launched (16). It’s a climax species in a lot of the
oak-hickory forest space. The comparatively sluggish development behavior of
shagbark (and different hickories) locations it at a definite
drawback beneath the even-aged administration techniques presently
really helpful for upland hardwood stands (if rotations are much less
than 100 years) (19,20,21). On most websites, top development of
hickory is slower than that of oaks and related species and by
midrotation the hickories are within the subdominant crown positions
and turn out to be prime candidates for elimination in periodic thinnings.
Since hickories are long-lived bushes and have the flexibility to
face up to shade and crowding and reply when launched, they’re
glorious species (together with white oak) for administration on lengthy
rotations (200 or extra years).

Damaging Brokers- Shagbark hickory in any respect ages is
vulnerable to wreck by hearth. Mild fires may end up in high kill
of copy and saplings (most of which later sprout). Hotter
fires could kill bigger bushes and wound others, making them topic
to butt rot and resultant degrade of lumber, lack of sound
quantity, or each (15,16). Holes made by means of the bark by
sapsuckers (birdpeck) trigger a discoloration of the wooden that
leads to the rejection of a substantial quantity of hickory
lumber (18).

Hickories are affected by not less than 133 recognized fungi and 10 different
ailments (9). Many of the fungi are saprophytes however a couple of could
trigger injury to foliage, produce cankers, or trigger trunk or root
rots.

Canker rot attributable to the fungus Poria spiculosa most likely
is essentially the most widespread and critical of the ailments of the true
hickories. Cankers type round useless department stubs and the
wood-rotting fungus can finally unfold all through the
heartwood. Although R spiculosa is the most typical trunk
rot species, a lot of fungi will rot the residing cylinder
of hickories which have been injured by hearth, logging injury, and so on.
(9).

Different frequent ailments of hickory are: anthracnose, (Gnomonia
caryae)
which causes irregular purplish- or reddish-brown
spots on the higher leaf floor and boring brown spots beneath.
These could merge to type irregular blotches and trigger defoliation
in moist seasons; mildew (Microstroma juglandis) invades
leaves and twigs and should type witches’ broom by stimulating bud
formation; bunch illness (virus) additionally will trigger witches’-brooms
related in look to these of M. Juglandis. The
virus presumably is carried by sucking bugs. Closely affected
bushes could die prematurely. Crown gall (Agrobacterium
tumefaciens)
is a bacterial illness which causes tumors or
wartlike aberrations on roots or on the base of the trunk,
ensuing finally in a gradual decline and loss of life of the tree.
A gall-forming fungus species of Phomopsis can produce
warty excrescences starting from small twig galls to very massive
trunk burls.

Not less than 180 species of bugs and mites are reported to infest
hickory bushes and wooden merchandise however few trigger critical injury. The
hickory bark beetle (Scolytus quadrispinosus) is essentially the most
vital insect enemy of hickory and different hardwoods within the
Japanese United States (1). Throughout drought durations, outbreaks
typically develop within the Southeast, and huge tracts of timber are
killed. At different instances, injury could also be confined to single bushes or
tops of bushes. The foliage of infested bushes turns pink inside a
few weeks after assault, and the bushes quickly die. Management measures
embrace felling of infested bushes and destroying the bark throughout
the winter months or storing infested logs in ponds. To be
efficient, any such management ought to be performed over massive
areas.

The twig girdler (Oncideres cingulata) and twig pruner
(Elaphidionoides villosus) typically will severely prune
closely infested shade and park bushes and may trigger distortion in
seedling and saplings in newly generated stands.

Particular Makes use of

Hickories function meals for a lot of wildlife species. The nuts are a
most popular meals of squirrels and are eaten from the time fruits
strategy maturity in early August till the availability is gone.
Hickory nuts are also 5 to 10 % of the weight-reduction plan of japanese
chipmunks. Along with the mammals above, black bears, grey
and pink foxes, rabbits, and white-footed mice plus chicken species
akin to mallards, wooden geese, bobwhites, and wild turkey make the most of
small quantities of hickory nuts (14). Hickory will not be a most popular
forage species and infrequently is browsed by deer when the vary is in
good situation. Hickory foliage is browsed by livestock solely when
different meals is scarce.

The bark texture and open irregular branching of shagbark hickory
make it a superb specimen tree for naturalistic landscapes on massive
websites. It is a crucial shade tree in beforehand wooded
residential areas. Not less than one decorative cultivar of shagbark
hickory has been reported (10), however it isn’t planted as an
decorative to any nice extent.

The species usually contributes solely a really small share of
whole biomass of a given forest stand. Its adaptability to a large
vary of web site circumstances and vigorous sprouting when minimize make
shagbark a candidate for coppice fuelwood. Nevertheless, problem in
planting and customarily sluggish development makes shagbark much less enticing
than many quicker rising species.

Hickory has historically been highly regarded as a fuelwood and as a
charcoal-producing wooden. The overall low share of hickory in
the overstory of many privately owned woodlots is due partly to
selective slicing of the hickory for fuelwood. Hickory fuelwood
has a excessive warmth worth, burns evenly, and produces long-lasting
regular warmth; the charcoal offers meals a hickory-smoked taste.

The wooden of the true hickories is thought for its energy, and no
business species of wooden is the same as it in mixed energy,
toughness, hardness, and stiffness (18). Dominant makes use of for
hickory lumber are furnishings, flooring, and gear handles. The
mixed energy, hardness, and shock resistance make it
appropriate for a lot of specialty merchandise akin to ladder rungs,
dowels, athletic items, {and gymnasium} gear.

Shagbark hickory might be the first species, after pecan (Carya
illinoensis)
, with potential for business nut manufacturing.
The nuts have candy kernels and truthful cracking high quality (which is
typically higher in cultivars). The species may be efficiently
top-grafted on shagbark, and shellbark rootstocks and grafts on
older rootstocks can bear in Three to Four years.

Genetics

Population Variations

Two kinds of shagbark hickory are acknowledged: Carya ovata
var. ovata, which incorporates C. mexicana Engelm. ex
Hemsl., and C. ovata var. australis (Ashe) Little,
generally often known as C. carolinae-septentrionalis (Ashe)
Engl. & Graebner and also known as Carolina hickory or
southern shagbark hickory (11, 12). The fruits are normally longer
than 3.5 cm (1.Four in); the darkish brown or black terminal bud scales
and the commonly lanceolate or oblanceolate terminal leaflets of
var. australis serve to separate it from var. ovata with its
smaller fruits (lower than 3.5 cm (1.Four in) lengthy), tan or gentle
brown bud scales, and normally obovate terminal leaflets.

Races

Shagbark hickory reveals all kinds in morphological
traits all through its pure vary and usually
shows appreciable variety in nut measurement, form, and colour, as
properly as in shell thickness and in sweetness of the nutmeat (16).
Primarily based on variability in measurement and form of the nut and in
character and quantity of pubescence on leaves and branches, 5
further kinds of Carya ovata have been accepted in 1933 (22),
however none of those is acknowledged by newer authors (6,12).

Hybrids

Carya ovata is reported to hybridize with C. laciniosa (C. x
dunbarii Sarg.) and C. cordiformis (C. x laneyi Sarg.), and a
cross between shagbark and pecan has been recorded. There are
5 named clones of shagbark-pecan hybrids, three cultivars for
shagbark-shellbark hybrids, and 7 cultivars of
shagbark-bitternut hybrids (13).

Literature Cited

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    Washington, DC. 64 p.
  3. Bonner, Frank T. 1976. Storage and stratification
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  4. Bonner, F. T., and L. C. Maisenhelder. 1974. Carya Nutt.
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    upland oak stands 10 years after preliminary thinning. USDA
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  6. Elias, Thomas S. 1972. The genera of Juglandaceae within the
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  7. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cowl varieties of the United
    States and Canada. Society of American Foresters,
    Washington, DC. 148 p.
  8. Gingrich, Samuel F. 1971. Administration of younger and
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  9. Hepting, George H. 1971. Ailments of forest and shade bushes
    of the USA. U.S. Division of Agriculture,
    Agriculture Handbook 386. Washington, DC. 658 p.
  10. Hyypio, Peter A. 1970. Carya ovata “Holden”, an
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    (hickory). Phytologia 19(3):186-190.
  12. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. Guidelines of United States
    bushes (native and naturalized). U.S. Division of
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  13. MacDaniels, L. H. 1969. Hickories. In Handbook of
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    The Northern Nut Growers Affiliation, Knoxville, TN.
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