Annona muricata (soursop); habit, with fruits. Waiehu, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July, 2009.

Annona muricata (soursop)

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Annona muricata (soursop)

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Photos

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Image Title Caption Copyright
Annona muricata (soursop); habit, with fruits. Waiehu, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July, 2009.

Title Behavior, with fruits
Caption Annona muricata (soursop); behavior, with fruits. Waiehu, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July, 2009.
Copyright ©Forest Starr & Kim Starr – CC BY 4.0
Annona muricata (soursop); habit, with fruits. Waiehu, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July, 2009.
Behavior, with fruits Annona muricata (soursop); behavior, with fruits. Waiehu, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July, 2009. ©Forest Starr & Kim Starr – CC BY 4.0
Annona muricata (soursop); habit. Commodore Avenue, Sand Island, Midway Atol, Hawaii, USA. June, 2008.

Title Behavior
Caption Annona muricata (soursop); behavior. Commodore Avenue, Sand Island, Halfway Atol, Hawaii, USA. June, 2008.
Copyright ©Forest Starr & Kim Starr – CC BY 4.0
Annona muricata (soursop); habit. Commodore Avenue, Sand Island, Midway Atol, Hawaii, USA. June, 2008.
Behavior Annona muricata (soursop); behavior. Commodore Avenue, Sand Island, Halfway Atol, Hawaii, USA. June, 2008. ©Forest Starr & Kim Starr – CC BY 4.0
Annona muricata (soursop); foliage. Commodore Avenue, Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June, 2008.

Title Foliage
Caption Annona muricata (soursop); foliage. Commodore Avenue, Sand Island, Halfway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June, 2008.
Copyright ©Forest Starr & Kim Starr – CC BY 4.0
Annona muricata (soursop); foliage. Commodore Avenue, Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June, 2008.
Foliage Annona muricata (soursop); foliage. Commodore Avenue, Sand Island, Halfway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June, 2008. ©Forest Starr & Kim Starr – CC BY 4.0
Annona muricata (soursop); flowers and leaves. Pali o Waipio, Maui, Hawaii, USA. November, 2012.

Title Flower
Caption Annona muricata (soursop); flowers and leaves. Pali o Waipio, Maui, Hawaii, USA. November, 2012.
Copyright ©Forest Starr & Kim Starr – CC BY 4.0
Annona muricata (soursop); flowers and leaves. Pali o Waipio, Maui, Hawaii, USA. November, 2012.
Flower Annona muricata (soursop); flowers and leaves. Pali o Waipio, Maui, Hawaii, USA. November, 2012. ©Forest Starr & Kim Starr – CC BY 4.0
Annona muricata (soursop); flower parts. Pali o Waipio, Maui, Hawaii, USA. November, 2012.

Title Flower components
Caption Annona muricata (soursop); flower components. Pali o Waipio, Maui, Hawaii, USA. November, 2012.
Copyright ©Forest Starr & Kim Starr – CC BY 4.0
Annona muricata (soursop); flower parts. Pali o Waipio, Maui, Hawaii, USA. November, 2012.
Flower components Annona muricata (soursop); flower components. Pali o Waipio, Maui, Hawaii, USA. November, 2012. ©Forest Starr & Kim Starr – CC BY 4.0
Annona muricata (soursop); foliage and fruits. Pali o Waipio Huelo, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March, 2013.

Title Foliage and fruits
Caption Annona muricata (soursop); foliage and fruits. Pali o Waipio Huelo, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March, 2013.
Copyright ©Forest Starr & Kim Starr – CC BY 4.0
Annona muricata (soursop); foliage and fruits. Pali o Waipio Huelo, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March, 2013.
Foliage and fruits Annona muricata (soursop); foliage and fruits. Pali o Waipio Huelo, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March, 2013. ©Forest Starr & Kim Starr – CC BY 4.0
Annona muricata (soursop); close view of fruit. Pali o Waipio Huelo, Mau, Hawaii, USA. March, 2013

Title Fruit
Caption Annona muricata (soursop); shut view of fruit. Pali o Waipio Huelo, Mau, Hawaii, USA. March, 2013
Copyright ©Forest Starr & Kim Starr – CC BY 4.0
Annona muricata (soursop); close view of fruit. Pali o Waipio Huelo, Mau, Hawaii, USA. March, 2013
Fruit Annona muricata (soursop); shut view of fruit. Pali o Waipio Huelo, Mau, Hawaii, USA. March, 2013 ©Forest Starr & Kim Starr – CC BY 4.0
Annona muricata (soursop); close view of fruit, infested with with scale insects and attendant ants. Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. March, 2015.

Title Fruit
Caption Annona muricata (soursop); shut view of fruit, infested with with scale bugs and attendant ants. Sand Island, Halfway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. March, 2015.
Copyright ©Forest Starr & Kim Starr – CC BY 4.0
Annona muricata (soursop); close view of fruit, infested with with scale insects and attendant ants. Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. March, 2015.
Fruit Annona muricata (soursop); shut view of fruit, infested with with scale bugs and attendant ants. Sand Island, Halfway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. March, 2015. ©Forest Starr & Kim Starr – CC BY 4.0

Id

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Most popular Scientific Identify

Most popular Frequent Identify

Different Scientific Names

  • Annona macrocarpa Barb. Rodr.
  • Annona muricata L. f. mirabilis R.E. Fr.
  • Annona muricata L. var. borinquensis Morales

Worldwide Frequent Names

  • English:
    graviola; prickly custard apple
  • Spanish:
    anona; guanabana; guanábana; guanábano; sapote agrio
  • French:
    anone; anone muriquee; cacheimantier èpineux; cachiman; cachiman èpineux; corossol; corossol épineux; corossolier; grand corossol

Native Frequent Names

  • Bolivia:
    sinini
  • Brazil:
    araticum; araticum-de-comer; araticum-do-Grande; araticum-manso; areticum; ata-coraçao-de-rainha; condessa; coraçao-de-rainha; graviola; graviola-do-norte; guanabano; jaca; jaca-de-pobre; jaca-do-pará; jaqueira-mole; pinha
  • Cambodia:
    tiep banla; tiep barang
  • China:
    ci guo fan li zhi
  • Prepare dinner Islands:
    katara‘apa; naponapo taratara
  • Fiji:
    sarifa; seremaia
  • French Polynesia:
    korosor; tapotapo papa‘a; tapotapo urupe
  • French Polynesia/Marquesas:
    koroso
  • Germany:
    Annone, Stachel-; Sauerapfelbaum; Sauersackbaum; Sauersak
  • Guam:
    laguana; laguanaba; laguanaha
  • Indonesia:
    nangka seberang; sirsak; zuurzak
  • Indonesia/Java:
    nangka belanda
  • Italy:
    annona moricata; annona spinosa; casimentaria; pomo di canella
  • Japan:
    reishi; togeban
  • Laos:
    khan thalot; khièp thét
  • Malaysia:
    durian belanda; durian blanda; durian maki; durian makkah; seri kaya belanda
  • Marshall Islands:
    jojaab; sauer sharp
  • Mexico:
    cabeza de negro; caduts-at; catuche; catucho; llama de tehuantepec; polvox; tak-ob; xunapill; zopote de viejas
  • Micronesia, Federated states of:
    saasaf; saasap
  • Myanmar:
    duyin-awza
  • Nauru:
    dawatsip
  • Netherlands:
    zuurzak; zuurzakboom
  • New Zealand:
    sasalapa
  • Niue:
    talapo fotofoto
  • Northern Mariana Islands:
    laguana; laguanaha; syasyap
  • Palau:
    sausab
  • Papua New Guinea:
    saua sap
  • Philippines:
    atti; babana; bayubana; guayabano; guiabano; guyabana; gwabana; labanus; llabanos
  • Sierra Leone:
    soursapi
  • Thailand:
    rian-nam; thu-rian-khack; thurian-khaek; thurian-thet
  • Vietnam:
    mang cân xiem; mang cau xiem

EPPO code

Abstract of Invasiveness

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A. muricata is a small American tree, maybe native to Mexico, Central America, and South America, and likewise occuring within the West Indies and Caribbean. It’s thought-about an invasive species in CenBIO (Acevedo-Rodriguez and Sturdy, 2012). The species is tolerant of poor soils, is propagated by each seed and cuttings, and has a historical past of repeated, intentional introductions in locations past its native vary (PIER, 2014). The species obtained a low danger rating of -Three in an evaluation ready for PIER (2014), indicating it isn’t at present a significant menace, however it’s included within the International Compendium of Weeds as an “agricultural weed, cultivation escape, environmental weed, naturalised, weed” (Randall, 2012), and is cited as invasive in some Pacific islands by references listed by PIER (2014). Within the Asia Pacific area it’s identified to be sometimes adventive or sparingly naturalized in components of French Polynesia (Wagner and Lorence, 2014), and has been reported to be “reasonably invasive on Nauru” and cited by PIER (2014) as invasive in components of Tonga, Hawaii and the Galapagos Islands.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Area: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Annonales
  •                         Household: Annonaceae
  •                             Genus: Annona
  •                                 Species: Annona muricata

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The genus Annona, generally referred to as the custard-apple genus, consists of about 125 species with some species broadly cultivated for his or her edible fruits and sometimes changing into naturalized past their native vary of tropical America and Africa (Wagner et al., 2014a). The genus identify Annona may very well be derived from the Latin ‘anon’, which means ‘yearly produce’, referring to “the fruit manufacturing habits of the varied species on this genus” (Orwa et al., 2009), or, in accordance with Britton and Wilson (1924), from ‘Hanon’, “an aboriginal identify for the tree in tropical America, most likely Santo Domingo”. The species identify ‘muricata’ refers back to the smooth spinules on the fruit’s exterior which have additionally led to some vernacular names, like ‘prickly custard apple’ (Quattrocchi, 2012). The frequent identify soursop refers back to the barely acidic style of the ripe fruit.

Vellozo described a species with the identify A. muricata in 1827, however that species was quickly after renamed A. montana by Macfadyen in his Flora of Jamaica in 1837. 

Description

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Wagner et al. (2014a, b) give the next description: Small tree 7.5-9 m tall, new progress puberulent with reddish brown hairs. Leaves distichous, petiolate, blade narrowly obovate, narrowly elliptic or obovate-elliptic, 6.5-20 cm lengthy, 2.5-6.5 cm vast, base acute to rounded, apex acuminate, shiny and glabrous above, strigillose alongside costa and secondary veins beneath, with barbate domatia in secondary vein axils, secondary veins 8-12 pairs, petioles thick, 5-Eight mm lengthy. Inflorescences cauliflorous or ramiferous, generally in fascicles on knobby outgrowths of trunk, or solitary and leaf-opposed, pedicels stout, 15-20 mm lengthy, 2-2.5 mm in diameter, obconical, rusty puberulent, bracteolate; sepals 3, valvate, broadly triangular, 3-Four mm lengthy, 5-6 mm vast, thick, apex acute, puberulent externally, petals thick, fleshy, glabrous, greenish-yellow to yellow, Three outer petals 30 mm lengthy, 22 mm vast, ovate, base cordate, apex acuminate, Three interior petals 20-22 mm lengthy, 10-15 mm vast, elliptic, cucullate, base acute to attenuate, apex obtuse; stamens quite a few, Four mm lengthy, 1 mm in diam., clavate with thickened apex; ovary ca. 5 mm lengthy, Eight mm vast, broadly conical, carpels densely velutinous. Fruit a big, fleshy syncarp to 30 cm lengthy, 15 cm lengthy, ovoid to rectangular, typically considerably curved, when recent inexperienced with out, the floor bearing often well-spaced, smooth, conical, curved spines 2-Three mm lengthy, the flesh white, juicy and with cotton-like fibers, surrounding the quite a few seeds. Seeds gentle to darkish brown, 13-17 mm lengthy, 9-10 mm vast, ellipsoid, compressed, with low marginal ridge; endosperm ruminate. 

This small, evergreen tree could also be slender and upright or low branching and bushy; it typically turns into straggly and untidy with age. The darkish inexperienced leaves emit a powerful odour when crushed. The flowers, which have a peculiar odor, are hermaphrodite and are sometimes produced singly or in small clusters on previous wooden. Regular fruits are typically heart-shaped to oval, but when there may be poor pollination, unfertilized ovules fail to develop and the ensuing fruit assumes distorted irregular shapes and is normally undersized. The darkish inexperienced pores and skin has many recurved, smooth spines 0.5-1.Three cm aside. There may be typically a constriction like a fault on the aspect of the fruit, the place the pores and skin has not swollen and the spines are a lot nearer collectively. The fruit stalk is about 3-Eight cm lengthy and woody. The ripe pulp, which adheres to the pores and skin however is definitely separated into segments (which have been the separate ovaries), has an agreeable subacid flavour with a definite aroma (Janick and Paull, 2008).

Plant Kind

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Perennial
Seed propagated
Shrub
Tree
Vegetatively propagated
Woody

Distribution

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A. muricata is of tropical American origin though its precise origin is unknown (PIER, 2014; Wagner et al., 2014a); it’s most likely native in Central America and in northern South America (Hanelt et al., 2001). It’s identified to be cultivated in Africa (primarily the nice and cozy lowlands of jap and western Africa), temperate and tropical Asia, Australasia, North America, the south-central Pacific Islands, the Caribbean, and Mesoamerica (USDA-ARS, 2014).

Some variations have been discovered between sources as to the place the species is native. It’s reported by some authorities as unique to the Caribbean and West Indies together with Puerto Rico (Acevedo-Rodriguez and Sturdy, 2012; Randall, 2012), but it surely was listed as native to Puerto Rico by USDA-NRCS (2014) and as native to Caribbean territories by ITIS (2014). Hanelt et al. (2001) stories the species to be “discovered wild and cultivated from sea stage to 1000 m within the Antilles and from south Mexico to Peru and north Argentina”, though the species is reported as unique within the Lesser Antilles (Acevedo-Rodriguez and Sturdy, 2012).

Distribution Desk

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The distribution on this abstract desk is predicated on all the data accessible. When a number of references are cited, they could give conflicting info on the standing. Additional particulars could also be accessible for particular person references within the Distribution Desk Particulars part which might be chosen by going to Generate Report.

Final up to date: 10 Jan 2020

Continent/Nation/Area Distribution Final Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Planted Reference Notes

Africa

Seychelles Current Launched PIER (2014) Cultivated

Asia

Cambodia Current USDA-ARS (2014) Cultivated
China Current Launched Flora of China Editorial Committee (2014); PIER (2014); USDA-ARS (2014) Cultivated
India Current Launched USDA-ARS (2014) Cultivated
Indonesia Current Launched USDA-ARS (2014) Cultivated
Laos Current Launched USDA-ARS (2014) Cultivated
Malaysia Current Launched USDA-ARS (2014) Cultivated
Maldives Current PIER (2014)
Myanmar Current Kress et al. (2003)
Pakistan Current Launched Flora of Pakistan (2014)
Philippines Current Launched Brown (1950); Hanelt et al. (2001); Randall (2012); Pelser et al. (2014); USDA-ARS (2014); CABI (Undated)
Singapore Current Launched Chong et al. (2009)
Sri Lanka Current USDA-ARS (2014) Cultivated
Taiwan Current Launched PIER (2014); USDA-ARS (2014) Cultivated
Thailand Current USDA-ARS (2014) Cultivated
Vietnam Current USDA-ARS (2014) Cultivated

North America

Antigua and Barbuda Current Launched Acevedo-Rodríguez and Sturdy (2012)
Barbados Current Launched Acevedo-Rodríguez and Sturdy (2012)
Cayman Islands Current Launched Acevedo-Rodríguez and Sturdy (2012)
Costa Rica Current Flora Mesoamericana (2014)
Cuba Current Launched Acevedo-Rodríguez and Sturdy (2012); CABI (Undated)
Dominican Republic Current Launched Acevedo-Rodríguez and Sturdy (2012)
El Salvador Current Flora Mesoamericana (2014)
Grenada Current Launched Acevedo-Rodríguez and Sturdy (2012)
Guadeloupe Current Launched Acevedo-Rodríguez and Sturdy (2012)
Guatemala Current Badrie and Schauss (2010); Flora Mesoamericana (2014)
Haiti Current Launched Acevedo-Rodríguez and Sturdy (2012)
Honduras Current Granadino and Cave (1997); Flora Mesoamericana (2014)
Jamaica Current Launched Acevedo-Rodríguez and Sturdy (2012); MacFadyen (1837)
Martinique Current Launched Acevedo-Rodríguez and Sturdy (2012)
Mexico Current Native Acevedo-Rodríguez and Sturdy (2012); Flora Mesoamericana (2014)
Montserrat Current Launched Acevedo-Rodríguez and Sturdy (2012)
Netherlands Antilles Current Launched Acevedo-Rodríguez and Sturdy (2012)
Nicaragua Current Flora of Nicaragua (2014)
Panama Current Flora Mesoamericana (2014); CABI (Undated) Canal Space, Veraguas, San Blas
Puerto Rico Current Launched Acevedo-Rodríguez and Sturdy (2012); Randall (2012); USDA-NRCS (2014); CABI (Undated)
Saint Lucia Current Launched Acevedo-Rodríguez and Sturdy (2012)
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Current Launched Acevedo-Rodríguez and Sturdy (2012)
Trinidad and Tobago Current Launched Acevedo-Rodríguez and Sturdy (2012); CABI (Undated)
U.S. Virgin Islands Current Launched Acevedo-Rodríguez and Sturdy (2012)
United States Current CABI (Undated a) Current primarily based on regional distribution.
-Hawaii Current Launched Invasive PIER (2014); Wagner et al. (2014)

Oceania

American Samoa Current Launched PIER (2014)
Australia Current USDA-ARS (2014) Cultivated
Christmas Island Current Launched Invasive PIER (2014)
Prepare dinner Islands Current Launched PIER (2014)
Federated States of Micronesia Current Launched Wagner et al. (2014a) Caroline Islands – (Kosrae, Mwokil, Namoluk), Belau (Babeldaob, Beliliou, Oreor, Pulo Anna, Sonsorol), Corridor Islands (Murilo), Mortlock (Lukunor, Satawan), Pohnpei (Pohnpei), Truk Islands (Dublon, Moen, Tol, Udot), Yap Islands (Yap)
French Polynesia Current Launched Invasive PIER (2014)
-Marquesas Islands Current Launched Naturalized Wagner and Lorence (2014) Within the Marquesas, naturalized on Nuku Hiva, Ua Huka, Ua Pou, Hiva Oa, Tahuata. Often adventive or sparingly naturalized
Guam Current Launched PIER (2014)
Marshall Islands Current Wagner et al. (2014a) Ralik Chain (Jaluit), Ratak Chain (Majuro)
Nauru Current Launched Invasive PIER (2014)
Niue Current Launched PIER (2014)
Northern Mariana Islands Current Wagner et al. (2014a) Agrihan, Rota, Saipan, Tinian
Palau Current Launched PIER (2014); Wagner et al. (2014a) Babeldaob, Beliliou, Oreor, Pulo Anna, Sonsorol
Papua New Guinea Current Launched PIER (2014); USDA-ARS (2014) Cultivated
Samoa Current Launched PIER (2014)
Solomon Islands Current Launched PIER (2014)
Tonga Current Launched Invasive PIER (2014)
United States Minor Outlying Islands
-Wake Island Current Wagner et al. (2014a)
Vanuatu Current Launched Randall (2012); PIER (2014) On an inventory of ‘frequent weeds of Vanuatu’
Wallis and Futuna Current Launched PIER (2014)

South America

Bolivia Current Launched Naturalized CABI (Undated) ‘Naturalized’ in Beni, Santa Cruz, La Paz, Pando, Cochabamba; Unique quotation: Bolivia Guidelines (2014)
Brazil Current Planted CABI (Undated b)
Colombia Current Planted Vascular Crops of Antioquia (2014)
Ecuador Current Native Vascular Crops of Ecuador (2014); Clark et al. (2006) Esmeraldas, Guayas, Imbabura, Los Ríos, Manabí, Morona-Santiago, Napo
-Galapagos Islands Current Launched Invasive Charles Darwin Basis (2008)
French Guiana Current Funk et al. (2007)
Guyana Current Funk et al. (2007)
Paraguay Current Launched CABI (Undated) Unique quotation: Paraguay Guidelines (2014)
Peru Current CABI (Undated) Loreto; Unique quotation: Peru Guidelines (2014)
Suriname Current Funk et al. (2007); CABI (Undated)
Venezuela Current Funk et al. (2007); CABI (Undated)

Historical past of Introduction and Unfold

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A. muricata is of tropical American origin (PIER, 2014; Wagner et al., 2014a), and it’s most likely native to Central America and northern South America (Hanelt et al., 2001; Acevedo-Rodriguez and Sturdy, 2012). Archaeological proof signifies each A. muricata and A. cherimola have been current in pre-Hispanic Peru somewhat than an introduction by Spaniards, as was thought by 17th-century data (Bonavia et al., 2004). It was one of many first fruit timber carried from America to the Outdated World Tropics (Morton, 1987). Each A. cherimola and A. muricata have been launched to Asia by the use of the Spanish galleon commerce at an early date, and A. muricata is now broadly cultivated throughout the Asia Pacific area for its edible fruit (Koesriharti, 1991; PIER, 2014).

Date of introduction of A. muricata to the West Indies and Caribbean area is unsure, but it surely was noticed rising in Jamaica within the early 16th century by Sir Hans Sloane, who collected a specimen that’s now within the Sloane herbarium of the UK Pure Historical past Museum in London (specimen BM000594141). Morton (1987) states that Oviedo described the fruit as considerable within the West Indies and in northern South America in 1526. The species has been current in Puerto Rico since earlier than the 1880’s, because it was included in each Bello’s (1883) and Britton and Wilson’s (1924) works on Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. It has been grown in Florida since most likely the 1870s (Morton, 1987).

Habitat

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A. muricata, though broadly cultivated, happens in thickets, hillsides, mountain woodlands, and shaded ravines in Puerto Rico (Britton and Wilson, 1924; Liogier and Martorell, 2000) and in humid premontane forests in Colombia (Vascular Crops of Antioquia, 2014). In Bolivia the species happens in lowland rainforests (Bolivia Guidelines, 2014). It is usually cultivated in coastal, island, and Amazonian components of Ecuador, the place the species is native (Vascular Crops of Ecuador, 2014). The species has additionally been reported to happen in disturbed lowland areas (Peru Guidelines, 2014). 

Habitat Checklist

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Class Sub-Class Habitat Presence Standing
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – Managed Cultivated / agricultural land

Current, no additional particulars

Productive/non-natural

Disturbed areas

Current, no additional particulars

Productive/non-natural

Terrestrial ‑ Pure / Semi-natural Pure forests

Current, no additional particulars

Pure

Pure forests

Current, no additional particulars

Productive/non-natural

Littoral
Coastal areas

Current, no additional particulars

Pure

Coastal areas

Current, no additional particulars

Productive/non-natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

1n = 8; 2n = 14 (IPCN Chromosome Stories, 2014).

Reproductive Biology

Timber might be propagated clonally, particularly by means of varied budding and grafting strategies on seedling shares, as is the apply in components of America (e.g. Columbia, Venezuela). Nonetheless, the species is often raised from seed (Morton, 1987).

Development and Improvement

A. muricata branches freely by means of the emergence of sylleptic shoots. Extension progress can happen at any time of the 12 months and proceeds pretty steadily; there aren’t any outstanding flushes. The emergence of flower buds follows extension progress. The place of the flowers – primarily terminal on quick shoots and wherever alongside the axis of lengthy shoots – means that they’re initiated terminally, the meristem being pushed to a lateral place as extension progress of the shoot is resumed. A dry season imposes synchronous shoot progress and flowering, resulting in a harvest peak three months later, however the synchronization is regularly misplaced in the middle of the wet season. Annona species typically require 27-35 days for flower bud growth from initiation to anthesis. The soursop produces fruit all year long, however peak manufacturing in most areas comes throughout summer time and early autumn, generally with a secondary peak throughout early spring. No photoperiod responses have been reported (Janick and Paull, 2008). Pure pollination in soursop is complicated and normally ends in very low fruit set and yields, with wind- and self-pollination being low (1.5%). The flowers are protandrous, the pollen is shed because the outer petals open in the direction of the night. The interior petals open a lot later and solely very barely, admitting small bugs attracted by the perfume of the flowers. Presumably these bugs impact cross-pollination, although somewhat inadequately, for few flowers set fruit and lots of fruits are misshapen as quite a few ovules will not be fertilized. These nitidulid beetles (Carpophilus and Uroporus spp.) are thought-about essential pollinators, though no important impact has been noticed from their presence in some instances. These beetles breed very quick within the stays of fruit, so it’s endorsed to retain rotting fruit as an attractant. Some stories have indicated that the presence of three nitidulid beetles per flower can improve fruit set by 25% (Southampton Centre for Underutilized Crops, 2006). Insufficient pollination seems to be the primary issue limiting yield and hand pollination is commonly beneficial for industrial manufacturing. Nonetheless, it’s possible solely the place there’s a particular flowering interval. Typically, very environment friendly hand pollination can lead to important financial returns from increased fruit set and bigger and extra symmetrical fruit. Success in hand pollination is typically variable, being much less profitable on very humid overcast days and with younger, vigorous timber. About 150 flowers might be pollinated by a talented labourer in 1 h with a hit fee of 80-100% (Paull and Duarte, 2012).

Fruit progress exhibits the everyday sigmoidal curve with maturation occurring in 16-24 weeks. Low humidity <60% RH) and temperature <13°C) close to fruit maturity can improve the severity of fruit pores and skin russeting in addition to delaying maturation.

Environmental Necessities

A. muricata requires a heat and humid tropical local weather, prefers well-drained and unfastened, pretty wealthy, deep loamy soil with a pH vary of 5-6.5, is illiberal of waterlogged soil, and might be stunted or killed by chilly spells or gentle frost because the tree is shallow-rooted (Koesriharti, 1991; Orwa et al., 2009). Defoliation and an interruption of fruiting happen when the temperature drops to close freezing. Nonetheless, soursops are able to rising in a variety of soil varieties from sandy to clay loams supplied that the soil has good drainage. Though the tree is often grown on barely acid soils with optimum pH at 5-6.5, it additionally grows on the porous, oolitic limestone of south Florida and the Bahamas. Greater and extra constant yields are obtained on timber grown on well-drained sandy to sandy loam soils. Waterlogging is a significant reason behind floral abscission and root rot resembling bacterial wilt attributable to Pseudomonas spp. Soursop can’t tolerate standing water for any size of time however will tolerate dry soil circumstances. A dry season enhances leaf fall and synchronizes extension progress and flowering to some extent. Poor pollination is a frequent drawback and happens at excessive temperature (30°C) and low humidity (30% relative humidity (RH)), even with hand pollination. Decrease temperature (25°C) and excessive humidity (80% RH) drastically improves pollination (Janick and Paull, 2008).

The smooth wooden of the timber makes them vulnerable to wind harm and limb breakage. Wind may be partially chargeable for the penetration of collar rot organisms. Fruit productiveness is improved by the supply of windbreaks.

Its altitudinal vary is reportedly 0-2000 m; in Bolivia and Peru the species has been reported rising at 0-500 m (Bolivia Guidelines, 2014; Peru Guidelines, 2014), whereas in Colombia and Nicaragua, the species is cultivated at elevations of 0-1000 m (Flora of Nicaragua, 2014; Vascular Crops of Antioquia, 2014), and in Panama it reportedly grows at elevations as much as 2000 m (Panama Guidelines, 2014).

Local weather

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Local weather Standing Description Comment
Af – Tropical rainforest local weather Most popular

> 60mm precipitation per 30 days
As – Tropical savanna local weather with dry summer time Most popular

< 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer time) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw – Tropical moist and dry savanna local weather Most popular

< 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cf – Heat temperate local weather, moist all 12 months Tolerated

Heat common temp. > 10°C, Chilly common temp. > 0°C, moist all 12 months
Cs – Heat temperate local weather with dry summer time Tolerated

Heat common temp. > 10°C, Chilly common temp. > 0°C, dry summers

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N) Latitude South (°S) Altitude Decrease (m) Altitude Higher (m)
23 -25 0 1000

Air Temperature

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Parameter Decrease restrict Higher restrict
Absolute minimal temperature (ºC) 5
Imply annual temperature (ºC) 18 25

Rainfall

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Parameter Decrease restrict Higher restrict Description
Imply annual rainfall 1000 2500 mm; decrease/higher limits

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

Soil response

Soil texture

Technique of Motion and Dispersal

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Pure Dispersal

The species’ seeds are contained inside giant fruits generally weighing as much as 4.5 kg (Flora of Pakistan, 2014) and even 5 kg (Brown, 1950), making its dispersal by wind or water unlikely. Its trademark spinules are additionally unlikely to perform as burrs to connect to animals, contemplating the burden of the fruit. 

Vector Transmission (Biotic)

Fruits are edible and generally eaten by people, animals together with “horses, cows, hogs, and certainly each description of inventory are keen on it” (Macfadyen, 1837), in addition to bats (Koesriharti, 1991), all of which can serve to disperse the species’ seeds.

Unintentional Introduction

The species is thought to have escaped from cultivation and be by accident launched to non-native environments (Randall, 2012).

Intentional Introduction

A. muricata was one of many first vegetation to be launched from the New World to the Outdated Tropics as a crop plant and is now broadly cultivated throughout humid tropical areas of the world for its edible fruit.

Pathway Causes

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Trigger Notes Lengthy Distance Native References
Crop manufacturing Launched all over the world to be used as a crop plant Sure Sure Koesriharti,
1991; USDA-ARS,
2014
Digestion and excretion Fruit is edible and engaging to people, livestock, wild animals, and bats Sure Koesriharti,
1991; MacFadyen,
1837
Escape from confinement or backyard escape Escaped from cultivation Sure Sure Randall,
2012
Forage Fruit is edible and engaging to people, livestock, wild animals, and bats Sure Koesriharti,
1991; MacFadyen,
1837
Medicinal use Sure Hanelt et al.,
2001
Folks foraging Sure Koesriharti,
1991; MacFadyen,
1837

Influence Abstract

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Class Influence
Cultural/amenity

Optimistic

Financial/livelihood

Optimistic and detrimental

Atmosphere (typically)

Unfavourable

Human well being

Optimistic

Danger and Influence Components

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Invasiveness

  • Ample in its native vary
  • Tolerates, or advantages from, cultivation, searching strain, mutilation, hearth and many others
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Has propagules that may stay viable for multiple 12 months
  • Reproduces asexually

Influence outcomes

  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts human well being

Influence mechanisms

  • Produces spines, thorns or burrs

Probability of entry/management

  • Extremely prone to be transported internationally intentionally

Makes use of

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A. muricata is mostly identified for its edible fruits. Macfadyen’s flora of Jamaica (1837) describes how the species’ fruit may very well be “eaten plain, or blended with sugar and water, to which wine and nutmeg are generally added. Horses, cows, hogs, and certainly each description of inventory are keen on it”. The fruit pulp is used for making sherbets, ice cream, jellies, and different desserts, in addition to a drink as in Java, Cuba, and components of America (Brown, 1950; Koesriharti, 1991; Flora of Pakistan, 2014). In Indonesia the fruit pulp is boiled and blended with sugar to make sweetcake (‘dodol sirsak’), and within the Philippines younger fruits are eaten as a vegetable (Koesriharti, 1991). The species is troublesome to provide for large-scale, international industrial functions, as “yields are typically low: one or two dozen fruit per tree per 12 months, every fruit weighing greater than 1 kg on common” and “Mature, agency fruit ripen 3—5 days after harvest and might be held solely 2—Three days thereafter, even when cooled. Thus, harvested fruit needs to be dispatched to distant markets at once. Due to their tender pores and skin, fruit needs to be dealt with with nice care”; “due to erratic yield and quick shelf life, manufacturing of soursop is simply too scattered to provide a considerable processing trade. Presumably this is the reason soursop rising in South-East Asia has not expanded convincingly in current occasions” and “worldwide commerce is nearly restricted to processed merchandise” (Koesriharti, 1991).

Along with its use as a meals crop, the seeds and most of the plant components of A. muricata are utilized in conventional medication (Hanelt et al., 2001; Orwa et al., 2009; USDA-ARS, 2014). Badrie and Schauss (2010) report a few of its makes use of in conventional Indian medication in addition to in Jamaica, Haiti, Brazil, the Peruvian Amazon for the remedy of kidney issues, fever, nervousness, ulcers and wounds, with antispasmodic, antidysenteric, and parasiticidal exercise, its leaves for fever, its bark as tonic, roots as antispasmodic and parasiticidal, its flowers as bechic [relieving coughs], unripe fruit as antiscrobutic; and seeds as insecticidal, astringent, and as a fish-poison. The plant is utilized in Ayurvedic medication as a bitter, tonic, abortifacient, febrifuge, for scorpion stings, hypertension, and as a respiratory stimulant. It has turn into common as a substitute treatment for most cancers, and whereas there may be thus far no proof to assist this from scientific trials, some current laboratory analysis means that extracts can act towards most cancers cells (Pieme et al., 2014; Yang et al., 2015). Sadly, the fruit and seeds additionally include annonacin, which has been demonstrated to be poisonous in vitro and in vivo to dopaminergic and different neurons, and consumption of the fruit has been related to an elevated danger of growing atypical parkinsonism in people (Lannuzel et al., 2006; Badrie and Schauss, 2010).

A. muricata has additionally been utilized in agriculture as an intercrop species. Koesriharti, (1991) stories that “being a small and early-bearing tree, the soursop could also be planted as an intercrop between bigger fruit timber resembling mango, avocado, and santol. When the primary crop requires the house, the soursop timber are grubbed out”.

The seeds of the fruit possess insecticidal properties and have been used for this goal (Hanelt et al., 2001; Flora of Pakistan, 2014)

Makes use of Checklist

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Environmental

Human meals and beverage

  • Beverage base
  • Fruits
  • Vegetable

Supplies

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

Bibliography

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Sunarjono H, 1987. Fruit rising [Indonesian]. Sinar Baru. Bandung, Indonesia,191-195.

Lam PF, Zaipun MZ, 1986. Respiration charges, ethylene productions and chemical compositions of various maturity of soursop (Annona muricata L.) at varied temperatures. MARDI Analysis Bulletin (Malaysia), 14(3): 231-235.

Nakasone HY, 1972. Manufacturing feasibility for soursop. Hawaii Farm Science, 21(1): 10-11.

Rismunandar, 1983. Improvement of fruit crops [Indonesian]. Sinar Baru. Bandung, Indonesia, 147-151.

van der Pijl L, 1953. On the flower biology of some vegetation from Java with common remarks on fly-traps. Annales Bogoriensis, 1: 77-99.

Wijaya, 1988. Plasma nutfah sirsak [Soursop germplasm]. Warta Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian (Departemen Pertanian Republik Indonesia), 10(6): 1-2.

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Sturdy MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Crops of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Establishment. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Badrie N, Schauss AG, 2010. Soursop (Annona muricata L.): Composition, Dietary Worth, Medicinal Makes use of, and Toxicology. In: Bioactive meals in selling well being [ed. by Watson, R. R. Preedy, V. R.]. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Tutorial Press, 621-643.

Barbeau G, 1994. Stock of tropical fruit timber in Central America and the West Indies. Fruits (Paris), 49(5/6):383-389, 469-474.

Bello D, 1883. [English title not available]. (Apuntes para la flora de Puerto Rico. Segunda parte. Monoclamídeas.) Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Pure, 12:103-130.

Bolivia Guidelines, 2014. Catalogue of the Vascular Crops of Bolivia, Tropicos web site. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Backyard and Harvard College Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/NameSearch.aspx?projectid=13

Bonavia D, Ochoa CM, O´scar TS, Palomino RC, 2004. Archaeological proof of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.) and Guanabana (Annona muricata L.) in historical Peru. Financial Botany, 58(4):509-522.

Britton NL, Wilson P, 1924. Scientific Survey of Porto Rico and the Virgin islands, Quantity V, Botany of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands. New York Academy of Sciences, New York.

Brown WH, 1950. Helpful Crops of the Philippines, Quantity 1:590 pp. [Commonwealth of the Philippines Department of Agriculture and Commerce, Technical Bulletin no 10.]

Carbajal D, Casaco A, Arruzazabala L, Gonzalez R, Fuentes V, 1991. Pharmacological screening of plant decoctions generally utilized in Cuban folks medication. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 33(1-2):21-24; 7 ref.

Chan YK, Subhadrabandhu S, 1992. Breeding and varietal enchancment of tropical fruits at MARDI. Frontier in tropical fruit analysis. Proceedings of worldwide symposium held on 20-24 Might 1991, Pattaya Metropolis, Thailand. Acta-Horticulturae, No. 321, 138-151; 12 ref.

Charles Darwin Basis, 2008. Database stock of launched plant species within the rural and concrete zones of Galapagos. Database stock of launched plant species within the rural and concrete zones of Galapagos. Galapagos, Ecuador: Charles Darwin Basis, unpaginated.

Chong KY, Tan HTW, Corlett RT, 2009. A guidelines of the full vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Analysis, Nationwide College of Singapore, 273 pp. http://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/nus/pdf/PUBLICATION/LKCNH%20Museum%20Books/LKCNHM%20Books/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

Clark JL, Neill DA, Asanza M, 2006. Floristic guidelines of the Mache-Chindul Mountains of northwest Ecuador. Contributions from the USA Nationwide Herbarium, 54:180 pp.

Elzebroek, T., Wind, Okay., 2008. Information to cultivated vegetation., Information to cultivated vegetation:vii-xi + 516 pp.

Flora Mesoamericana, 2014. Flora Mesoamericana. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Backyard. http://www.tropicos.org/Mission/FM

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Backyard and Harvard College Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of Nicaragua, 2014. Flora of Nicaragua, Tropicos web site. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Backyard and Harvard College Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/NameSearch.aspx?projectid=7

Flora of Pakistan, 2014. Flora of Pakistan/Pakistan Plant Database (PPD). Tropicos web site St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Backyard and Harvard College Herbaria. http://www.tropicos.org/Mission/Pakistan

Funk V, Hollowell T, Berry P, Kelloff C, Alexander SN, 2007. Guidelines of the vegetation of the Guiana Protect (Venezuela: Amazonas, Bolivar, Delta Amacuro; Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana). Contributions from the USA Nationwide Herbarium, 584 pp.

Gbeassor M, Kedjagni AY, Koumaglo Okay, Souza C de, Agbo Okay, Aklikokou Okay, Amegbo KA, 1990. In vitro antimalarial exercise of six medicinal vegetation. Phytotherapy Analysis, 4(3):115-117; 10 ref.

Granadino CA, Cave RD, 1994. Stock of arthropods and pathogenic fungi of Annona in 4 localities of Honduras. Turrialba, 44(3):129-139; 5 ref.

Granadino CA, Cave RD, 1997. Inside-tree distribution of seven insect pests of soursop (Annona muricata) in Honduras. CEIBA, 38(2):161-166.

Hanelt P, Buttner R, Mansfeld R, 2001. Mansfeld’s Encyclopedia of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops (besides Ornamentals). Berlin, Germany: Springer.

IPCN Chromosome Stories, 2014. Index to Plant Chromosome Numbers (IPCN), Tropicos web site. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Backyard. http://tropicos.org/Mission/IPCN

ITIS, 2014. Built-in Taxonomic Info System. http://www.itis.gov

Janick, J., Paull, R. E., 2008. The encyclopedia of fruit & nuts., The encyclopedia of fruit & nuts:xviii + 954 pp.

Koesriharti, 1991. Annona muricata L. In: Plant Sources of South-East Asia (PROSEA) No. 2: Edible fruits and nuts [ed. by Verheij, E. W. M. Coronel, R.]. Leiden, The Netherlands: Backhuys Writer, 75-78.

Kress WJ, Defilipps RA, Farr E, Kyi DYY, 2003. A guidelines of the timber, shrubs, herbs, and climbers of Myanmar. Contributions from the USA Nationwide Herbarium, 45:1-590.

Kroll R, 1996. Les petits fruits [Small fruits]. Paris, France; Editions Maisonneuve et Larose: 142 pp.

Lannuzel A, Hoglinger GU, Champy P, Michel PP, Hirsch EC, Ruberg M, 2006. Is atypical parkinsonism within the Caribbean attributable to the consumption of Annonaceae? Journal of Neural Transmission, 70(Complement):153-157.

Liogier HA, Martorell LF, 2000. Flora of Puerto Rico and adjoining islands: a scientific synopsis, 2nd version revised. San Juan, Puerto Rico: La Editorial, College of Puerto Rico, 382 pp.

Litz, R. E., 2004. Biotechnology of fruit and nut crops., Biotechnology of fruit and nut crops:xxiv + 723 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/e-book/20053001306

MacFadyen J, 1837. The flora of Jamaica: An outline of the vegetation of that island. London, UK: Longman, Orme, Brown, Inexperienced & Longman, 351 pp.

Marte R, 1986. Nontraditional fruit crops within the Windward Islands. Proceedings of the Interamerican Society for Tropical Horticulture, 30:15-24

Medina M R, 1987. Scheme for agroforestry growth in Unit I of the Ticoporo forest reserve, Barinas property. [Esquema para el desarrollo agroforestal en la Unidad I de la reserva forestal de Ticoporo en el estado Barinas.] Venezuela Forestal, 3(11):28-49; 11 ref.

Merrill ED, 1912. A Flora of Manila. Manila, Philippines: Bur. Printing.

Merrill ED, 1912. A Flora of Manila. Manila, Philippines: Manila Bureau of Printing.

Morton JF, 1987. Fruits of Heat Climates. Miami, USA: J.F. Morton, 517 pp.

Orwa C, Mutua A, Kindt R, Jamnadass R, Simons A, 2009. Agroforestree Database: a tree reference and choice information model 4.0. World Agroforestry Centre. http://www.worldagroforestry.org/af/treedb/

Panama Guidelines, 2014. Flora of Panama Guidelines, Tropicos web site. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Backyard and Harvard College Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/Mission/PAC

Paraguay Guidelines, 2014. Paraguay Guidelines. St. Louis, MO, USA: Missouri Botanical Backyard. http://tropicos.org/Mission/Paraguay

Paull, R. E., Duarte, O., 2012. Tropical fruits, Quantity 2., Tropical fruits, Quantity 2:ix + 371 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/e-book/20123357661

Pelser PB, Barcelona JF, Nickrent DL, 2014. Co’s Digital Flora of the Philippines. www.philippineplants.org

Peru Guidelines, 2014. The Catalogue of the Flowering Crops and Gymnosperms of Peru. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Backyard. http://www.tropicos.org/Mission/PEC

Phillips-Mora W, 1993. Proceedings of the regional seminar ‘Shade timber and crops related to cocoa, 9-11 October 1991, Turrialba, Costa Rica. Serie Te^acute~cnica: Informe Te^acute~cnico – Centro Agrono^acute~mico Tropical de Investigacio^acute~n y Ensen^tilde~anza, No. 206:222 pp.; ref.

Pieme CA, Kumar SG, Dongmo MS, Moukette BM, Boyoum FF, Ngogang JY, Saxena AK, 2014. Antiproliferative exercise and induction of apoptosis by Annona muricata (Annonaceae) extract on human most cancers cells. BMC Complementary and Various Drugs, 14(516):(24 December 2014). http://www.biomedcentral.com/content material/pdf/1472-6882-14-516.pdf

PIER, 2014. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Danger. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, College of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Quattrocchi U, 2012. CRC world dictionary of medicinal and toxic vegetation: frequent names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology [ed. by Quattrocchi, U.]. London, UK: CRC Press Inc., 3960 pp.

Randall RP, 2012. A International Compendium of Weeds. Perth, Australia: Division of Agriculture and Meals Western Australia, 1124 pp. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf

Trinh Thuong Mai, 1995. Fruit timber in Vietnam. Chronica Horticulturae, 35(3):8-9; Three pl.

USA Nationwide Academy of Sciences, 1975. Underexploited tropical vegetation with promising financial worth. Underexploited tropical vegetation with promising financial worth., 188 pp.; [many pl.].

USDA-ARS, 2014. Germplasm Sources Info Community (GRIN). On-line Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: Nationwide Germplasm Sources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2014. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: Nationwide Plant Information Heart. http://vegetation.usda.gov/

Vascular Crops of Antioquia, 2014. Catalogue of the Vascular Crops of the Division of Antioquia (Colombia), Tropicos web site. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Backyard and Harvard College Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/Mission/CV

Vascular Crops of Ecuador, 2014. Catalogue of the Vascular Crops of Ecuador, Tropicos web site. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Backyard and Harvard College Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/Mission/CE

Verheij EWM, Coronel RE(Editors), 1991. Plant assets of South-East Asia. No. 2. Edible fruits and nuts. Wageningen, Netherlands; Pudoc, 446 pp.

Wagner WL, Herbst DR, Lorence DH, 2014. Flora of the Hawaiian Islands web site. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Establishment,. http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/hawaiianflora/index.htm

Wagner WL, Herbst DR, Tornabene MW, Weitzman A, Lorence DH, 2014. Flora of Micronesia web site. Washington DC: Smithsonian Establishment. http://botany.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/micronesia/index.htm

Wagner WL, Lorence DH, 2014. Flora of the Marquesas Islands web site. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Establishment. http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/marquesasflora/index.htm

Yang C, Gundala SR, Rao Mukkavilli, Subrahmanyam Vangala, Reid MD, Ritu Aneja, 2015. Synergistic interactions amongst flavonoids and acetogenins in Graviola (Annona muricata) leaves confer safety towards prostate most cancers. Carcinogenesis, 36(6):656-665. http://carcin.oxfordjournals.org/content material/36/6/656.full

Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Sturdy M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Crops of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Establishment. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Badrie N, Schauss AG, 2010. Soursop (Annona muricata L.): Composition, Dietary Worth, Medicinal Makes use of, and Toxicology. In: Bioactive meals in selling well being, [ed. by Watson RR, Preedy VR]. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Tutorial Press. 621-643.

Brown WH, 1950. Helpful Crops of the Philippines. In: Commonwealth of the Philippines Division of Agriculture and Commerce, Technical Bulletin no 10, 1 590 pp.

CABI, Undated. Compendium document. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Standing inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Standing as decided by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Charles Darwin Basis, 2008. Database stock of launched plant species within the rural and concrete zones of Galapagos. In: Database stock of launched plant species within the rural and concrete zones of Galapagos, Galapagos, Ecuador: Charles Darwin Basis. unpaginated.

Chong Okay Y, Tan H T W, Corlett R T, 2009. A guidelines of the full vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Analysis, Nationwide College of Singapore. 273 pp. https://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/app/uploads/2017/04/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

Clark J L, Neill D A, Asanza M, 2006. Contributions from the USA Nationwide Herbarium, Washington, USA: Division of Systematic Biology – Botany, Nationwide Museum of Pure Historical past, Smithsonian Establishment. 54, 180 pp.

Flora Mesoamericana, 2014. Flora Mesoamericana., St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Backyard. http://www.tropicos.org/Mission/FM

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. Flora of China., St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Backyard and Harvard College Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of Nicaragua, 2014. Flora of Nicaragua, Tropicos web site., St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Backyard and Harvard College Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/NameSearch.aspx?projectid=7

Flora of Pakistan, 2014. Flora of Pakistan/Pakistan Plant Database (PPD)., St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Backyard and Harvard College Herbaria. http://www.tropicos.org/Mission/Pakistan

Funk V, Hollowell T, Berry P, Kelloff C, Alexander S N, 2007. Contributions from the USA Nationwide Herbarium, Washington, USA: Division of Systematic Biology – Botany, Nationwide Museum of Pure Historical past, Smithsonian Establishment. 55, 584 pp.

Granadino C A, Cave R D, 1997. Inside-tree distribution of seven insect pests of soursop (Annona muricata) in Honduras. CEIBA. 38 (2), 161-166.

Hanelt P, Buttner R, Mansfeld R, 2001. Mansfeld’s Encyclopedia of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops (besides Ornamentals). Berlin, Germany: Springer. 539 pp.

Kress WJ, Defilipps RA, Farr E, Kyi DYY, 2003. A guidelines of the timber, shrubs, herbs, and climbers of Myanmar. In: Contributions from the USA Nationwide Herbarium, 45 1-590.

MacFadyen J, 1837. The flora of Jamaica: An outline of the vegetation of that island., London, UK: Longman, Orme, Brown, Inexperienced & Longman. 351 pp.

Pelser PB, Barcelona JF, Nickrent DL, 2014. Co’s Digital Flora of the Philippines., http://www.philippineplants.org

PIER, 2014. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Danger., Honolulu, USA: HEAR, College of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Randall RP, 2012. A International Compendium of Weeds., Perth, Australia: Division of Agriculture and Meals Western Australia. 1124 pp. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf

USDA-ARS, 2014. Germplasm Sources Info Community (GRIN). On-line Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: Nationwide Germplasm Sources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2014. The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: Nationwide Plant Information Staff. https://vegetation.sc.egov.usda.gov

Vascular Crops of Antioquia, 2014. Catalogue of the Vascular Crops of the Division of Antioquia (Colombia)., St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Backyard and Harvard College Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/Mission/CV

Vascular Crops of Ecuador, 2014. Catalogue of the Vascular Crops of Ecuador, Tropicos web site., St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Backyard and Harvard College Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/Mission/CE

Wagner WL, Herbst DR, Lorence DH, 2014. Flora of the Hawaiian Islands web site., Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Establishment. http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/hawaiianflora/index.htm

Wagner WL, Herbst DR, Tornabene MW, Weitzman A, Lorence DH, 2014a. Flora of Micronesia web site., Washington DC, Smithsonian Establishment. http://botany.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/micronesia/index.htm

Wagner WL, Lorence DH, 2014. Flora of the Marquesas Islands web site., Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Establishment. http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/marquesasflora/index.htm

Contributors

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28/01/2015 Up to date by:

Marianne Jennifer Datiles, Division of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Division of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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