Alnus rubra Red Alder, Oregon Alder PFAF Plant Database

Alnus rubra Red Alder, Oregon Alder

(c) 2010 Ken Fern, Crops For A Future

Alnus rubra Red Alder, Oregon Alder

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Principal Bloom Time: Early spring, Late spring, Mid spring. Type: Oval, Pyramidal.

Bodily Traits

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Alnus rubra is a deciduous Tree rising to 20 m (65ft 7in) at a quick price.
It’s hardy to zone (UK) 6. It’s in flower in March, and the seeds ripen from September to October. The species is monoecious (particular person flowers are both male or feminine, however each sexes could be discovered on the identical plant) and is pollinated by Wind.
It will probably repair Nitrogen.
Appropriate for: medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and may develop in heavy clay and nutritionally poor soils. Appropriate pH: acid, impartial and primary (alkaline) soils. It will probably develop in semi-shade (mild woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist or moist soil. The plant can tolerate maritime publicity.

UK Hardiness Map
US Hardiness Map


A. oregona.


Woodland Backyard Cover; Hedge; Lavatory Backyard;

Edible Makes use of

Edible Components: Flowers  Internal bark  Sap
Edible Makes use of:

Catkins – uncooked or cooked. They’re wealthy in protein however have a bitter flavour and usually are not very palatable[172]. Internal bark – cooked, It have to be dried since it’s emetic when recent[105, 161, 177]. No extra particulars are given however interior bark is usually dried, floor right into a powder after which used as a thickening in soups and so forth or blended with cereals when making bread[K]. Sap – uncooked[118]. Harvested in late winter, the circulate is finest on a heat, sunny day that follows a chilly frosty night time. A candy flavour, it was usually used to sweeten different meals[257]. Buds[105, 177]. No additional info is given, does this seek advice from the flower buds or leaf buds?[K]


Medicinal Makes use of

Crops For A Future can’t take any duty for any hostile results from the usage of vegetation. At all times search recommendation from an expert earlier than utilizing a plant medicinally.
Anodyne  Appetizer  Astringent  Cathartic  Cytostatic  Febrifuge  Pores and skin  Stomachic  
TB  Tonic

Purple alder was broadly employed medicinally by native North American Indians who primarily used the bark to deal with a variety of complaints[257]. The plant is little utilized in fashionable herbalism[K]. The bark is appetizer, astringent, cathartic, cytostatic, emetic, stomachic and tonic[61, 172, 257]. The bark incorporates salicin[226], which most likely decomposes into salicylic acid (carefully associated to aspirin) within the human physique[213]. That is used as an anodyne and febrifuge[226]. An infusion of the bark has been used within the remedy of many complaints reminiscent of complications, rheumatic pains, inner accidents and diarrhoea[226, 257]. Externally, a poultice of the bark has been utilized to eczema, sores and aches[257]. The sap is utilized externally to cuts[257]. The catkins and younger cones are astringent and have been chewed within the remedy of diarrhoea[257].


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Different Makes use of

Charcoal  Dye  Gas  Hedge  Pioneer  Shelterbelt  Soil stabilization  Tannin  Wooden

A quick-growing and really wind resistant tree, it is a wonderful plant for offering quickly produced shelterbelts[K]. The bushes in depth root system additionally makes it appropriate for controlling erosion alongside the banks of rivers[226]. This is a wonderful pioneer species for re-establishing woodlands on disused farmland, tough websites and so forth[226]. Its quick price of development signifies that it rapidly gives sheltered situations to permit extra everlasting woodland bushes to change into established. As well as, micro organism on the roots repair atmospheric nitrogen – while this allows the tree to develop nicely in fairly poor soils it additionally makes a few of this nitrogen out there to different vegetation rising close by. Alder bushes even have a heavy leaf cover and when the leaves fall within the autumn they assist to construct up the humus content material of the soil. Alder seedlings don’t compete nicely in shady woodland situations and so this species step by step dies out as the opposite bushes change into established[K]. Tannin is obtained from the bark and the strobils[82]. Each the roots and the younger shoots have been utilized in making baskets[257]. A pink to brown dye is obtained from the bark[61, 118, 257]. Wooden – gentle, brittle, not sturdy, mild, shut and straight-grained, very sturdy in water[82]. An essential lumber tree, it makes an excellent imitation mahogany[60, 103] and is used for affordable furnishings and so forth[46, 61, 82, 171, 229]. An excellent gasoline, it doesn’t spark so can be utilized within the open[60, 118, 172], it additionally makes a excessive grade charcoal[103].

Particular Makes use of

Carbon Farming  Meals Forest  Hedge  Nitrogen Fixer


Cultivation particulars

Agroforestry Providers: Alley crop  Agroforestry Providers: Nitrogen  Fodder: Financial institution  Administration: Coppice  Administration: Normal  Regional Crop

Panorama Makes use of:Border, Erosion management, Woodland backyard. Prefers a heavy soil and a moist state of affairs[1, 11]. Grows nicely in heavy clay soils[11]. Tolerates very infertile websites[200]. A really wind resistant tree with wonderful institution in severely uncovered websites, it tolerates extreme maritime publicity[75, K]. The pink alder is a really quick rising tree, even when planted in extreme publicity[75, 229, K], however it’s short-lived, dying when 60 – 80 years outdated[229]. Bushes which might be 5 years outdated from seed have reached 6 metres in top on a really uncovered web site in Cornwall, they’re displaying no indicators of wind-shaping[K]. This is a vital pioneer tree, rapidly invading logged or burnt over websites, and offering ultimate situations for different bushes to change into established[229, K]. A really decorative tree[1]. This species has a symbiotic relationship with sure soil micro-organisms, these kind nodules on the roots of the vegetation and repair atmospheric nitrogen. A few of this nitrogen is utilized by the rising plant however some may also be utilized by different vegetation rising close by[200]. Purple alder has been estimated to repair as a lot as 300 kg of nitrogen per hectare[269]. Particular Options: Attracts birds, North American native, Inconspicuous flowers or blooms. In backyard design, in addition to the above-ground structure of a plant, root construction issues assist in selecting vegetation that work collectively for his or her optimum soil necessities together with vitamins and water. The basis sample is branching: a coronary heart root, dividing from the crown into a number of major roots happening and out [2-1].

Carbon Farming

  • Agroforestry Providers: Alley crop 
    Integrates annual crops with rows of perennials.
  • Agroforestry Providers: Nitrogen 
    Crops that contribute to nitrogen fixation embrace the legume household – Fabaceae.
  • Fodder: Financial institution 
    Fodder banks are plantings of high-quality fodder species. Their aim is to keep up wholesome productive animals. They are often utilized all 12 months, however are designed to bridge the forage shortage of annual dry seasons. Fodder financial institution vegetation are often bushes or shrubs, and sometimes legumes. The comparatively deep roots of those woody perennials permit them to achieve soil vitamins and moisture not out there to grasses and herbaceous vegetation.
  • Administration: Coppice 
    Minimize to the bottom repeatedly – resprouting vigorously. Non-destructive administration methods sustaining the soil natural carbon.
  • Administration: Normal 
    Crops develop to their customary top. Harvest fruit, seeds, or different merchandise. Non-Harmful administration methods.
  • Regional Crop 
    These crops have been domesticated and cultivated regionally however haven’t been adopted elsewhere and are usually not traded globally, Examples on this broad class embrace perennial cottons and plenty of nuts and staple fruits.


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Seed – finest sown in a chilly body as quickly as it’s ripe and solely simply lined[200]. Spring sown seed must also germinate efficiently as long as it’s not lined[200, K]. The seed ought to germinate within the spring because the climate warms up. When massive sufficient to deal with, prick the seedlings out into particular person pots. If development is ample, it’s attainable to plant them out into their everlasting positions in the summertime, in any other case preserve them in pots open air and plant them out within the spring. If in case you have ample amount of seed, it may be sown thinly in an outside seed mattress within the spring[78]. The seedlings can both be planted out into their everlasting positions within the autumn/winter, or they are often allowed to develop on within the seed mattress for an extra season earlier than planting them. Cuttings of mature wooden, taken as quickly because the leaves fall in autumn, open air in sandy soil.

Different Names

If out there different names are talked about right here

Discovered In

International locations the place the plant has been discovered are listed right here if the knowledge is out there

Weed Potential

Proper plant unsuitable place. We’re presently updating this part.
Please word {that a} plant could also be invasive in a single space however might not in your space so it’s value checking.

Conservation Standing

IUCN Purple Checklist of Threatened Crops Standing :

Associated Crops
Latin Title Frequent Title Behavior Top Hardiness Progress Soil Shade Moisture Edible Medicinal Different
Alnus acuminata Alder Tree 25.0 10-12 F LMH SN M 0 2 3
Alnus cordata Italian Alder Tree 25.0 5-9 F MH SN DMWe 0 0 4
Alnus glutinosa Alder, European alder , Frequent Alder, Black Alder Tree 25.0 3-7 F MH SN MWe 0 3 5
Alnus hirsuta   Tree 18.0 3-7   MH SN MWe 0 0  
Alnus incana Gray Alder, Speckled alder, Thinleaf alder, White Alder Tree 18.0 2-6 F MH SN DMWe 0 0 3
Alnus japonica Japanese Alder Tree 22.0 4-8 F MH SN DMWe 0 1  
Alnus jorullensis Mexican alder, Evergreen Alder Tree 25.0 7-12 F LMH SN MWe 0 0 3
Alnus maritima Seaside Alder, Seaside Alder Tree 9.0 3-7 M MH N MWe 0 0  
Alnus maximowiczii   Tree 9.0 4-8   MH SN MWe 0 0  
Alnus nepalensis Nepalese Alder Tree 22.0 8-11 F MH SN MWe 0 1  
Alnus nitida   Tree 30.0 7-10   MH SN DMWe 0 1  
Alnus rhombifolia White Alder Tree 12.0 8-11 F MH SN MWe 1 2  
Alnus rugosa Speckled Alder Tree 22.0 2-6 F MH SN MWe 0 2 3
Alnus serrulata Easy Alder, Hazel alder Shrub 4.5 3-9   MH N MWe 0 2 2
Alnus sinuata Sitka Alder Shrub 4.0 2-9 F MH SN MWe 1 1 3
Alnus tenuifolia Mountain Alder, Thinleaf alder Tree 9.0 5-7 F MH SN MWe 1 2  
Alnus viridis crispa American Inexperienced Alder Shrub 3.0 4-8   MH SN MWe 1 2 3

Progress: S = sluggish M = medium F = quick. Soil: L = mild (sandy) M = medium H = heavy (clay). pH: A = acid N = impartial B = primary (alkaline). Shade: F = full shade S = semi-shade N = no shade. Moisture: D = dry M = Moist We = moist Wa = water.


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