Budding yarrow.jpg

Achillea millefolium – Wikibooks, open books for an open world

Achillea millefolium

Budding yarrow.jpg
Binomial: Achillea millefolium
Genus: Achillea
Household: Asteraceae
Sort: Perennial
Water necessities: Drought-tolerant
Harvest: Summer time and autumn
Weediness: Weedy
Planting depth: ¼ inch
Plant spacing: 12-18 inches aside
Top and unfold: 0.2-1.Zero meters

Achillea millefolium or Yarrow (different frequent names Widespread Yarrow, Gordaldo, Nosebleed plant, Outdated Man’s Pepper, Sanguinary, Milfoil, Soldier’s Woundwort, Thousand-leaf (as its binomial title affirms), Thousand-seal) is a flowering plant within the household Asteraceae, native to the Northern Hemisphere.


Widespread Yarrow is an erect herbaceous perennial plant that produces one to a number of stems (0.2 to 1m tall) and has a rhizomatous progress kind. Leaves are evenly distributed alongside the stem, with the leaves close to the center and backside of the stem being the biggest. The leaves have various levels of hairiness (pubescence). The leaves are 5-20 cm lengthy, bipinnate or tripinnate, virtually feathery, and organized spirally on the stems. The leaves are cauline and roughly clasping. The inflorescence has four to 9 phyllaries and accommodates ray and disk flowers that are white to pink. There are usually three to eight ray flowers which are ovate to spherical. Disk flowers vary from 15 to 40. The inflorescence is produced in a flat-topped cluster. Yarrow grows as much as 3500m above sea stage. The plant generally flowers from Might via June, and is a frequent part in butterfly gardens. Widespread yarrow is incessantly discovered within the mildly disturbed soil of grasslands and open forests. Lively progress happens within the spring.

Rising Circumstances[edit]

Widespread yarrow is a drought tolerant species of which there are a number of totally different decorative cultivars. Seeds require mild for germination, so optimum germination happens when planted no deeper than ¼ inch. Seeds additionally require a temperature of 65-75 levels Fahrenheit. Widespread yarrow responds finest to soil that’s poorly developed and effectively drained. The plant has a comparatively brief life, however could also be extended by dividing the plant each different yr, and planting 12 to 18 inches aside. Widespread yarrow is a weedy species and may turn out to be invasive.[1] It could undergo from mildew or root rot if not planted in well-drained soil.


There are a number of varieties and subspecies:

  • Achillea millefolium subsp. millefolium
    • Achillea millefolium subsp. millefolium var. millefolium – Europe, Asia
    • Achillea millefolium subsp. millefolium var. alpicola – Rocky Mountains
    • Achillea millefolium subsp. millefolium var. borealis – Arctic areas
    • Achillea millefolium subsp. millefolium var. californica – California
    • Achillea millefolium subsp. millefolium var. occidentalis – North America
    • Achillea millefolium subsp. millefolium var. pacifica – west coast of North America
    • Achillea millefolium subsp. millefolium var. puberula – California
    • Achillea millefolium subsp. millefolium var. rubra – Southern Appalachians
  • Achillea millefolium subsp. chitralensis – western Himalaya
  • Achillea millefolium subsp. sudetica – Alps, Carpathians

Yarrows will be planted to fight soil erosion as a result of plant’s resistance to drought.

The herb is presupposed to be a diaphoretic, astringent[2], tonic[2], stimulant and delicate fragrant. It accommodates isovaleric acid, salicylic acid, asparagin, sterols, flavonoids, bitters, tannins, and coumarins. The plant additionally has an extended historical past as a robust ‘therapeutic herb’ used topically for wounds, cuts and abrasions. The genus title Achillea is derived from legendary Greek character, Achilles,[2] who reportedly carried it along with his military to deal with battle wounds. This medicinal motion can be mirrored in a number of the frequent names talked about under, reminiscent of Staunchweed and Soldier’s Woundwort.

Yarrow has additionally been used as a meals, and was extremely popular as a vegetable within the 17th century. The youthful leaves are mentioned to be a pleasing leaf vegetable when cooked as spinach, or in a soup. Yarrow is good with a slight bitter style.

Natural medication[edit]

Yarrow has seen historic use as a medication, primarily due to its astringent results. Decoctions have been used to deal with inflammations reminiscent of piles (hemorrhoids), and likewise complications. Confusingly, it has been mentioned to each cease bleeding and advertise. Infusions of Yarrow, taken both internally or externally, are mentioned to hurry restoration from extreme bruising. Probably the most medicinally energetic a part of the plant are the flowering tops. Additionally they have a light stimulant impact, and have been used as a snuff. As we speak, yarrow is valued primarily for its motion in colds and influenza, and likewise for its impact on the circulatory, digestive, and urinary techniques.

The flowers, wealthy in chemical substances are transformed by steam into anti-allergenic compounds. The flowers are used for numerous allergic mucus issues, together with hay fever. Harvest throughout summer season and autumn. Drink the infused flower for higher respiratory phlegm or use externally as a wash for eczema. Inhale for hay fever and delicate bronchial asthma, use recent in boiling water.

The darkish blue important oil, extracted by steam distillation of the flowers, is mostly used as an anti-inflammatory or in chest rubs for colds and influenza. Therapeutic massage oil for infected joints, dilute 5-10 drops yarrow oil in 25 ml infused St. John’s wort oil. A chest rub will be made for chesty colds and influenza, mix with eucalyptus, peppermint, hyssop, or thyme oils, diluting a complete of 20 drops of oil in 25 ml almond or sunflower oil.

The aerial components are used for phlegm situations, as a bitter digestive tonic to encourage bile circulation, and as a diuretic. The aerial components act as a tonic for the blood, stimulate the circulation, and can be utilized for hypertension. Additionally helpful in menstrual issues, and as an efficient sweating treatment to convey down fevers. Harvest throughout flowering. The tincture is used for urinary issues or menstrual issues. Prescribed for cardiovascular complaints. Soak a pad in an infusion or dilute tincture to appease varicose veins.

Yarrow intensifies the medicinal motion of different herbs taken with it, and helps eradicate toxins from the physique. It’s reported to be related to the therapy of the next illnesses:

Amenorrhea, anti-inflammatory, bowels, bleeding, blood clots, blood strain (lowers), blood air purifier, blood vessels (tones), Catarrh (acute, repertory), colds, rooster pox, circulation, contraceptive (unproven), cystitis, diabetes therapy, digestion (stimulates), dyspepsia, eczema, fevers, flus, gastritis, glandular system, gum illnesses, Heartbeat (sluggish), influenza, insect repellent, inner bleeding, liver (stimulates and regulates), lungs (hemorrhage), measles, menses (suppressed), menorrhagia, Menstruation (regulates, relieves ache), Nipples (soreness), nosebleeds, piles (bleeding), smallpox, abdomen illness, toothache, thrombosis, ulcers, urinary antiseptic, Uterus (tighten and contract), varicose veins, imaginative and prescient.

The salicylic acid derivatives are a part of aspirin, which can account for its use in treating fevers and decreasing ache. Yarrow tea can be mentioned to have the ability to clear up a chilly inside 24 hours.

Companion planting[edit]

Yarrow is taken into account an particularly helpful companion plant, not solely repelling some unhealthy bugs whereas attracting good, predatory ones, but additionally enhancing soil high quality. It attracts predatory wasps, which drink the nectar after which use insect pests as meals for his or her larvae. Equally, it attracts ladybugs and hoverflies. Its leaves are regarded as good fertilizer, and a helpful additive for compost.

Additionally it is thought of immediately helpful to different vegetation, enhancing the well being of sick vegetation when grown close to them.




Pests and Ailments[edit]



  1. USDA, NRCS. 2006. The PLANTS Database (http://vegetation.usda.gov, 22 Might 2006). Nationwide Plant Knowledge Middle, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.[1]
  2. abc Alma R. Hutchens (1973). Indian Herbology of North America. Shambhala Publications. ISBN 0-87773-639-1. 
  • Blanchan, Neltje (2005). Wild Flowers Price Realizing. Undertaking Gutenberg Literary Archive Basis. 
  • Hickman, James C., Ed. The Jepson Guide: Increased vegetation of California. 1993. College of California Press: Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London.
  • Wooden, John (2006). Hardy Perennials and Outdated Usual Flower. Undertaking Gutenberg Literary Archive Basis. 

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